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The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780073513232

ISBN10:
0073513237
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/15/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

Known for its clear narrative voice, impeccable scholarship, and affordability, Alan Brinkley'sThe Unfinished Nationoffers a concise but comprehensive examination of American History. Balancing social and cultural history with traditional political and diplomatic themes, it tells the story of the diversity and complexity of the United States and the forces that have enabled it to survive and flourish despite division. This fifth edition features eight new essays and enhanced coverage of recent events and developments in the continuing American story.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations xxvii
List of Maps and Charts xxxiii
Preface xxxvii
Chapter One The Meeting of Cultures 2
America Before Columbus
4
The Civilizations of the South
4
The Civilizations of the North
4
Europe Looks Westward
7
Commerce and Nationalism
8
Christopher Columbus
8
The Spanish Empire
10
Northern Outposts
12
Biological and Cultural Exchanges
12
Africa and America
16
The Arrival of the English
19
Incentives for Colonization
19
The French and the Dutch in America
22
The First English Settlements
22
Debating the Past: THE AMERICAN POPULATION BEFORE COLUMBUS
14
America in the World: THE ATLANTIC CONTEXT OF EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY
18
Conclusion
24
For Further Reference
25
Chapter Two Transplantations and Borderlands 26
The Early Chesapeake
28
The Founding of Jamestown
28
Reorganization and Expansion
28
Exchanges of Agricultural Technology
31
Maryland and The Calverts
32
Bacon's Rebellion
34
The Growth of New England
35
Plymouth Plantation
35
The Massachusetts Bay Experiment
37
The Expansion of New England
38
Settlers and Natives
40
King Philip's War and the Technology of Battle
40
The Restoration Colonies
42
The English Civil War
42
The Carolinas
43
New Netherland, New York, and New Jersey
44
The Quaker Colonies
45
Borderlands and Middle Grounds
46
The Caribbean Islands
47
Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean
47
The Southwestern Borderlands
48
The Southeast Borderlands
50
The Founding of Georgia
51
Middle Grounds
52
The Development of Empire
55
The Dominion of New England
55
The "Glorious Revolution"
56
Debating the Past: NATIVE AMERICANS AND "THE MIDDLE GROUND"
54
Conclusion
57
For Further Reference
58
Chapter Three Society and Culture in Provincial America 60
The Colonial Population
62
Indentured Servitude
62
Birth and Death
62
Medicine in the Colonies
63
Women and Families in the Colonies
64
The Beginnings of Slavery in English America
65
Changing Sources of European Immigration
67
The Colonial Economies
71
The Southern Economy
71
Northern Economic and Technological Life
72
The Extent and Limits of Technology
73
The Rise of Colonial Commerce
74
The Rise of Consumerism
75
Patterns of Society
76
Masters and Slaves on the Plantation
77
The Puritan Community
78
Cities
81
Awakenings and Enlightenments
83
The Pattern of Religions
83
The Great Awakening
84
The Enlightenment
85
Literacy and Technology
85
Education
86
The Spread of Science
88
Concepts of Law and Politics
88
Debating the Past: THE ORIGINS OF SLAVERY
68
Debating the Past: THE WITCHCRAFT TRIALS
82
Conclusion
90
For Further Reference
91
Chapter Four The Empire in Transition 92
Loosening Ties
93
A Decentralized Empire
94
The Colonies Divided
94
The Struggle for the Continent
95
New France and the Iroquois Nation
95
Anglo-French Conflicts
96
The Great War for the Empire
97
The New Imperialism
99
Burdens of Empire
99
The British and the Tribes
101
Battles over Trade and Taxes
102
Stirrings of Revolt
103
The Stamp Act Crisis
103
The Townshend Program
104
The Boston Massacre
105
The Philosophy of Revolt
107
Sites of Resistance
108
The Tea Excitement
109
Cooperation and War
111
New Sources of Authority
111
Lexington and Concord
113
Conclusion
114
For Further Reference
115
Chapter Five The American Revolution 116
The States United
118
Defining American War Aims
118
The Declaration of Independence
118
Mobilizing for War
119
The War for Independence
122
The First Phase: New England
122
The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region
122
Securing Aid from Abroad
125
The Final Phase: The South
126
Winning the Peace
128
War and Society
129
Loyalists and Minorities
129
The War and Slavery
131
Native Americans and the Revolution
133
Women's Rights and Women's Roles
133
The War Economy
134
The Creation of State Governments
135
The Assumptions of Republicanism
135
The First State Constitutions
136
Revising State Governments
136
Toleration and Slavery
137
The Search for a National Government
137
The Confederation
138
Diplomatic Failures
138
The Confederation and the Northwest
139
Indians and the Western Lands
141
Debts, Taxes, and Daniel Shays
141
Debating the Past: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
120
America in the World: THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS
130
Conclusion
143
For Further Reference
144
Chapter Six The Constitution and the New Republic 146
Framing a New Government
147
Advocates of Reform
148
A Divided Convention
148
Compromise
150
The Constitution of 1787
151
Adoption and Adaptation
152
Federalists and Antifederalists
152
Completing the Structure
154
Federalists and Republicans
155
Hamilton and the Federalists
155
Enacting the Federalist Program
156
The Republican Opposition
157
Establishing National Sovereignty
158
Securing the West
158
Maintaining Neutrality
160
The Downfall of the Federalists
161
The Election of 1796
161
The Quasi War with France
161
Repression and Protest
162
The "Revolution" of 1800
164
Conclusion
165
For Further Reference
165
Chapter Seven The Jeffersonian Era 168
The Rise of Cultural Nationalism
170
Educational and Literary Nationalism
170
Medicine and Science
171
Cultural Aspirations of the New Nation
172
Religion and Revivalism
173
Stirrings of Industrialism
175
Technology in America
175
Transportation Innovations
177
Country and City
180
Jefferson the President
180
The Federal City and the "People's President"
181
Dollars and Ships
182
Conflict with the Courts
183
Doubling the National Domain
184
Jefferson and Napoleon
184
The Louisiana Purchase
186
Exploring the West
186
The Burr Conspiracy
187
Expansion and War
189
Conflict on the Seas
190
Impressment
190
"Peaceable Coercion"
191
The "Indian Problem" and the British
192
Tecumseh and the Prophet
193
Florida and War Fever
194
The War of 1812
195
Battles with the Tribes
195
Battles with the British
196
The Revolt of New England
196
The Peace Settlement
199
America in the World: THE GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
178
Conclusion
199
For Further Reference
200
Chapter Eight Varieties of American Nationalism 202
Stabilizing Economic Growth
203
The Government and Economic Growth
204
Transportation
204
Expanding Westward
206
The Great Migration
207
White Settlers in the Old Northwest
207
The Plantation System in the Old Southwest
208
Trade and Trapping in the Far West
208
Eastern Images of the West
209
The "Era of Good Feelings"
210
The End of the First Party System
210
John Quincy Adams and Florida
212
The Panic of 1819
213
Sectionalism and Nationalism
213
The Missouri Compromise
213
Marshall and the Court
215
The Court and the Tribes
217
The Latin American Revolution and the Monroe Doctrine
218
The Revival of Opposition
219
The "Corrupt Bargain"
219
The Second President Adams
220
Jackson Triumphant
220
Conclusion
221
For Further Reference
222
Chapter Nine Jacksonian America 224
The Rise of Mass Politics
225
The Expanding Electorate
226
The Legitimization of Party
228
President of the Common Man
228
"Our Federal Union"
229
Calhoun and Nullification
231
The Rise of Van Buren
231
The Webster-Hayne Debate
232
The Nullification Crisis
232
The Removal of the Indians
233
White Attitudes toward the Tribes
233
The "Five Civilized Tribes"
233
Trails of Tears
234
The Meaning of Removal
236
Jackson and the Bank War
236
Biddle's Institution
237
The "Monster" Destroyed
237
The Taney Court
238
The Emergence of the Second Party System
239
The Two Parties
239
Politics after Jackson
241
The Panic of 1837
241
The Van Buren Program
242
The Log Cabin Campaign
243
The Frustration of the Whigs
245
Whig Diplomacy
245
Debating the Past: JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
230
Conclusion
246
For Further Reference
247
Chapter Ten America's Economic Revolution 248
The Changing American Population
249
Population Trends
250
Immigration and Urban Growth, 1840-1860
250
The Rise of Nativism
252
Transportation and Communications Revolutions
253
The Canal Age
253
The Early Railroads
255
The Triumph of the Rails
256
The Telegraph
256
New Forms of Journalism
258
Commerce and Industry
259
The Expansion of Business, 1820-1840
259
The Emergence of the Factory
259
Advances in Technology
260
Innovations in Corporate Organization
261
Men and Women at Work
262
Recruiting a Native Work Force
262
The Immigrant Work Force
264
The Factory System and the Artisan Tradition
264
Fighting for Control
265
Patterns of Society
266
The Rich and the Poor
266
Social Mobility
268
Middle-Class Life
268
The Changing Family
269
The "Cult of Domesticity"
270
Leisure Activities
271
The Agricultural North
272
Northeastern Agriculture
272
The Old Northwest
273
Rural Life
275
Conclusion
276
For Further Reference
276
Chapter Eleven Cotton, Slavery, and the Old South 278
The Cotton Economy
280
The Rise of King Cotton
280
Southern Trade and Industry
282
Sources of Southern Difference
284
Southern White Society
285
The Planter Class
285
The "Southern Lady"
286
The Plain Folk
287
Slavery: The "Peculiar Institution"
289
Varieties of Slavery
289
Life under Slavery
291
Slavery in the Cities
293
Free Blacks
293
Slave Resistance
294
The Culture of Slavery
296
Slave Religion
296
Language and Music
297
The Slave Family
298
Debating the Past: THE CHARACTER OF SLAVERY
290
Conclusion
299
For Further Reference
299
Chapter Twelve Antebellum Culture and Reform 302
The Romantic Impulse
304
Nationalism and Romanticism in American Painting
304
An American Literature
304
Literature in the Antebellum South
306
The Transcendentalists
307
The Defense of Nature
308
Visions of Utopia
308
Redefining Gender Roles
310
The Mormons
311
Remaking Society
312
Revivalism, Morality, and Order
312
Health, Science, and Phrenology
312
Medical Science
315
Education
315
Rehabilitation
316
The Rise of Feminism
317
The Crusade against Slavery
318
Early Opposition to Slavery
318
Garrison and Abolitionism
319
Black Abolitionists
319
Anti-Abolitionism
322
Abolitionism Divided
323
America in the World: THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY
320
Conclusion
324
For Further Reference
325
Chapter Thirteen The Impending Crisis 326
Looking Westward
327
Manifest Destiny
328
Americans in Texas
328
Oregon
329
The Westward Migration
330
Expansion and War
332
The Democrats and Expansion
332
The Southwest and California
334
The Mexican War
335
The Sectional Debate
338
Slavery and the Territories
338
The California Gold Rush
339
Rising Sectional Tensions
340
The Compromise of 1850
341
The Crises of the 1850's
343
The Uneasy Truce
343
"Young America"
343
Slavery, Railroads, and the West
344
The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy
344
"Bleeding Kansas"
345
The Free-Soil Ideology
346
The Pro-Slavery Argument
347
Buchanan and Depression
348
The Dred Scott Decision
349
Deadlock over Kansas
349
The Emergence of Lincoln
350
John Brown's Raid
351
The Election of Lincoln
352
Conclusion
353
For Further Reference
354
Chapter Fourteen The Civil War 356
The Secession Crisis
357
The Withdrawal of the South
357
The Failure of Compromise
358
The Opposing Sides
360
The Mobilization of the North
360
Economic Nationalism
360
Raising the Union Armies
361
Wartime Leadership and Politics
362
The Politics of Emancipation
363
African Americans and the Union Cause
364
Women, Nursing, and the War
365
The Mobilization of the South
365
Confederate Government
366
Money and Manpower
367
Economic and Social Effects of the War
368
Strategy and Diplomacy
369
The Commanders
369
The Role of Sea Power
372
Europe and the Disunited States
374
Campaigns and Battles
375
The Technology of War
375
The Opening Clashes, 1861
377
The Western Theater, 1862
377
The Virginia Front, 1862
379
1863: Year of Decision
382
The Last Stage, 1864-1865
385
Debating the Past: THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR
359
America in the World: THE CONSOLIDATION OF NATIONS
370
Conclusion
389
For Further Reference
389
Chapter Fifteen Reconstruction and the New South 392
The Problems of Peacemaking
394
The Aftermath of War and Emancipation
394
Competing Notions of Freedom
394
Plans for Reconstruction
396
The Death of Lincoln
397
Johnson and "Restoration"
399
Radical Reconstruction
399
The Black Codes
399
The Fourteenth Amendment
401
The Congressional Plan
402
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
403
The South in Reconstruction
404
The Reconstruction Governments
404
Education
405
Landownership and Tenancy
406
Incomes and Credit
406
The African-American Family in Freedom
407
The Grant Administration
408
The Soldier President
409
The Grant Scandals
409
The Greenback Question
410
Republican Diplomacy
410
The Abandonment of Reconstruction
411
The Southern States "Redeemed"
411
Waning Northern Commitment
412
The Compromise of 1877
412
The Legacy of Reconstruction
414
The New South
415
The "Redeemers"
415
Industrialization and the "New South"
415
Tenants and Sharecroppers
417
African Americans and the New South
418
The Birth of Jim Crow
419
Debating the Past: RECONSTRUCTION
400
Conclusion
422
For Further Reference
423
Chapter Sixteen The Conquest of the Far West 424
The Societies of the Far West
426
The Western Tribes
426
Hispanic New Mexico
427
Hispanic California and Texas
427
The Chinese Migration
428
Anti-Chinese Sentiments
430
Migration from the East
431
The Changing Western Economy
432
Labor in the West
432
The Arrival of the Miners
432
The Cattle Kingdom
434
The Romance of the West
437
The Western Landscape and the Cowboy
437
The Idea of the Frontier
438
The Dispersal of the Tribes
439
White Tribal Policies
439
The Indian Wars
442
The Dawes Act
446
The Rise and Decline of the Western Farmer
446
Farming on the Plains
447
Commercial Agriculture
448
The Farmers' Grievances
449
The Agrarian Malaise
449
Debating the Past: THE FRONTIER AND THE WEST
440
Conclusion
450
For Further Reference
451
Chapter Seventeen Industrial Supremacy 452
Sources of Industrial Growth
454
Industrial Technologies
454
The Technology of Iron and Steel Production
454
The Automobile and the Airplane
456
Research and Development
457
The Science of Production
458
Railroad Expansion and the Corporation
459
Capitalism and Its Critics
463
Survival of the Fittest
463
The Gospel of Wealth
464
Alternative Visions
466
The Problems of Monopoly
467
The Ordeal of the Worker
468
The Immigrant Work Force
468
Wages and Working Conditions
469
Emerging Unionization
470
The Knights of Labor
471
The AFL
471
The Homestead Strike
472
The Pullman Strike
473
Sources of Labor Weakness
474
Conclusion
475
For Further Reference
476
Chapter Eighteen The Age of the City 478
The New Urban Growth
479
The Migrations
480
The Ethnic City
480
Assimilation and Exclusion
482
The Urban Landscape
485
The Creation of Public Space
485
The Search for Housing
486
Urban Technologies: Transportation and Construction
488
Strains of Urban Life
489
Fire and Disease
489
Environmental Degradation
489
Urban Poverty, Crime, and Violence
490
The Machine and the Boss
491
The Rise of Mass Consumption
492
Patterns of Income and Consumption
492
Chain Stores, Mail-Order Houses, and Department Stores
493
Women as Consumers
493
Leisure in the Consumer Society
495
Redefining Leisure
495
Spectator Sports
495
Music, Theater; and Movies
496
Patterns of Public and Private Leisure
498
The Technologies of Mass Communication
499
The Telephone
500
High Culture in the Urban Age
501
Literature and Art in Urban America
501
The Impact of Darwinism
502
Toward Universal Schooling
503
Universities and the Growth of Science and Technology
504
Medical Science
505
Education for Women
505
America in the World: GLOBAL MIGRATIONS
484
Conclusion
506
For Further Reference
507
Chapter Nineteen From Stalemate to Crisis 510
The Politics of Equilibrium
512
The Party System
512
The National Government
513
Presidents and Patronage
513
Cleveland, Harrison, and the Tariff
515
New Public Issues
516
The Agrarian Revolt
518
The Grangers
518
The Alliances
518
The Populist Constituency
519
Populist Ideas
521
The Crisis of the 1890's
522
The Panic of 1893
523
The Silver Question
523
"A Cross of Gold"
525
The Conservative Victory
527
McKinley and Prosperity
528
Debating the Past: POPULISM
520
Conclusion
529
For Further Reference
530
Chapter Twenty The Imperial Republic 532
Stirrings of Imperialism
534
The New Manifest Destiny
534
Hemispheric Hegemony
534
Hawaii and Samoa
535
War with Spain
539
Controversy over Cuba
539
"A Splendid Little War"
541
Seizing the
Philippines
542
The Battle for Cuba
543
Puerto Rico and the United States
545
The Debate over the Philippines
545
The Republic as Empire
547
Governing the Colonies
547
The Philippine War
548
The Open Door
550
A Modern Military System
551
America in the World: IMPERIALISM
536
Conclusion
552
For Further Reference
552
Chapter Twenty-One The Rise of Progressivism 554
The Progressive Impulse
556
The Muckrakers and the Social Gospel
556
The Settlement House Movement
557
The Allure of Expertise
558
The Professions
558
Women and the Professions
560
Women and Reform
561
The "New Woman"
561
The Clubwomen
562
Woman Suffrage
563
The Assault on the Parties
564
Early Attacks
564
Municipal Reform
565
Statehouse Progressivism
567
Parties and Interest Groups
569
Sources of Progressive Reform
569
Labor, the Machine, and Reform
569
Western Progressives
570
African Americans and Reform
572
Crusades for Order and Reform
572
The Temperance Crusade
573
Immigration Restriction
573
The Dream of Socialism
576
Decentralization and Regulation
576
America in the World: SOCIAL DEMOCRACY
566
Debating the Past: PROGRESSIVISM
574
Conclusion
577
For Further Reference
577
Chapter Twenty-Two The Battle for National Reform 580
Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Presidency
582
The Accidental President
582
The Square Deal
583
Roosevelt and the Environment
583
Panic and Retirement
585
The Troubled Succession
586
Taft and the Progressives
587
The Return of Roosevelt
587
Spreading Insurgency
588
T.R. versus Taft
589
Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom
590
Woodrow Wilson
590
The Scholar as President
590
Retreat and Advance
592
The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917
593
Roosevelt and "Civilization"
593
Protecting the "Open Door" in Asia
594
The Iron-Fisted Neighbor
594
The Panama Canal
596
Taft and "Dollar Diplomacy"
597
Diplomacy and Morality
597
Conclusion
600
For Further Reference
600
Chapter Twenty-Three America and the Great War 602
The Road to War
603
The Collapse of the European Peace
604
Wilson's Neutrality
604
Preparedness versus Pacifism
605
A War for Democracy
606
"War Without Stint"
608
The Military Struggle
608
The New Technology of Warfare
610
Organizing the Economy for War
611
The Search for Social Unity
614
The Search for a New World Order
615
The Fourteen Points
615
The Paris Peace Conference
616
The Ratification Battle
617
A Society in Turmoil
618
The Unstable Economy
618
The Demands of African Americans
619
The Red Scare
621
The Retreat from Idealism
623
Conclusion
623
For Further Reference
624
Chapter Twenty-Four The New Era 626
The New Economy
628
Technology, Organization, and Economic Growth
628
Workers in an Age of Capital
630
Women and Minorities in the Work Force
631
Agricultural Technology and the Plight of the Farmer
632
The New Culture
634
Consumerism and Communications
634
Psychology and Psychiatry
637
Women in the New Era
638
Writers and Artists
640
A Conflict of Cultures
640
Prohibition
640
Nativism and the Klan
641
Religious Fundamentalism
643
The Democrats' Ordeal
644
Republican Government
645
Harding and Coolidge
645
Government and Business
647
America in the World: THE CINEMA
636
Conclusion
648
For Further Reference
648
Chapter Twenty-Five The Great Depression 650
The Coming of the Depression
651
The Great Crash
652
Causes of the Depression
652
Progress of the Depression
653
The American People in Hard Times
656
Unemployment and Relief
656
African Americans and the Depression
657
Hispanics and Asians in Depression America
660
Women and Families in the Great Depression
661
The Depression and American Culture
662
Depression Values
662
Radio
663
The Movies
664
Popular Literature and journalism
666
The Popular Front and the Left
666
The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover
669
The Hoover Program
669
Popular Protest
670
The Election of 1932
672
The "Interregnum"
674
Debating the Past: CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
654
America in the World: THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION
658
Conclusion
675
For Further Reference
675
Chapter Twenty-Six The New Deal 678
Launching the New Deal
679
Restoring Confidence
680
Agricultural Adjustment
681
Industrial Recovery
682
Regional Planning
684
The Growth of Federal Relief
685
The New Deal in Transition
686
Critics of the New Deal
686
The "Second New Deal"
689
Labor Militancy
690
Organizing Battles
690
Social Security
691
New Directions in Relief
692
The 1936 "Referendum"
693
The New Deal in Disarray
694
The Court Fight
694
Retrenchment and Recession
695
Limits and Legacies of the New Deal
696
African Americans and the New Deal
696
The New Deal and the "Indian Problem"
697
Women and the New Deal
699
The New Deal and the West
700
The New Deal, the Economy, and Politics
700
Debating the Past: THE NEW DEAL
698
Conclusion
701
For Further Reference
702
Chapter Twenty-Seven The Global Crisis, 1921-1941 704
The Diplomacy of the New Era
706
Replacing the League
706
Debts and Diplomacy
706
Hoover and the World Crisis
708
Isolationism and Internationalism
709
Depression Diplomacy
709
The Rise of Isolationism
710
The Failure of Munich
713
From Neutrality to Intervention
714
Neutrality Tested
715
The Campaign of 1940
716
Neutrality Abandoned
716
The Road to Pearl Harbor
717
America in the World: THE SING JAPANESE WAR, 1931-1941
712
Debating the Past: THE QUESTION OF PEARL HARBOR
718
Conclusion
720
For Further Reference
721
Chapter Twenty-Eight America in a World at War 724
War on Two Fronts
725
Containing the Japanese
726
Holding Off the Germans
726
America and the Holocaust
729
The American Economy in Wartime
731
Prosperity and the Rights of Labor
731
Stabilizing the Boom and Mobilizing Production
732
Wartime Science and Technology
733
Race and Gender in Wartime America
736
African Americans and the War
736
Native Americans and the War
737
Mexican-American War Workers
737
The Internment of Japanese Americans
739
Chinese Americans and the War
739
Women and Children in Wartime
740
Anxiety and Affluence in Wartime Culture
742
Wartime Entertainment and Leisure
742
Women and Men in the Armed Services
742
Retreat from Reform
743
The Defeat of the Axis
745
The Liberation of France
745
The Pacific Offensive
747
The Manhattan Project and Atomic Warfare
748
Debating the Past: THE DECISION TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMB
749
Conclusion
752
For Further Reference
753
Chapter Twenty-Nine The Cold War 754
Origins of the Cold War
755
Sources of Soviet-American Tension
756
Wartime Diplomacy
756
Yalta
757
The Collapse of the Peace
759
The Failure of Potsdam
759
The China Problem and Japan
759
The Containment Doctrine
760
Opposition to Containment
761
The Marshall Plan
761
Mobilization at Home
762
The Road to NATO
762
Reevaluating Cold War Policy
765
America after the War
766
The Problems of Reconversion
766
The Fair Deal Rejected
767
The Election of 1948
768
The Fair Deal Revived
770
The Nuclear Age
771
The Korean War
772
The Divided Peninsula
772
From Invasion to Stalemate
774
Limited Mobilization
775
The Crusade against Subversion
775
HUAC and Alger Hiss
776
The Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg Case
777
McCarthyism
779
The Republican Revival
780
Debating the Past: THE COLD WAR
764
Debating the Past: MCCARTHYISM
778
Conclusion
781
For Further Reference
782
Chapter Thirty The Affluent Society 784
The Economic "Miracle"
785
Economic Growth
786
The Rise of the Modern West
787
Capital and Labor
787
The Explosion of Science and Technology
788
Medical Breakthroughs
789
Pesticides
790
Postwar Electronic Research
791
Postwar Computer Technology
791
Bombs, Rockets, and Missiles
792
The Space Program
793
People of Plenty
794
The Consumer Culture
795
The Suburban Nation
795
The Suburban Family
796
The Birth of Television
797
Travel, Outdoor Recreation, and Environmentalism
798
Organized Society and Its Detractors
799
The Beats and the Restless Culture of Youth
799
Rock 'n' Roll
800
The Other America
802
On the Margins of the Affluent Society
803
Rural Poverty
803
The Inner Cities
804
The Rise of the Civil Rights Movement
805
The Brown Decision and "Massive Resistance"
805
The Expanding Movement
806
Causes of the Civil Rights Movement
807
Eisenhower Republicanism
808
"What Was Good for...General Motors"
808
The Survival of the Welfare State
809
The Decline of McCarthyism
809
Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War
810
Dulles and "Massive Retaliation"
811
France, America, and Vietnam
811
Cold War Crises
812
Europe and the Soviet Union
814
The U-2 Crisis
814
Conclusion
815
For Further Reference
815
Chapter Thirty-One The Ordeal of Liberalism 818
Expanding the Liberal State
819
John Kennedy
820
Lyndon Johnson
822
The Assault on Poverty
823
Cities, Schools, and Immigration
824
Legacies of the Great Society
825
The Battle for Racial Equality
825
Expanding Protests
825
A National Commitment
826
The Battle for Voting Rights
829
The Changing Movement
830
Urban Violence
831
Black Power
831
"Flexible Response" and the Cold War
832
Diversifying Foreign Policy
832
Confrontations with the Soviet Union
833
Johnson and the World
835
The Agony of Vietnam
835
America and Diem
835
From Aid to Intervention
837
The Quagmire
838
The War at Home
839
The Traumas of 1968
839
The Tet Offensive
841
The Political Challenge
841
The King Assassination
842
The Kennedy Assassination and Chicago
843
The Conservative Response
843
Debating the Past: THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
828
Debating the Past: THE VIETNAM COMMITMENT
840
America in the World: 1968
844
Conclusion
846
For Further Reference
847
Chapter Thirty-Two The Crisis of Authority 850
The Youth Culture
851
The New Left
852
The Counterculture
854
The Mobilization of Minorities
856
Seedy of Indian Militancy
856
The Indian Civil Rights Movement
857
Latino Activism
858
Gay Liberation
859
The New Feminism
860
The Rebirth
860
Women's Liberation
862
Expanding Achievements
862
The Abortion Issue
863
Environmentalism in a Turbulent Society
863
The New Science of Ecology
864
Environmental Advocacy
865
Environmental Degradation
865
Earth Day and Beyond
866
Nixon, Kissinger, and the War
867
Vietnamization
867
Escalation
868
"Peace with Honor"
870
Defeat in Indochina
871
Nixon, Kissinger, and the World
872
The China Initiative and Soviet-American Detente
872
Dealing with the Third World
873
Politics and Economics in the Nixon Years
875
Domestic Initiatives
875
From the Warren Court to the Nixon Court
875
The Election of 1972
877
The Troubled Economy
877
The Nixon Response
878
The Watergate Crisis
879
The Scandals
881
The Fall of Richard Nixon
882
Debating the Past: WATERGATE
880
Conclusion
883
For Further Reference
884
Chapter Thirty-Three From "The Age of Limits" to the Age of Reagan 886
Politics and Diplomacy after Watergate
887
The Ford Custodianship
888
The Trials of Jimmy Carter
889
Human Rights and National Interests
890
The Year of the Hostages
892
The Rise of the New American Right
892
The Sunbelt and Its Politics
892
Religious Revivalism
894
The Emergence of the New Right
895
The Tax Revolt
896
The Campaign of 1980
896
The "Reagan Revolution"
898
The Reagan Coalition
898
Reagan in the White House
900
"Supply-Side" Economics
900
The Fiscal Crisis
903
Reagan and the World
903
The Election of 1984
905
America and the Waning of the Cold War
905
The Fall of the Soviet Union
906
The Fading of the Reagan Revolution
908
The Election of 1988
908
The First Bush Presidency
909
The Gulf War
911
The Election of 1992
912
Conclusion
913
For Further Reference
914
Chapter Thirty-Four The Age of Globalization 916
A Resurgence of Partisanship
918
Launching the Clinton Presidency
918
The Republican Resurgence
920
The Election of 1996
920
Clinton Triumphant and Embattled
922
Impeachment, Acquittal, and Resurgence
923
The Election of 2000
923
The Second Bush Presidency
926
The Economic Boom
929
From "Stagflation" to Growth
929
Downturn
930
The Two-Tiered Economy
931
Science and Technology in the New Economy
932
The Personal Computer
932
The Internet
934
Breakthroughs in Genetics
936
A Changing Society
938
The Graying of America
938
New Patterns of Immigration and Ethnicity
938
The Black Middle Class
940
Poor and Working-Class African Americans
941
Modern Plagues: Drugs and AIDS
943
A Contested Culture
944
Battles over Feminism and Abortion
944
The Changing Left and the Growth of Environmentalism
945
The Fragmentation of Mass Culture
946
The Perils of Globalization
948
Opposing the "New World Order"
948
Defending Orthodoxy
949
The Rise of Terrorism
950
The War on Terrorism
952
The Iraq War
953
Conclusion
955
For Further Reference
956
Appendices A-1
Index I-1


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