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Table of Contents
Maps, Figures and TablesSpecial Features Preface Version and Supplements Chapter 1The Earliest Human Societies, to 2500 b.c.e. How did humans evolve, and where did they migrate? Understanding the Early Human Past Hominid Evolution Homo Sapiens, "Thinking Humans" Migration and Differentiation What were the key features of Paleolithic society? Foraging for Food Family and Kinship Relationships Cultural Creations and Spirituality How did plant and animal domestication transform human society? The Development of Horticulture Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism Plow Agriculture How did Neolithic societies change over time? Social Hierarchies and Slavery Gender Hierarchies and Inheritance Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Paleolithic Venus Figures Individuals in Society: The Iceman Chapter 2The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley, 3200-500 b.c.e. How is the invention of writing connected to the rise of cities and states? Written Sources and the Human Past Cites and the Idea of Civilization The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies What kinds of states and societies emerged in ancient Mesopotamia? Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion Sumerian Politics and Society The Invention of Writing and Other Intellectual Advances The Triumph of Babylon and the Spread of Mesopotamian Civilization Hammurabi's Code and Its Social Consequences What were the characteristics of Egyptian civilization? The Nile and the God-King Social Divisions and Work in Ancient Egypt Migrations and Political Revivals New Political and Economic Powers What was unique about Hebrew civilization? The Hebrew State The Jewish Religion The Family and Jewish Life How did the Assyrians and Persians build and maintain their empires? Assyria, the Military Monarchy The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire The Religion of Zoroaster Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut and Nefertiti Global Trade: Iron Chapter 3 The Foundation of Indian Society, to 300 c.e. What were the key characteristics of India's first civilization? What kind of society and culture did the Indo-European Aryans create? Aryan Dominance in North India Life in Early India Brahmanism What new religious beliefs emerged to challenge Brahmanism? Jainism Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism Hinduism How was the Mauryan Empire created and what were its achievements? Encounters with the West Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire The Reign of Ashoka, ca. 269-232 b.c.e. How did political disunity shape Indian life after 185 b.c.e.? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Conversations Between Rama and Sita from the Ramayana Individuals in Society: Gosala Chapter 4 China's Classical Age, to 221 b.c.e. How did geography shape the development of Chinese societies? The Impact of Geography Early Agricultural Societies of the Neolithic Age What were the most important developments in Shang China? Shang Society Bronze Metalworking The Development of Writing What was China like during the Zhou Dynasty? Zhou Politics Life During the Zhou Dynasty How did new technologies contribute to the rise of independent states? New Technologies for War The Victorious States What ideas did Confucius teach, and how were they spread after his death? Confucius The Spread of Confucian Ideas How did Daoism, Legalism, and other philosophies differ from Confucianism? Daoism Legalism Yin and Yang Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Lord Mengchang Listening to the Past: The Book of Mencius Chapter 5The Greek Experience, 3500-100 b.c.e. How did geography shape the early history of the Greeks? The Minoans and Mycenaeans The Development of the Polis How did Greek society and government develop during the Archaic age? Greece's Overseas Expansion The Growth of Sparta The Evolution of Athens What were the lasting achievements of the classical period? The Deadly Conflicts, 499-404 b.c.e. Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles Daily Life and Social Conditions in Athens Greek Religion in the Classical Period The Flowering of Philosophy What were the social and political consequences of Alexander's conquests? From Polis to Monarchy, 404-200 b.c.e. Building a Shared Society The Growth of Trade and Commerce How did the mixing of cultures shape Hellenistic thought? Religion in the Hellenistic World Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life Hellenistic Science and Medicine Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Aristotle, On the Family and On Slavery, from The Politics Individuals in Society: Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor Chapter 6The World of Rome, 750 b.c.e.-400 c.e. What kind of society and government did the Romans develop in Italy? The Etruscans and Rome The Roman Conquest of Italy The Distribution of Power in the Roman Republic Social Conflict in Rome What were the causes and consequences of Roman expansion beyond Italy? Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars, 264-133 b.c.e. New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus, 133-27 b.c.e. The Successes of Augustus How did Roman rule lead to a period of prosperity and relative peace? Political and Military Changes in the Empire Life in Rome Prosperity in the Roman Provinces Eastward Expansion and Contacts Between Rome and China What was Christianity, and how did it affect life in the Roman Empire? Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus The Spread of Christianity The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity How did rulers respond to the chaos of the third and fourth centuries? Diocletian's Reforms Economic Hardship and Its Consequences Constantine, Christianity, and the Rise of Constantinople Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra Listening to the Past: Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar Global Trade: Pottery Chapter 7East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism, 221 b.c.e.-800 c.e. How did political unification under the Qin and Han shape China? The Qin Unification, 221-206 b.c.e. The Han Dynasty, 206 b.c.e.-220 c.e. Han Intellectual and Cultural Life Inner Asia and the Silk Road Life in Han China China and Rome The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division How and why did Buddhism spread throughout East Asia? Buddhism's Path Through Central Asia The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China What were the lasting accomplishments of the Sui and Tang Dynasties? The Sui Dynasty, 581-618 The Tang Dynasty, 618-907 Tang Culture How were elements of Chinese culture adapted throughout East Asia? Vietnam Korea Japan Connections Chapter Study Guide Global Trade: Silk Individuals in Society: The Ban Family Listening to the Past: Sixth-Century Biographies of Buddhist Nuns Chapter 8Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia, 200-850 How did the Byzantine Empire preserve the Greco-Roman legacy? Sources of Byzantine Strength The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium The Law Code of Justinian Byzantine Intellectual Life Life in Constantinople How and why did Christian institutions change in late antiquity? The Evolution of Church Leadership and Orthodoxy The Western Church and the Eastern Church The Iconoclastic Controversy Christian Monasticism How did Christianity spread and develop in late antiquity? Christian Beliefs and the Greco-Roman Tradition Saint Augustine Missionary Activity Conversion and Assimilation How did the barbarians affect change in Europe and western Asia? Social and Economic Structures Chiefs, Warriors, and Laws Migrations and Political Change The Frankish Kingdom Charlemagne Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Theodora of Constantinople Listening to the Past: Gregory of Tours, The Conversion of Clovis Chapter 9The Islamic World, 600-1400 Who was Muhammad and what did he teach? Arabian Social and Economic Structure Muhammad's Rise as a Religious Leader The Tenets of Islam What explains the speed and scope of Islamic expansion? Islam's Spread Beyond Arabia Reasons for the Spread of Islam The Caliphate and the Split Between ShiÕa and Sunni Alliances The Abbasid Caliphate Administration of the Islamic Territories How and why did Islamic states change between 900 and 1400? Breakaway Territories and Shi'a Gains The Ascendancy of the Turks The Mongol Invasions What social distinctions were important in Muslim society? The Social Hierarchy Slavery Women in Classical Islamic Society Why did trade thrive in Muslim lands? What new cultural developments emerged in this period? The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and C—rdoba Education and Intellectual Life The Mystical Tradition of Sufism What characterized Muslim-Christian interactions? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, The Etiquette of Marriage Individuals in Society: Ibn Battuta Chapter 10African Societies and Kingdoms, 1000 b.c.e.-1500 c.e. How did geography shape the history of Africa's diverse peoples? Africa's Geographical and Human Diversity Egypt, Race, and Being African How did the advent of settled agriculture affect early societies? Settled Agriculture and Its Impact Bantu Migrations Life in the Kingdoms of the Western Sudan, ca. 1000 b.c.e.-800 c.e. What role did the trans-Saharan trade play in West African history? The Berbers of North Africa Effects of Trade on West African Society The Spread of Islam in Africa What kingdoms and empires emerged in Africa between 800 and 1500? The Kingdom of Ghana, ca. 900-1100 The Kingdom of Mali, ca. 1200-1450 Ethiopia: The Christian Kingdom of Aksum The East African City-States Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Amda Siyon Listening to the Past: A Tenth-Century Muslim Traveler Describes Parts of the East African Coast Chapter 11The Americas, 2500 b.c.e.-1500 c.e. How did early peoples of the Americas adapt to its diverse environments? Settling the Americas The Development of Agriculture What characterized early societies in the Americas? Mounds, Towns, and Trade in North and South America Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion What kinds of societies emerged in the classical era? Maya Agriculture and Trade Maya Science and Religion Growth and Assimilation of the Teotihuacan and Toltec Cultures Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies Who were the Aztecs and how did they build an empire? Religion and War in Aztec Society Social Distinctions Among the Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Inca empire? Earlier Peruvian Cultures Inca Imperialism and Its Religious Basis The Clan-Based Structure of Inca Society Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Tlacaelel Listening to the Past: Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government Chapter 12 Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400 How did Central Asian nomads conquer nearby settled civilizations? Nomadic Society The Turks The Mongols Mongol Daily Life How did the Mongols build and govern a Eurasian empire? Chinggis Kahn Chinggis's Successors The Mongols as Rulers How did the Mongol conquests facilitate cultural exchange? The Movement of Peoples The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas What was the result of India's encounters with Turks and Mongols? The Gupta Empire, ca. 320-480 India's Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam The Delhi Sultanate Life in Medieval India How did states develop along the trade routes of Southeast Asia and beyond? State Formation and Indian Influences The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective The Settlement of the Pacific Islands Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: The Abduction of Women in The Secret History of the Mongols Individuals in Society: Bhaskara the Teacher Global Trade: Spices Chapter 13States and Cultures in East Asia, 800-1400 What were the causes and consequences of the medieval Chinese economic revolution and what was its impact? How did government and society change in the Song and Yuan Dynasties? The Song Dynasty The Scholar-Officials and Neo-Confucianism Women's Lives in Song Times China Under Mongol Rule How did Korean society and culture develop under the Koryŏ Dynasty? What characterized Japan's Heian Period? Fujiwara Rule Aristocratic Culture What were the causes and consequences of military rule in Japan? Military Rule Cultural Trends Connections Chapter Study Guide Global Trade: Tea Individuals in Society: Shen Gua Listening to the Past: The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon Chapter 14Europe in the Middle Ages, 800-1450 How did medieval rulers try to create larger and more stable territories? Invasions and Migrations Feudalism and Manorialism The Restoration of Order Law and Justice How did the Christian church enhance its power and create new practices? Papal Reforms Monastic Life Popular Religion The Expansion of Christianity What were the motives, course, and consequences of the Crusades? Background and Motives The Course of the Crusades Consequences of the Crusades What characterized European society in the Middle Ages? The Life and Work of Peasants The Life and Work of Nobles Towns, Cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution What were the key educational and cultural developments? Universities and Scholasticism Cathedrals and a New Architectural Style Troubadour Poetry Why have the later Middle Ages been seen as a time of calamity and crisis? The Great Famine and the Black Death The Hundred Years' War Challenges to the Church Peasant and Urban Revolts Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen Listening to the Past: An Arab View of the Crusades Chapter 15Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600 What were the major cultural developments of the Renaissance? Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy The Rise of Humanism Christian Humanism Printing and Its Social Impact Art and the Artist What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe? Race and Slavery Wealth and the Nobility Gender Roles How did the nation-states of western Europe evolve in this period? France England Spain The Habsburgs What were the central beliefs of Protestant reformers? Criticism of the Church Martin Luther Protestant Thought and Its Appeal The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants' War Marriage and Women's Roles The Reformation and German Politics England's Shift Toward Protestantism Calvinism and Its Moral Standards How did the Catholic Church respond to the advent of Protestantism? Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent New Religious Orders Why did religious violence escalate in this period? French Religious Wars Civil Wars in the Netherlands The Great European Witch-Hunt Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci Listening to the Past: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty Chapter 16The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600 How did trade link the peoples of Africa, Asia, and Europe prior to 1492? The Trade World of the Indian Ocean Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean Trade with Africa and the Middle East Genoese and Venetian Middlemen How and why did Europeans undertake voyages of expansion? Causes of European Expansion Technology and the Rise of Exploration The Expanding Portuguese Empire Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas Later Explorers Spanish Conquest in the New World What was the impact of conquest? Colonial Administration The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples The Columbian Exchange Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery The Birth of the Global Economy How did expansion shape cultural values and beliefs in Europe and the Americas? New Ideas About Race Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity William Shakespeare and His Influence Religious Conversion in the New World Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Zheng He Listening to the Past: Columbus Describes His First Voyage Global Trade: Silver Chapter 17European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750 How did European states respond to the crises of the seventeenth century? Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe The Thirty Years' War Achievements in State Building How did the absolutist monarchies of France and Spain fare in this era? The Foundations of Absolutism Louis XIV and Absolutism Life at Versailles French Finances Louis XIV's Wars The Decline of Absolutist Spain How did absolutism develop in Austria, Prussia, and Russia? The Austrian Habsburgs Prussia in the Seventeenth Century The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow The Tsar and His People The Reforms of Peter the Great Where and why did constitutionalism triumph? Absolutist Claims in England Religious Divides and Civil War The Puritan Protectorate Restoration of the English Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century How did European nations compete to build new colonies in the Americas? Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers Mercantilism and Colonial Wars Life in the Colonies Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: A German Account of Russian Life Individuals in Society: Gluckel of Hameln Chapter 18New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790 What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution? Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s Origins of the Scientific Revolution Copernican Hypothesis Proving Copernicus Right Newton's Synthesis Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Science and Society What were the core principles of the Enlightenment? The Emergence of the Enlightenment The Influence of the Philosophes Enlightenment Across Europe Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere Late Enlightenment What did enlightened absolutism mean? Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism How did consumerism and the Atlantic economy influence Enlightenment ideas? A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life The Atlantic Economy Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World Race and the Enlightenment Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment Listening to the Past: Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage" Chapter 19Africa and the World, 1400-1800 What kinds of states and societies coexisted in early modern West Africa? The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland The Lives of the People of West Africa Trade and Industry How did the arrival of outsiders impact East Africa ? Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630 The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600 What were the causes and consequences of the transatlantic slave trade? The Institution of Slavery in Africa The Transatlantic Slave Trade Impact on African Societies Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States Global Trade: Slaves Individuals in Society: Olaudah Equiano Chapter 20The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800 How were the three Islamic empires established? The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves The Safavid Empire in Persia The Mughal Empire in India What characterized the cultural flowering of the Islamic empires? The Arts City and Palace Building Gardens Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact How were non-Muslims treated in the Islamic empires? How did shifts in global trading patterns affect the Islamic empires? European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India What factors led to the decline of central power in the Islamic empires? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Hurrem Listening to the Past: Katib Chelebi on Tobacco Chapter 21 Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800 What sort of state and society developed in China under the Ming? The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty Problems with the Imperial Institution The Mongols and the Great Wall The Examination Life Everyday Life in Ming China Ming Decline How did the Manchus build on Ming accomplishments? The Rise of the Manchus Competent and Long-Lived Emperors Imperial Expansion How did war and political instability shape Japan in the Middle Ages? Muromachi Culture Civil War The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi What was life like in Japan during the Tokugawa peace? Tokugawa Government Commercialization and the Growth of Towns The Life of the People in the Edo Period How did the arrival of Europeans change the Asian maritime sphere? Zheng He's Voyages Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Europeans Enter the Scene Christian Missionaries Learning from the West The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor Listening to the Past: Keinen's Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign Chapter 22Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815 What factors combined to spark revolutions in the Atlantic world? Social Change Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality The Seven Years' War How did American colonists forge a new, independent nation? The Origins of the Revolution Independence from Britain Framing the Constitution What were the causes and consequences of the French Revolution? Breakdown of the Old Order The Formation of the National Assembly Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges How and why did the French Revolution take a radical turn? The International Response The Second Revolution and the New Republic Total War and the Terror The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory How did Napoleon assume control of France and much of Europe? Napoleon's Rule of France Napoleon's Expansion in Europe The Grand Empire and Its End What led to the creation of the independent state of Haiti in 1804? Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue The Outbreak of Revolt The War of Haitian Independence Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"Individuals in Society: Toussaint L'Ouverture Chapter 23The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850 How and why did Britain industrialize between 1780 and 1850? Origins of the British Industrial Revolution The First Factories The Steam Engine Breakthrough The Coming of the Railroads Industry and Population When and how did industrialization spread beyond Britain? National and International Variations The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe Agents of Industrialization Government Support and Corporate Banking The Situation Outside of Europe What were the social consequences of industrialization? The New Class of Factory Owners The New Factory Workers Work in Early Factories Working Families and Children The Sexual Division of Labor The Early Labor Movement in Britain The Impact of Slavery Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Josiah Wedgwood Listening to the Past: The Testimony of Young Mine Workers Chapter 24Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914 How was European conservatism challenged between 1815 and 1848? The European Balance of Power Coerced Conservatism After 1815 Liberalism and the Middle Class The Growing Appeal of Nationalism The Birth of Socialism What led to the Revolutions of 1848 and why did they fail? Liberal Reform in Great Britain Revolutions in France The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe How did nation building transform Italy, Germany, and Russia? Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy Bismarck and German Unification The Modernization of Russia How did urbanization impact cities, society, and ideas? Taming the City New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes The People and Occupations of the Working Classes The Changing Family Science for the Masses Cultural Shifts How did nationalism and socialism shape politics before 1914? Trends in Suffrage The German Empire Republican France Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism The Socialist Movement Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Giuseppe Garibaldi Listening to the Past: Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household Chapter 25Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914 How did slavery, Islam, and imperialism shape Africa's development? Trade and Social Change Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914 Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century Colonialism's Impact After 1900 What were the causes and consequences of European empire building? Causes of the New Imperialism A "Civilizing Mission" Critics of Imperialism African and Asian Resistance How and why did Ottoman and Egyptian leaders reform their states? Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation How did Western industrialization change the world economy? The Rise of Global Inequality The World Market What explains global migration patterns in this period? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: A French Leader Defends Imperialism Individuals in Society: Muhammad Ali Global Trade: Indigo Chapter 26Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914 What were the consequences of British rule for India? The Evolution of British Rule The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule The British and the Indian Educated Elite Why were most but not all Southeast Asian societies colonized? The Dutch East Indies Mainland Southeast Asia The Philippines What factors contributed to China's decline in the nineteenth century? The Opium War Internal Problems The Self-Strengthening Movement Republican Revolution How did Japan respond to the challenges posed by the West? The "Opening" of Japan The Meiji Restoration Industrialization Japan as an Imperial Power Why did people move into and out of Asia in the nineteenth century? Westerners to Asia Asian Emigration What common experiences did Asian societies share in this era? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Jose Rizal Listening to the Past: Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia Chapter 27 Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914 How did Latin American nations fare after independence? The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence The Aftermath of Independence Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East How did the United States become a world power? Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native Americans Women's Roles in White Settlements Black Slavery in the South The Civil War and Its Impact Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations Immigrants and Their Reception What factors shaped the development of Canada? How did Australia evolve from penal colony to nation? A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity What common forces shaped the Americas and Australia? Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Mary Seacole on Her Early Life Individuals in Society: Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator Chapter 28 World War and Revolution, 1914-1929 How did European conflicts lead to global war? The Bismarckian System of Alliances The Outbreak of War Stalemate and Slaughter The War Becomes Global What made World War I a "total war"? Mobilizing for Total War The Social Impact Growing Political Tensions How did war lead to revolution in Russia? The Fall of Imperial Russia The Provisional Government Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution Dictatorship and Civil War What were the global consequences of the war? The End of the War The Treaty of Versailles American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty How did leaders seek to re-establish peace and stability? Germany and the Western Powers Hope in Foreign Affairs Hope in Democratic Government How were postwar anxieties reflected in art and science? Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion The New Physics Freudian Psychology Twentieth-Century Literature Modern Architecture, Art, and Music Movies and Radio Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: The Experience of War Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain Chapter 29Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939 How did World War I stimulate nationalism in Asia? Asian Reaction to the War in Europe The Mandates System Nationalism's Appeal What forces shaped nationalism in the Middle East? The Arab Revolt The Turkish Revolution Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan Gradual Independence in the Arab States Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine What characterized the Indian independence movement? British Promises and Repression The Roots of Militant Nonviolence Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India What nationalist struggles emerged in East and Southeast Asia? The Rise of Nationalist China China's Intellectual Revolution From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan Japan Against China Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia Connections Chapter Study Guide Listening to the Past: Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus Individuals in Society: Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman Chapter 30The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945 Why did the Great Depression spread around the world? The Economic Crisis Mass Unemployment The New Deal in the United States The European Response to the Depression Worldwide Effects How did totalitarianism differ from conservative authoritarianism? Conservative Authoritarianism Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships What characterized StalinÕs rule in the Soviet Union? From Lenin to Stalin The Five-Year Plans Life and Culture in Soviet Society Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges How did Italian fascism develop? The Seizure of Power The Regime in Action What were the goals of Hitler and his Nazi regime? The Roots of Nazism Hitler's Road to Power The Nazi State and Society Hitler's Popularity Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939 What led to World War II and how did the Allies prevail? Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942 The Holocaust Japan's Asian Empire The Grand Alliance The War in Europe, 1942-1945 The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945 Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Primo Levi Listening to the Past: Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students Chapter 31Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present What were the causes of the Cold War? The Origins of the Cold War West Versus East How did western Europe recover after World War II, and why did progress stall? The Postwar Challenge Building Europe and Decolonization The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990 How did the Soviet Union dominate eastern Europe in the postwar era? Stalin's Last Years Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life The Gorbachev Era The Revolutions of 1989 The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration What factors shaped social and political developments in postwar America? America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution Youth and the Counterculture The Vietnam War Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions How did Japan become a global power after its defeat in World War II? Japan's American Revolution "Japan, Inc." Japan in the Post-Cold War World What opportunities and challenges did Europe face after the Cold War? Common Patterns and Problems Recasting Russia Without Communism Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe Unity and Identity in Western Europe Connections Chapter Study Guide Global Trade: Oil Listening to the Past: A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison Individuals in Society: V‡clav Havel Chapter 32Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present What explains East Asia's economic success after World War II? The Communist Victory in China Mao's China The Limits of Reform The Asian "Economic Tigers" Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia The Reunification of Vietnam How have India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh fared since independence? The End of British India Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh India Since Independence How has religion shaped Middle Eastern politics since 1945? The Arab-Israeli Conflict The Palestinian Quest for Independence Egypt: Arab World Leader A Fractured Lebanon Challenges to Turkey's Secularism Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Liu Xiaobo Listening to the Past: Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear"Chapter 33The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present How did Latin American states develop after World War II? Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil Communist Revolution in Cuba From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America Pan-Latin American Unity What factors influenced decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa? The Growth of African Nationalism Achieving Independence with New Leaders Ghana Shows the Way French-Speaking Regions What common features characterize independent African states since 1960? Striving for National Unity Nigeria, Africa's Giant The Struggle in Southern Africa Political Reform in Africa Since 1990 How have writers depicted the experience of the emerging world? Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: Eva Peron Listening to the Past: Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa Chapter 34A New Era in World History How has global politics changed since 1989? The United Nations Preemptive War in Iraq Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World The Terrorist Threat Weapons of Mass Destruction What are the consequences of increasing global interdependence? Multinational Corporations Industrialization and Modernization Agriculture and the Green Revolution The Economics and Politics of Globalization What are the causes and consequences of worldwide urbanization? Rapid Urbanization Overcrowding and Shantytowns Rich and Poor Urban Migration and the Family Urbanization and Agriculture How have developments in science and technology changed the world? The Medical Revolution Population Change: Balancing the Numbers Global Epidemics Environmentalism Mass Communication What social problems do women and children face? Women: The Right to Equality Children: The Right to Childhood Connections Chapter Study Guide Individuals in Society: The Dalai Lama Listening to the Past: The United Nations Millennium Project Report Global Trade: Arms Chapter Endnotes Index