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Understanding Arguments : An Introduction to Informal Logic,9780155075481
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Understanding Arguments : An Introduction to Informal Logic

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780155075481

ISBN10:
0155075489
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/20/2000
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $79.33

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Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 7/20/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

Summary

The proven strengths of this established text include the philosophy of language, analysis of arguments as they occur in ordinary language, and systematic examination of inductive arguments. The book covers statistical generalizations, statistical syllogisms, and inferences to the best explanation.

Table of Contents

PART I The Analysis of Argument 1(416)
The Web of Language
1(30)
Language and Argument
1(1)
Language and Convention
2(1)
Levels of Language
3(1)
Linguistic Acts
3(1)
Speech Acts
4(10)
Conversational Acts
14(15)
Conversational Rules
17(2)
Conversational Implication
19(1)
The Pervasiveness of Conversational Implication
20(1)
Violating Conversational Rules
21(2)
Conversational Implication and Rhetorical Devices
23(4)
Deception
27(2)
An Overview
29(2)
The Language of Argument
31(28)
The Basic Structure of Arguments
31(2)
If...Then...
33(2)
Arguments in Standard Form
35(1)
Validity, Truth, and Soundness
36(5)
Validity
36(1)
Truth
37(1)
Soundness
38(1)
Two Tricky Cases
38(3)
A Problem and Some Solutions
41(5)
Assuring
42(1)
Guarding
43(1)
Discounting
44(2)
Argumentative Performatives
46(2)
Evaluative Language
48(8)
Persuasive Definitions
52(1)
Euphemism and Spin Doctoring
53(3)
Figurative Language
56(3)
Uses of Arguments
59(30)
Justifications
59(2)
Refutations
61(19)
That's Just Like Arguing...
62(7)
Counterexamples
69(5)
Reductio Ad Absurdum
74(4)
Attacking Straw Men
78(2)
System and Simplicity
80(1)
Explanations
81(3)
Excuses
84(5)
The Art of Close Analysis
89(32)
An Extended Example
89(12)
Global Analysis
101(20)
Deep Analysis
121(24)
Getting Down to Basics
121(2)
Clarifying Crucial Terms
123(1)
Dissecting the Argument
124(2)
Arranging Subarguments
126(1)
Suppressed Premises
127(6)
Shared Facts
127(3)
Linguistic Principles
130(1)
Other Kinds of Suppressed Premises
131(1)
The Use of Suppressed Premises
131(2)
The Method of Reconstruction
133(1)
Digging Deeper
134(2)
Advanced Section: Capital Punishment
136(6)
Conclusion
142(3)
The Formal Analysis of Arguments: Propositional Logic
145(36)
Validity and the Formal Analysis of Arguments
145(1)
Propositional Logic
146(19)
Conjunction
146(4)
Validity for Conjunction
150(2)
Disjunction
152(2)
Negation
154(1)
Disjunctive Syllogism
155(2)
How Truth-Functional Connectives Work
157(1)
Testing for Validity
158(4)
Some Further Connectives
162(2)
Summary
164(1)
Conditionals
165(16)
Truth Tables for Conditionals
166(5)
Logical Language and Everyday Language
171(3)
Other Conditionals in Ordinary Language
174(7)
The Formal Analysis of Arguments: Categorical Logic
181(46)
Beyond Propositional Logic
181(1)
Categorical Propositions
182(2)
The Four Basic Categorical Forms
184(8)
Translation into the Basic Categorical Forms
187(2)
Contradictories
189(1)
Existential Commitment
190(2)
Validity for Arguments Containing Categorical Propositions
192(2)
Immediate Inferences
194(3)
The Theory of the Syllogism
197(8)
Venn Diagrams for Syllogisms
199(1)
The Validity of Syllogisms
199(5)
Problems in Applying the Theory of the Syllogism
204(1)
Appendix A: The Classical Theory
205(10)
The Classical Square of Opposition
208(4)
The Classical Theory of Immediate Inference
212(1)
The Classical Theory of Syllogisms
213(2)
Appendix B: Immediate Inferences with Complementary Classes
215(6)
Obversion
216(2)
Contraposition
218(3)
Appendix C: A System of Rules for Evaluating Syllogisms
221(6)
Quality
221(1)
Quantity
221(1)
Distribution
222(1)
The Rules
223(4)
The Formal Analysis of Arguments: Quantificational Logic
227(32)
Combining Two Branches of Logic
227(10)
The Introduction of Quantifiers
228(3)
Limited Domains
231(1)
Elaborate A, E, I, and O Propositions
231(2)
Relations and Multiple Quantifiers
233(3)
Scope Fallacies
236(1)
Validity for Arguments with Quantifiers
237(19)
Rudimentary Quantificational Logic
238(1)
Instantiations of Quantified Propositions
239(1)
Universal Instantiation
240(2)
Existential Generalization
242(2)
Universal Generalization
244(3)
Existential Instantiation
247(2)
Application to Immediate Inferences and Syllogisms
249(1)
Application to Noncategorical Arguments
250(3)
Arguments Containing Individual Constants
253(3)
A General Rule for RQL
256(2)
The Limits of RQL
258(1)
Inductive Reasoning
259(56)
Induction versus Deduction
259(6)
Inferences to the Best Explanation
265(7)
Arguments from Analogy
272(9)
Reasoning about Causes
281(19)
Sufficient Conditions and Necessary Conditions
283(3)
The Sufficient Condition Test
286(1)
The Necessary Condition Test
287(1)
The Joint Test
288(1)
Rigorous Testing
289(2)
Reaching Positive Conclusions
291(1)
Applying These Methods to Find Causes
292(8)
Concomitant Variation
300(4)
Inductive Generalization
304(6)
Should We Accept the Premises?
305(1)
Is the Sample Large Enough?
305(2)
Is the Sample Biased?
307(1)
Is the Result Biased in Some Other Way?
308(1)
Summary
309(1)
Statistical Syllogisms
310(5)
Taking Chances
315(30)
Heuristics
315(3)
The Representative Heuristic
316(1)
The Availability Heuristic
317(1)
The Language of Probability
318(1)
A Priori Probability
319(2)
Some Laws of Probability
321(5)
Bayes's Theorem
326(3)
Expected Monetary Value
329(3)
Expected Overall Value
332(2)
Decisions Under Ignorance
334(5)
The Gambler's Fallacy
339(1)
Regression to the Mean
340(2)
Strange Things Happen
342(3)
Fallacies of Clarity
345(42)
What is a Fallacy?
345(1)
Fallacies of Clarity
346(1)
Vagueness
346(3)
Heaps
349(3)
Slippery Slopes
352(11)
Conceptual Slippery-Slope Arguments
353(2)
Fairness Slippery-Slope Arguments
355(2)
Casual Slippery-Slope Arguments
357(6)
Ambiguity
363(4)
Equivocation
367(7)
Definitions
374(13)
Fallacies of Relevance and Vacuity
387(30)
Fallacies of Relevance
387(18)
Arguments Ad Hominem
388(7)
Appeals to Authority
395(5)
More Fallacies of Relevance
400(3)
A Common Form for Fallacies of Relevance
403(2)
Fallacies of Vacuity
405(12)
Circular Reasoning
405(1)
Begging the Question
406(5)
Self-Sealers
411(6)
PART II Areas of Argumentation 417(145)
Legal Arguments
419(40)
Components of Legal Reasoning
420(11)
Questions of Fact
420(1)
Questions of Law
421(10)
The Law of Discrimination
431(28)
Plessy v. Ferguson
433(3)
From Plessy to Brown
436(1)
Brown v. Board of Education
437(3)
From Brown to Bakke
440(3)
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
443(10)
Summary
453(1)
Burden of Proof
453(6)
Moral Arguments
459(42)
The Problem of Abortion
460(7)
What is the Problem?
460(1)
The Conservative Argument
461(2)
Liberal Responses
463(4)
Analogical Reasoning in Ethics
467(3)
Weighing Factors
470(31)
``A Defense of Abortion,''
470(15)
Judith Jarvis Thomson
``Why Abortion is Immoral,''
485(16)
Don Marquis
Scientific Reasoning
501(32)
Standard Science
501(2)
Conflicting Scientific Interpretations
503(9)
``Dialogue Concerning the Two World Systems,''
504(8)
Galileo Galilei
What Killed the Dinosaurs?
512(21)
``An Extraterrestrial Impact,''
512(9)
Walter Alvarez
Frank Asaro
``A Volcanic Eruption,''
521(12)
Vincent E. Courtillot
Philosophical Arguments
533(29)
``Computing Machinery and Intelligence,''
534(11)
Alan Turing
``Minds, Brains, and Programs,''
545(17)
John Searle
Copyrights and Acknowledgments 562(1)
Index 563


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