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Understanding English Grammar,9780321316837
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Understanding English Grammar

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321316837

ISBN10:
0321316835
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $113.33
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Summary

This market-leading text for advanced grammar courses is a comprehensive description of sentence structure that encourages students to recognize and use their innate language expertise as they study the systematic nature of sentence grammar. A practical blend of the most useful elements of both traditional and new linguistic grammar, the text emphasizes whole structures, most specifically the ten basic sentence patterns introduced in Chapter 2. Two key features separate this book from others: its clear organization and its user-friendly, accessible language. Both students and teachers appreciate the self-teaching quality that incremental exercises provide throughout the chapters, with answers at the end of the book.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I Introduction
1(14)
The Study of Grammar: An Overview
3(12)
The English Grammarians
3(2)
Three Definitions of Grammar
5(1)
Modern Linguistics
6(2)
Structural Grammar
6(1)
Transformational Grammar
7(1)
The Issue of Correctness
8(2)
Language Variety
10(1)
Language Change
11(1)
Language in the Classroom
12(1)
Key Terms
13(1)
Further Reading
13(1)
Classroom Applications
14(1)
PART II The Grammar of Basic Sentences
15(96)
Sentence Patterns
17(43)
Chapter Preview
17(1)
Words and Phrases: An Overview
18(6)
Nouns
18(1)
Noun Phrases
19(1)
Verbs
20(1)
Verb Phrases
21(1)
Adjectives and Adverbs
21(2)
Prepositional Phrases
23(1)
The Phrase Structure of Sentences
24(2)
The Sentence Slots
26(2)
The Be Patterns
28(4)
The Linking Verb Patterns
32(2)
The Optional Slots
34(1)
The Intransitive Verb Pattern
35(4)
Exceptions to the Intransitive Pattern
36(1)
Intransitive Phrasal Verbs
37(2)
The Transitive Verb Patterns
39(8)
Transitive Phrasal Verbs
40(1)
The Indirect Object Pattern
41(3)
The Object Complement Patterns
44(3)
Compound Structures
47(1)
Exceptions to the Ten Sentence Patterns
48(1)
Imperative Sentences (Commands)
49(1)
Punctuation and the Sentence Patterns
50(1)
Diagramming the Sentence Patterns
50(2)
Notes on the Diagrams
52(3)
The Main Line
52(1)
The Noun Phrase
52(1)
The Verb Phrase
53(1)
The Prepositional Phrase
54(1)
Compound Structures
55(1)
Punctuation
55(1)
Key Terms
55(1)
Sentences for Practice
56(1)
Questions for Discussion
57(2)
Classroom Applications
59(1)
Expanding the Main Verb
60(32)
Chapter Preview
60(1)
The Five Verb Forms
60(3)
Auxiliary--Verb Combinations
63(4)
The Modal Auxiliaries
67(2)
The Subjunctive Mood
69(1)
Tense and Aspect
70(1)
Using the Verb Forms
71(2)
Exceptions to the Rule
73(1)
The Stand-In Auxiliary Do
73(2)
The Passive Voice
75(11)
Changing Active Voice to Passive
75(2)
Recognizing Passive Voice
77(2)
The Passive Get
79(1)
The Transitive--Passive Relationship
80(1)
Changing Passive Voice to Active
81(2)
Diagramming the Passive
83(3)
The Verb System of African American Vernacular English
86(1)
Key Terms
87(1)
Sentences for Practice
87(1)
Questions for Discussion
88(2)
Classroom Applications
90(2)
Transforming the Basic Patterns
92(19)
Chapter Preview
92(1)
Interrogative Sentences
93(4)
Do Support
97(1)
Emphatic Sentences
97(1)
Imperative Sentences
98(2)
Exclamatory Sentences
100(1)
Other Sentence Transformations
101(5)
The There Transformation
101(4)
The Cleft Sentence
105(1)
Key Terms
106(1)
Sentences for Practice
107(1)
Questions for Discussion
107(2)
Classroom Applications
109(2)
PART III Expanding the Sentence
111(128)
Form and Function
111(3)
Modifiers of the Verb: Adverbials
114(22)
Chapter Preview
114(2)
Adverbs
116(2)
Prepositional Phrases
118(3)
Nouns and Noun Phrases
121(3)
Verb Phrases
124(3)
Dangling Infinitives
126(1)
Clauses
127(3)
Punctuation of Adverbials
130(2)
Key Terms
132(1)
Sentences for Practice
132(1)
Questions for Discussion
133(1)
Classroom Applications
134(2)
Modifiers of the Noun: Adjectivals
136(40)
Chapter Preview
136(2)
The Determiner
138(1)
Adjectives and Nouns
139(5)
Prepositional Phrases
144(2)
Relative Clauses
146(5)
Participial Phrases
151(10)
Prenoun Participles
154(1)
Passive Participles
155(1)
The Participle as Object Complement
155(2)
Movable Participles
157(1)
Dangling Participles
158(2)
Participles as Adverbials
160(1)
Punctuation of Clauses and Participles
161(4)
Avoiding Comma Errors
163(2)
Multiple Modifiers
165(2)
Other Postnoun Modifiers
167(3)
Infinitives
167(1)
Noun Phrases
167(1)
Adjectives
168(1)
Adverbs
168(2)
Key Terms
170(1)
Sentences for Practice
171(1)
Questions for Discussion
172(2)
Classroom Applications
174(2)
The Noun Phrase Functions: Nominals
176(27)
Chapter Preview
176(1)
The Nominal Slots
176(1)
Appositives
177(2)
Punctuation of Appositives
178(1)
Noun Phrase Substitutes
179(1)
Gerunds
179(7)
The Pattern of the Gerund
182(2)
The Subject of the Gerund
184(1)
Dangling Gerunds
185(1)
Infinitives
186(4)
The Subject of the Infinitive
188(2)
Nominal Clauses
190(7)
The Expletive That
191(2)
Interrogatives
193(2)
Yes/No Interrogatives
195(1)
Punctuation of Nominal Clauses
196(1)
Nominals as Delayed Subjects
197(1)
Key Terms
198(1)
Sentences for Practice
198(1)
Questions for Discussion
199(2)
Classroom Applications
201(2)
Sentence Modifiers
203(20)
Chapter Preview
203(4)
Nouns of Direct Address: The Vocatives
207(1)
Interjections
207(1)
Subordinate Clauses
208(5)
Punctuation of Subordinate Clauses
209(1)
Elliptical Clauses
210(3)
Absolute Phrases
213(2)
Appositives
215(1)
Relative Clauses
216(2)
Key Terms
218(1)
Sentences for Practice
218(1)
Questions for Discussion
219(2)
Classroom Applications
221(2)
Coordination
223(16)
Chapter Preview
223(1)
Coordination Within the Sentence
223(6)
Punctuation
223(2)
Elliptical Coordinate Structures
225(2)
Subject--Verb Agreement
227(1)
Parallel Structure
228(1)
Coordinating Complete Sentences
229(4)
Conjunctions
229(1)
Semicolons
230(1)
Colons
231(1)
Diagramming the Compound Sentence
232(1)
Key Terms
233(1)
Sentences for Practice
234(1)
Questions for Discussion
235(1)
Classroom Applications
236(3)
PART IV Words and Word Classes
239(84)
Morphemes
242(12)
Chapter Preview
242(2)
Bases and Affixes
244(1)
Bound and Free Morphemes
244(1)
Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes
245(3)
Allomorphs
248(1)
Homonyms
249(1)
Compound Words
250(1)
Key Terms
251(1)
Questions for Discussion
251(2)
Classroom Applications
253(1)
The Form Classes
254(26)
Chapter Preview
254(1)
Nouns
255(9)
Noun Derivational Suffixes
255(2)
Noun Inflectional Suffixes
257(2)
The Meaning of the Possessive Case
259(1)
Irregular Plural Inflections
260(1)
Plural-Only Forms
261(1)
Collective Nouns
261(1)
Semantic Features of Nouns
262(2)
Verbs
264(2)
Verb Derivational Affixes
264(1)
Verb Inflectional Suffixes
265(1)
Adjectives
266(5)
Adjective Derivational Suffixes
267(1)
Adjective Inflectional Suffixes
267(2)
Subclasses of Adjectives
269(2)
Adverbs
271(4)
Adverb Derivational Suffixes
272(1)
Adverb Inflectional Suffixes
273(2)
Key Terms
275(1)
Questions for Discussion
275(3)
Classroom Applications
278(2)
The Structure Classes
280(25)
Chapter Preview
280(1)
Determiners
280(5)
The Expanded Determiner
284(1)
Auxiliaries
285(3)
Qualifiers
288(2)
Prepositions
290(3)
Simple Prepositions
290(2)
Phrasal Prepositions
292(1)
Conjunctions
293(4)
Coordinating Conjunctions
294(1)
Correlative Conjunctions
294(1)
Conjunctive Adverbs (Adverbial Conjunctions)
295(1)
Subordinating Conjunctions
296(1)
Relatives
297(1)
Interrogatives
297(1)
Expletives
298(3)
There
298(1)
That
298(1)
Or
299(1)
As
299(1)
If and Whether (or not)
300(1)
Particles
301(1)
Key Terms
301(1)
Questions for Discussion
302(1)
Classroom Applications
303(2)
Pronouns
305(18)
Chapter Preview
305(1)
Personal Pronouns
306(5)
Case
307(1)
Gender
308(3)
Reflexive Pronouns
311(2)
Intensive Pronouns
313(1)
Reciprocal Pronouns
313(1)
Demonstrative Pronouns
314(1)
Relative Pronouns
315(1)
Interrogative Pronouns
316(1)
Indefinite Pronouns
316(3)
Key Terms
319(1)
Questions for Discussions
319(2)
Classroom Applications
321(2)
PART V Grammar for Writers
323(46)
Rhetorical Grammar
325(35)
Chapter Preview
325(1)
Sentence Patterns
326(3)
Basic Sentences
326(1)
The Linking Be and Metaphor
327(1)
Cohesion
327(2)
Sentence Rhythm
329(3)
End Focus
330(2)
Sentence Transformations
332(1)
Choosing Verbs
333(6)
The Overuse of Be
335(1)
The Passive Voice
336(3)
The Abstract Subject
339(2)
The Shifting Adverbials
341(5)
The Adverbial Clause
342(3)
The Adverbs of Emphasis
345(1)
The Common Only
346(1)
Metadiscourse
346(2)
Style
348(6)
Word Order Variation
349(1)
Ellipsis
350(1)
The Coordinate Series
350(1)
The Introductory Appositive Series
351(1)
The Deliberate Sentence Fragment
352(1)
Repetition
353(1)
Using Gender Appropriately
354(5)
Key Terms
359(1)
Purposeful Punctuation
360(9)
Chapter Preview
360(1)
Making Connections
361(2)
Compounding Sentences
361(1)
Compounding Structures Within Sentences
362(1)
Connecting More Than Two Parts: The Series
362(1)
Separating Prenoun Modifiers
363(1)
Identifying Essential and Nonessential Structures
364(1)
Signaling Sentence Openers
365(1)
Signaling Emphasis
365(1)
Using Apostrophes for Contraction and Possessive Case
366(3)
PART VI Glossary of Grammatical Terms
369(16)
Answers to the Exercises 385(58)
Index 443


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