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Understanding Psychology,9780130189349
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Understanding Psychology

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130189349

ISBN10:
0130189340
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $68.00
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Summary

This book presents a scientific, accurate, and thorough overview of the essential concepts of psychology in engaging language that the average reader can easily comprehend. Topics include the science of psychology, the biological basis of behavior, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, learning, memory, cognition and mental abilities, motivation and emotion, life-span development, personality, stress and health psychology, psychological disorders, therapies, and social psychology. For counselors, behavioral analysts and others in various related psychology fields.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
To the Student 1(1)
The Science of Psychology
2(44)
What is Psychology?
3(7)
The Fields of Psychology
3(4)
Enduring Issues
7(1)
Psychology as Science
8(2)
Applying Psychology: Critical Thinking: A Fringe Benefit of Studying Psychology
10(1)
The Growth of Psychology
11(7)
Structuralism
12(1)
Wilhelm Wundt
Edward Bradford Titchener
Functionalism
13(1)
William James
Psychodynamic Psychology
13(1)
Sigmund Freud
Behaviorism
14(1)
John B. Watson
Behaviorism Revisited
15(1)
B. F. Skinner
Gestalt Psychology
15(1)
Existential and Humanistic Psychology
15(1)
Cognitive Psychology
16(1)
Evolutionary Psychology
16(1)
Multiple Perspectives of Psychology Today
17(1)
Highlights: Missing: Women in Psychology
18(1)
The Decade of Behavior
18(2)
Where Are the Women?
19(1)
Human Diversity
20(6)
Gender
21(1)
Culture
22(1)
Race and Ethnicity
22(2)
Psychology and Human Diversity
24(2)
Research Methods in Psychology
26(8)
Naturalistic Observation
27(1)
Case Studies
28(1)
Surveys
28(1)
Correlational Research
29(1)
Experimental Research
30(1)
Multimethod Research
31(1)
The Importance of Sampling
32(1)
Human Diversity and Research
33(1)
Highlights: Internet Users: A Flawed Study?
34(1)
Ethics and Psychology
35(4)
Ethics in Research on Humans
35(3)
Ethics in Research on Nonhuman Animals
38(1)
Careers in Psychology
39(7)
Academic and Applied Psychology
39(1)
Clinical Settings
40(6)
The Biological Basis of Behavior
46(38)
Neurons: The Nervous System's Messengers
47(6)
The Neural Impulse
48(2)
The Synapse
50(3)
Highlights: New Connections for Old Neurons: Experience and Plasticity
53(2)
Synapses and Drugs
53(2)
The Central Nervous System
55(10)
The Spinal Cord
55(1)
The Brain
56(5)
Hemispheric Specialization
61(3)
New Tools for Studying the Brain
64(1)
Highlights: Growing New Neurons
65(2)
The Peripheral Nervous System
67(2)
The Endocrine System
69(3)
The Thyroid Gland
70(1)
The Parathyroid Glands
70(1)
The Pineal Gland
70(1)
The Pancreas
71(1)
The Pituitary Gland
71(1)
The Gonads
71(1)
The Adrenal Glands
71(1)
Behavior Genetics and Our Human Heritage
72(2)
Genetics
72(1)
Genetics and Behavior
73(1)
Highlights: In Search of the Human Genome
74(10)
Evolutionary Psychology
77(1)
Social Implications
78(6)
Sensation and Perception
84(42)
The Nature of Sensory Processes
86(3)
The Character of Sensation
86(1)
Sensory Thresholds
86(2)
Subliminal Perception
88(1)
Highlights: Extrasensory Perception
89(1)
Vision
90(9)
The Visual System
90(5)
Color Vision
95(4)
Hearing
99(4)
Sound
99(1)
The Ear
99(2)
Theories of Hearing
101(2)
The Other Senses
103(5)
Smell
103(1)
Taste
103(1)
Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses
104(1)
Sensations of Motion
105(1)
The Skin Senses
105(1)
Pain
106(2)
Perception
108(18)
Perceptual Organization
109(1)
Perceptual Constancies
110(3)
Observer Characteristics
113(5)
Perception of Distance and Depth
118(1)
Perception of Movement
118(1)
Visual Illusions
119(7)
States of Consciousness
126(36)
Natural Variations in Consciousness
128(4)
Daydreaming and Fantasy
129(1)
Cycles of Waking, Sleeping, and Dreaming
130(2)
Highlights: Most of Us Need More Sleep than We Get
132(8)
Applying Psychology: Coping with Occasional Insomnia
140(1)
Artificial Alterations in Consciousness
141(3)
Sensory Deprivation
141(1)
Meditation
141(1)
Hypnosis
142(2)
Drug-Altered Consciousness
144(6)
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
145(1)
Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates, and the Opiates
146(4)
Applying Psychology: What Are the Signs of Alcoholism
150(12)
Stimulants: Caffeine, Nicotine, Amphetamines, and Cocaine
152(4)
Hallucinogens and Marijuana
156(6)
Learning
162(36)
Classical Conditioning
163(5)
Elements of Classical Conditioning
164(1)
Establishing a Classically Conditioned Conditioned Response
165(1)
Classical Conditioning in Humans
166(1)
Classical Conditioning Is Selective
167(1)
Operant Conditioning
168(4)
Elements of Operant Conditioning
168(2)
Establishing an Operantly Conditioned Response
170(1)
A Closer Look at Reinforcement
171(1)
Highlights: Shaping Better Health through Biofeedback
172(5)
A Closer Look at Punishment
174(1)
Learned Helplessness
175(2)
Factors Shared by Classical and Operant Conditioning
177(8)
The Importance of Contingencies
177(3)
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
180(2)
Stimulus Control, Generalization, and Discrimination
182(1)
New Learning Based on Original Learning
183(1)
Summing Up
184(1)
Cognitive Learning
185(7)
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps
186(1)
Insight and Learning Sets
187(1)
Learning by Observing
188(4)
Applying Psychology: Modifying Your Own Behavior
192(6)
Memory
198(30)
The Sensory Registers
200(3)
Visual and Auditory Registers
200(1)
Initial Processing
201(2)
Short-Term Memory
203(5)
Capacity of STM
203(2)
Encoding in STM
205(1)
Retention and Retrieval in STM
205(1)
Rote Rehearsal
206(1)
Elaborative Rehearsal
207(1)
Long-Term Memory
208(8)
Encoding in LTM
209(2)
Implicit Memory
211(1)
Storage and Retrieval in LTM
212(2)
Autobiographical Memory
214(2)
Highlights: Eyewitness Testimony and Recovered Memories: Can We Trust Them?
216(2)
Special Topics in Memory
218(4)
Cultural Influences on Memory
218(1)
Flashbulb Memories
219(1)
Improving Your Memory
220(2)
Applying Psychology: Improving Your Memory for Textbook Material
222(1)
Biology and Memory
222(6)
Memory Loss
224(4)
Cognition and Mental Abilities
228(46)
Building Blocks of Thought
229(3)
Language
229(2)
Images
231(1)
Concepts
231(1)
Language and Thought
232(2)
Problem Solving
234(6)
The Interpretation of Problems
235(1)
Producing Strategies and Evaluating Progress
236(2)
Obstacles to Solving Problems
238(2)
Applying Psychology: Becoming a More Skillful Problem Solver
240(1)
Decision Making
241(3)
Logical Decision Making
241(1)
Alternative Approaches
242(1)
When Heuristics Lead Us Astray
243(1)
Culture and Decision Making
244(1)
Intelligence and Mental Abilities
244(4)
Theories of Intelligence
246(1)
Intelligence Tests
247(1)
Highlights: Emotional Intelligence
248(6)
What Makes a Good Test?
251(3)
Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence
254(9)
Mental Abilities and Human Diversity
258(2)
Extremes of Intelligence
260(3)
Creativity
263(2)
Intelligence and Creativity
263(1)
Factors Promoting Creativity
263(1)
Creativity Tests
264(1)
Answers to Problems in the Chapter
265(3)
Answers to Intelligence Test Questions
268(6)
Motivation and Emotion
274(36)
Perspectives on Motivation
276(1)
Primary Drives
277(4)
Hunger
278(3)
Applying Psychology: Losing Weight: More than Just Dieting
281(3)
Sex
282(2)
Highlights: Gender Differences in Human Sexuality
284(1)
Other Important Motives
285(5)
Stimulus Motives
285(2)
Aggression
287(2)
Achievement
289(1)
Highlights: Sexual Coercion and Its Effects
290(4)
Power
291(1)
Affiliation
292(1)
A Hierarchy of Motives
292(2)
Perspectives on Emotion
294(4)
Basic Emotional Experiences
294(2)
Theories of Emotion
296(2)
Expressing Emotion
298(2)
Verbal Communication
298(1)
Nonverbal Communication
299(1)
Highlights: The Lie Detector: What Does It Tell Us?
300(10)
Gender Differences in Emotional Expression
301(1)
Cultural Differences in Emotional Expression
302(8)
Life Span Development
310(50)
Prenatal Development
312(2)
The Newborn Baby
314(3)
Temperament
314(1)
The Perceptual Abilities of Infants
315(2)
Highlights: Methods in Developmental Psychology
317(1)
Infancy and Childhoo
318(17)
Physical Development
318(1)
Motor Development
319(1)
Cognitive Development
320(4)
Moral Development
324(1)
Language Development
325(2)
Social Development
327(8)
Adolescence
335(1)
Physical Changes
335(1)
Cognitive Changes
336(1)
Personality and Social Development
337(2)
Some Problems of Adolescence
339
Highlights: Shaping Personality: What Families Don't Share May Matter Most
331(11)
Young and Middle Adulthood
342(7)
Partnerships, Sex, and Parenting
342(3)
The World of Work
345(3)
Cognitive Changes
348(1)
Personality Changes
348(1)
The ``Change of Life''
349(1)
Late Adulthood
349(11)
Physical Changes
350(1)
Social Development
351(1)
Cognitive Changes
352(1)
Facing the End of Life
353(7)
Personality
360(30)
The Case of Jaylene Smith
361(2)
Psychodynamic Theories
363(11)
Sigmund Freud
363(4)
Carl Jung
367(1)
Alfred Adler
368(1)
Karen Horney
369(1)
Erik Erikson
370(2)
A Psychodynamic View of Jaylene Smith
372(1)
Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories
373(1)
Humanistic Personality Theories
374(2)
Carl Rogers
374(1)
A Humanistic View of Jaylene Smith
375(1)
Evaluating Humanistic Theories
375(1)
Trait Theories
376(2)
The Big Five
377(1)
Highlights: Are the Big Five Personality Traits Universal?
378(1)
A Trait View of Jaylene Smith
378(1)
Evaluating Trait Theories
379(1)
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
379(3)
A Cognitive-Social Learning View of Jaylene Smith
381(1)
Evaluating Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
381(1)
Personality Assessment
382(8)
The Personal Interview
382(1)
Observation
383(1)
Objective Tests
383(1)
Projective Tests
384(6)
Stress and Health Psychology
390(28)
Sources of Stress
392(5)
Change
392(1)
Hassles
393(1)
Pressure
394(1)
Frustration
394(1)
Conflict
395(1)
Self-imposed Stress
396(1)
Stress and Individual Differences
396(1)
How People Cope with Stress
397(2)
Direct Coping
398(1)
Applying Psychology: Coping With Stress at College
399(5)
Defensive Coping
400(2)
Socieoeconomic and Gender Differences in Coping with Stress
402(2)
How Stress Affects Health
404(4)
Stress and Heart Disease
406(1)
Stress and the Immune System
407(1)
Highlights: The Benefits of Group Therapy for Breast Cancer Patients
408(1)
Social Support and Health
408(1)
Sources of Extreme Stress
409(3)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
410(2)
The Well-Adjusted Person
412(1)
Highlights: Why Are Some People Happier than others?
413(5)
Psychological Disorders
418(34)
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
419(5)
Historical Views of Psychological Disorders
421(1)
The Biological Model
421(1)
The Psychoanalytic Model
422(1)
The Cognitive-Behavioral Model
422(1)
The Diathesis-Stress Model and Systems Theory
423(1)
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
423(1)
Mood Disorders
424(1)
Depression
424(1)
Highlights: Suicide
425(3)
Mania and Bipolar Disorder
426(1)
Causes of Mood Disorders
426(2)
Anxiety Disorders
428(4)
Specific Phobias
428(1)
Panic Disorder
429(1)
Other Anxiety Disorders
429(1)
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
430(2)
Psychosomatic and Somatoform Disorders
432(1)
Dissociative Disorders
433(2)
Sexual and Gender-Identity Disorders
435(1)
Personality Disorders
436(3)
Schizophrenic Disorders
439(1)
Highlights: The Insanity Defense
440(3)
Childhood Disorders
443(1)
Gender Differences in Abnormal Behavior
444(1)
Highlights: The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
445(7)
Therapies
452(34)
Insight Therapies
453(7)
Psychoanalysis
453(3)
Client-Centered Therapy
456(2)
Gestalt Therapy
458(1)
Recent Developments
459(1)
Behavior Therapies
460(3)
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
460(2)
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning
462(1)
Therapies Based on Modeling
462(1)
Cognitive Therapies
463(3)
Stress-Inoculation Therapy
463(1)
Rational-Emotive Therapy
464(1)
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
465(1)
Group Therapies
466(2)
Self-Help Groups
466(1)
Family Therapy
466(1)
Couple Therapy
467(1)
Applying Psychology: How to Find Help
468(1)
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
468(3)
Biological Treatments
471(4)
Drug Therapies
472(2)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
474(1)
Psychosurgery
474(1)
Caring for the Seriously Disturbed
475(4)
Deinstitutionalization
476(1)
Alternative Forms of Treatment
477(1)
Prevention
477(2)
Client Diversity and Treatment
479(7)
Gender Differences in Treatments
479(1)
Cultural Differences in Treatments
480(6)
Social Psychology
486(1)
Social Cognition
487(1)
Impression Formation
488(1)
Attribution
489(3)
Interpersonal Attraction
492(3)
Attitudes
495(1)
The Nature of Attitudes
495(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination
496(4)
Attitude Change
500(1)
Highlights: Ethnic Conflict and Violence
501(3)
Social Influence
504(1)
Cultural Influences
505(1)
Conformity
506(1)
Applying Psychology: Changing Beliefs about Binge Drinking
507(1)
Compliance
508(1)
Obedience
509(2)
Social Action
511(1)
Deindividuation
511(1)
Helping Behavior
511(2)
Highlights: Altruism and the Holocaust
513(1)
Group Dynamics
514(2)
Organizational Behavior
516(1)
Glossary G-1(1)
References R-1(1)
Photo Credits C-1(1)
Name Index NI-1(1)
Subject Index SI-1


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