9780748409167

Toxicology of the Human Environment: The Critical Role of Free Radicals

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780748409167

  • ISBN10:

    0748409165

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-02-24
  • Publisher: CRC Press

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: $297.00 Save up to $29.70
  • Rent Book $267.30
    Add to Cart Free Shipping

    TERM
    PRICE
    DUE

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The Rental copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

The environment in which human beings live is complex and we may encounter many different potentially toxic chemical substances during the course of our lives. These xenobiotic agents may invade the living system in the form of environmental pollutants, in the diet, as pharmaceutically administered compounds or even as chemical weapons and it is becoming widely recognised that free radicals are often involved in this toxicity. The book covers all aspects of toxic agents in the environment from their detection to their effects. Final year undergraduates and postgraduates studying toxicology, biochemistry, cell biology or environmental science will find this book valuable reading, whilst researchers in academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and public health laboratories will appreciate it as a comprehensive reference.

Table of Contents

List of contributors
xi
List of abbreviations
xiv
Introduction
1(4)
Christopher J. Rhodes
PART I Spin-trapping 5(84)
Chemistry of spin-trapping
7(18)
Rheal A. Towner
Introduction
7(4)
Types of spin-trap
11(4)
Selection criteria
15(2)
Structural assignment considerations
17(2)
Conclusions
19(6)
Spin-trapping: problems and artefacts
25(24)
Lennart Eberson
Introduction
25(1)
The redox reactivity of spin-traps and reagents involved in the radical cation mechanism; inverted spin-trapping
26(5)
The Forrester-Hepburn mechanism; nucleophilic addition-oxidation
31(9)
Detection of spin adducts in biochemical/biological systems
40(1)
Cycloaddition as a possible cause of artefacts
41(8)
In vivo spin-trapping--from chemistry to toxicology
49(22)
Ronald P. Mason
Ex vivo detection of free radicals
71(18)
Aldo Tomasi
Anna Iannone
Marco Ferrari
Valentina Quaresima
Background
71(1)
Ex vivo spin-trapping of short-lived free radicals
72(6)
Nitrogen monoxide (nitric oxide, NO, NO)
78(4)
Conclusion
82(7)
PART II Nitroxides 89(64)
The metabolism of nitroxides in cells and tissues
91(22)
Harold M. Swartz
Graham S. Timmins
Introduction and overview
91(2)
Reduction of nitroxides in mammalian cells
93(6)
Cellular oxidation of hydroxylamines
99(1)
The toxicity of nitroxides
99(1)
Applications of the metabolism of nitroxides
100(13)
Clinical uses of nitroxides as superoxide-dismutase mimics
113(26)
James B. Mitchell
Murali C. Krishna
Amram Samuni
Periannan Kuppusamy
Stephen M. Hahn
Angelo Russo
Introduction
113(1)
Structural features and chemical properties of nitroxides
114(4)
In vitro and in vivo toxicity
118(4)
In vitro radioprotection by nitroxides
122(2)
In vivo radioprotection by nitroxides
124(4)
Protection against redox-cycling chemotherapy drugs
128(3)
Nitroxides as functional imaging probes
131(1)
Summary
132(7)
Nitroxide skin toxicity
139(14)
Jurgen Fuchs
Abstract
139(1)
Introduction
140(1)
Materials and methods
141(4)
Results
145(2)
Discussion
147(1)
Conclusion
148(5)
PART III Toxic role of specific agents 153(184)
Biological oxidations catalyzed by iron released from ferritin
155(36)
Christopher A. Reilly
Steven D. Aust
Introduction
155(1)
Iron-catalyzed oxidations
155(9)
Biological sources of catalytic iron
164(10)
Antioxidant defences for iron-mediated toxicity
174(7)
Conclusions
181(10)
The toxicology of iron
191(18)
Rodney Bilton
Introduction
191(6)
Human conditions and diseases involving iron toxicity
197(4)
From oxygen via iron to the hydroxyl radical
201(8)
The role of free radicals in the toxicology of airborne particulate pollutants
209(26)
Peter Evans
Introduction
209(1)
Silica toxicity
210(1)
Coal
211(1)
Asbestos
212(3)
Man-made mineral fibres
215(1)
Zeolites
216(1)
Smoke
217(2)
Traffic air pollution
219(3)
Nutritional and physiological antioxidants
222(1)
Pharmacological antioxidants
223(1)
Conclusion
224(11)
Free radical mechanisms of ethanol toxicity
235(30)
Emanuele Albano
Introduction
235(1)
Mechanisms involved in causing oxidative damage by alcohol
236(8)
Free radical-mediated processes in organ damage by alcohol
244(4)
Role of free radical-mediated mechanisms in alcohol toxicity
248(4)
Conclusions
252(13)
The role of cytokines in the inflammatory response
265(20)
Carmen M. Arroyo
Introduction
265(1)
Activation of TNF-α by THP-1 exposed to H-MG
266(7)
Nitrosyl chloride in keratinocytes exposed to HD
273(12)
Duplicity of thiols and thiyl radicals: protector and foe
285(16)
Christopher J. Rhodes
Abstract
285(1)
Introduction
285(1)
Background to the muon spectroscopy technique
286(1)
Experimental section
287(1)
Structural studies of thiyl radicals
287(3)
Reactivity of thiyl radicals
290(3)
Evidence for actual biological significance of thiyl radicals
293(3)
Conclusions
296(5)
Synergistic effect of carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dibromoethane
301(10)
Giuseppe Poli
Manuela Aragno
Elena Chiarpotto
Simonetta Camandola
Oliviero Danni
Introduction
301(1)
Carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dibromoethane interactions
301(5)
Conclusions
306(5)
Reactive oxygen species in physiology and toxicology
311(26)
Nalini Kaul
Jay Forman
Abstract
311(1)
Production of free radicals
312(2)
Biological sources of free radicals
314(2)
Toxicity of reactive oxygen species
316(4)
Oxidant stress and signaling
320(5)
Oxidative stress and inflammation
325(2)
Oxidative stress in apoptosis, necrosis and cell growth
327(1)
Oxidative stress and carcinogenesis
328(9)
PART IV Free radicals in specific disease states 337(34)
The role of free radicals in chemical carcinogenesis
339(24)
Joseph R. Landolph
Abstract
339(1)
Introduction
340(2)
Stimulation of the arachidonic acid cascade, oxygen radical generation, and chemical carcinogenesis
342(4)
Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, free radicals, and chemical carcinogenesis
346(1)
Metal-induced free radical generation and metal salt carcinogenesis
347(6)
Endogenous oxygen radical generation and carcinogenesis
353(1)
Conclusions
354(9)
Free radical involvement in cardiovascular and respiratory diseases
363(8)
Frank J. Kelly
Abstract
363(1)
Heart disease
363(2)
Lung diseases
365(6)
PART V Free radicals in the diet 371(24)
NMR evaluation of thermally-induced peroxidation in culinary oils
373(22)
Martin Grootveld
Christopher J.L. Silwood
Andrew W.D. Claxson
Introduction
373(2)
Materials and methods
375(3)
Results
378(12)
Discussion
390(5)
PART VI Chemical models 395(78)
The structure and electronic properties of oxy intermediates in the enzymatic cycle of cytochrome P450s
397(24)
Dan Harris
Introduction
397(5)
Theoretical and technical aspects
402(2)
Results and discussion
404(10)
Conclusions
414(7)
Spin-trapping - applications to photochemical and photobiological problems
421(16)
Colin F. Chignell
Introduction
421(1)
Photochemistry of photosensitizers
421(2)
Free radical and EPR
423(6)
Spin-trapping in photochemical systems
429(2)
Spin-trapping of oxygen-centered radicals
431(2)
Spin-trapping of radicals from photosensitizing chemicals
433(4)
Thermodynamic considerations of free radical reactions
437(16)
John Butler
Introduction
437(1)
Reduction
437(1)
Oxidation
438(1)
pH dependence of reduction potentials
438(3)
Measurement of reduction potentials
441(1)
Redox enzymes
442(2)
Drugs, oxygen and metals
444(9)
The use of QSAR for the prediction of free radical toxicity
453(20)
Mark T.D. Cronin
Thuy T. Tran
Introduction
453(1)
Identification of compounds likely to form free radicals
454(2)
Acute toxicity
456(7)
Skin sensitisation
463(1)
Teratogenicity
464(2)
Mutagenicity
466(2)
Conclusions
468(5)
Index 473

Rewards Program

Write a Review