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Using Information Technology 10e Introductory Edition,9780077470678
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Using Information Technology 10e Introductory Edition

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780077470678

ISBN10:
0077470672
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/23/2012
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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    Using Information Technology 9e Introductory Edition





Summary

USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY; A Practical Introduction to Computers & Communications 10/e "If there is anything we have learned during 18 years of writing and revising this computer concepts book, it is this: Not only does the landscape of computer education change rapidly, but so do the students. . . .This edition, then, is written for the Always On generation, helping students use technology to enrich their personal lives." Brian K. Williams & Stacey C. Sawyer

Table of Contents

Using Information Technology 10e

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY: YOUR DIGITALWORLD

1.1 THE PRACTICAL USER: How BecomingComputer Savvy Benefits You

1.2 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & YOURLIFE: The Future Now

Two Parts of IT: Computers &Communications
Education: The Promise of More Interactive &Individualized Learning
Practical Action Box: How to Be a Good OnlineStudent
Health: High Tech for Wellness
Money: Toward the Cashless Society
Leisure: Infotech in Entertainment & the Arts
Government & Electronic Democracy:Participating in the Civic Realm
Jobs & Careers

1.3 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IS ALLPERVASIVE:Cellphones, Email, the Internet, &the E-World

The Phone Grows Up
“You’ve Got Mail!” Email’s Mass Impact
Practical Action Box: Managing Your Email
The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the“Plumbing of Cyberspace”
College Students & the E-World

1.4 THE “ALL-PURPOSE MACHINE”: TheVarieties of Computers

All Computers, Great & Small: The Categoriesof Machines
Supercomputers
Mainframe Computers
Workstations
Microcomputers
Microcontrollers
Servers

1.5 Understanding Your Computer

How Computers Work: Three Key Concepts
Pretending to Customize a Desktop Computer:Basic Knowledge of How a Computer Works
Input Hardware: Keyboard & Mouse
Processing & Memory Hardware: Inside theSystem Cabinet
Storage Hardware: Hard Drive & CD/DVDDrive
Output Hardware: Video & Sound Cards, Monitor,Speakers, & Printer
Communications Hardware: Modem
Software

1.6 Where Is Information TechnologyHeaded?

Computers: Miniaturization, Speed, &Affordability
Communications: Connectivity, Interactivity, &Multimedia
When Computers & Communications Combine:Convergence, Portability, Personalization,Collaboration, & Cloud Computing
“E” Also Stands for Ethics
Experience Box: Better Organization & TimeManagement: Dealing with the Information Delugein College—& in Life

CHAPTER 2: THE INTERNET & THE WORLD WIDEWEB: EXPLORING CYBERSPACE

2.1 Connecting to the Internet: Narrowband,Broadband, & Access Providers

Narrowband (Dial-Up Modem): Low Speed butInexpensive
High-Speed Phone Lines: More Expensive butAvailable in Most Cities
Problem for Telephone Internet Connections: TheLast Mile
Cable Modem: Close Competitor to DSL
Satellite Wireless Connections
Other Wireless Connections: Wi-Fi, 3G, & 4G
Internet Access Providers (ISPs):Three Kinds

2.2 How Does the Internet Work?

Internet Connections: POPs, IXPs,Backbone, & Internet2
Internet Communications: Protocols,Packets, & Addresses
Who Runs the Internet?

2.3 The World Wide Web

The Face of the Web: Browsers,Websites, & Web Pages
How the Browser Finds Things: URLs 66
The Nuts & Bolts of the Web: HTML &Hyperlinks
Using Your Browser to Get aroundthe Web
Web Portals: Starting Points for FindingInformation
Search Services & Search Engines &How They Work
Four Web Search Tools: Individual SearchEngines, Subject Directories, Metasearch Engines,& Specialized Search Engines
Smart Searching: Three GeneralStrategies
Practical Action Box: Evaluating & SourcingInformation Found on the Web
Multimedia Search Tools: Image, Audio, &Video Searching
Practical Action Box: Serious Web SearchTechniques
Desktop Search: Tools for Searching YourComputer’s Hard Disk
Tagging: Saving Links for EasierRetrieval Later

2.4 Email & Other Ways ofCommunicating over the Net

Two Ways to Send & Receive Email
How to Use Email
Sorting Your Email
Attachments
Instant Messaging
FTP—for Copying All the Free Files You Want
Newsgroups—for Online Typed Discussions onSpecific Topics
Listservs: Email-Based DiscussionGroups
Netiquette: Appropriate OnlineBehavior

2.5 THE ONLINE GOLD MINE: Telephony,Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs,E-Commerce, & Social Networking

Telephony: The Internet Telephone &Videophone
Multimedia on the Web
The Web Automatically Comes to You:Webcasting, Blogging, & Podcasting
E-Commerce: B2B Commerce, Online Finance,Auctions, & Job Hunting
Web 2.0: Social Networking, MediaSharing, Social-Network Aggregation, &Microblogging
Practical Action Box: Social Networking: Worththe Convenience?

2.6 THE INTRUSIVE INTERNET: Snooping,Spamming, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming,Cookies, & Spyware

Snooping on Your Email: Your Messages AreOpen to Anyone
Spam: Electronic Junk Mail
Spoofing, Phishing, & Pharming: Phony EmailSenders & Websites
Cookies: Convenience or Hindrance?
Spyware—Adware, Browser & Search Hijackers,& Key Loggers: Intruders to Track Your Habits &Steal Your Data
Practical Action Box: Tips for AvoidingSpyware
Experience Box: Web Research, Term Papers, &Plagiarism

CHAPTER 3: SOFTWARE: TOOLS FORPRODUCTIVITY & CREATIVITY

3.1 SYSTEM SOFTWARE: The Power behindthe Power

3.2 THE OPERATING SYSTEM: What It Does

Booting
CPU Management
File Management
Task Management
Security Management

3.3 OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE: Device Drivers& Utility Programs

Device Drivers: Running PeripheralHardware
Practical Action Box: Utility Programs
Utilities: Service Programs

3.4 Common Features of the User Interface

The GUI: The Graphical User Interface
The Help Command

3.5 Common Operating Systems

Macintosh Operating System
Microsoft Windows
Network Operating Systems: OES, WindowsServer, Unix, & Linux
Embedded Operating Systems forHandhelds

3.6 APPLICATION SOFTWARE: GettingStarted

Application Software: For Sale, For Free, or ForRent?
Tutorials & Documentation
A Few Facts about Files & the Usefulness ofImporting & Exporting
Types of Application Software

3.7 Word Processing Software

3.8 Spreadsheet Programs

The Basics: How Spreadsheet Programs Work
Analytical Graphics: Creating Charts

3.9 Database Software

The Benefits of Database Software
The Basics: How Databases Work
Personal Information Managers (PIMs)

3.10 Specialty Application Software

Presentation Graphics Software
Financial Software
Desktop Publishing
Drawing & Painting Programs
Video/Audio Editing Software
Animation Software
Multimedia Authoring Software
Web Page Design/Authoring Software
Project Management Software
Practical Action Box: Help in Building Your WebPage
Integrated Software & Software Suites
Portable Document Format (PDF)
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

3.11 Filenames & Extensions

Data Compression: Putting More Data in LessSpace
Experience Box: Getting Help from TechSupport

CHAPTER 4: HARDWARE: THE CPU & STORAGE:HOW TO CHOOSE A MULTIMEDIACOMPUTER SYSTEM

4.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, &Mobility

From Vacuum Tubes to Transistors toMicrochips
Miniaturization Miracles: Microchips& Microprocessors
Mobility
Choosing an Inexpensive Personal Computer:Understanding Computer Ads

4.2 THE SYSTEM UNIT: The Basics

The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical Statesto Represent Data & Instructions
Machine Language
The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons, &Boards
Power Supply
The Motherboard & the MicroprocessorChip
Practical Action Box: Power Issues: Problemswith Electrical Power to Your Computer
Processing Speeds: From Megahertz toPicoseconds

4.3 MORE ON THE SYSTEM UNIT: WhatSupports the Processor?

Word Size
The Parts of the CPU
How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, &Flash
How Cache Works
Other Methods of Speeding Up Processing
Ports & Cables
Expandability: Buses & Cards

4.4 Secondary Storage

Hard Disks
Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs
Smart Cards
Flash & Solid State Memory
Practical Action Box: Storing Your Stuff: HowLong Will Digitized Data Last?
Online Secondary Storage
Practical Action Box: Starting Over withYour Hard Drive: Erasing, Reformatting, &Reloading

4.5 Future Developments in Processing &Storage

Future Developments in Processing
Future Developments in SecondaryStorage
Experience Box: How to Buy a Laptop

CHAPTER 5: HARDWARE: INPUT & OUTPUT:TAKING CHARGE OF COMPUTING &COMMUNICATIONS

5.1 INPUT & OUTPUT

5.2 INPUT HARDWARE

Keyboards
Pointing Devices
Scanning & Reading Devices
Audio-Input Devices
Webcams & Video-Input Cards
Digital Cameras
Speech-Recognition Systems
Sensors
Radio-Frequency Identification Tags
Human-Biology-Input Devices

5.3 OUTPUT HARDWARE

Traditional Softcopy Output: DisplayScreens
Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers
Practical Action Box Buying a Printer
Mixed Output: Sound, Voice, & Video

5.4 INPUT & OUTPUT TECHNOLOGY &QUALITY OF LIFE: Health & Ergonomics

Health Matters
Ergonomics: Design with People in Mind

5.5 THE FUTURE OF INPUT & OUTPUT

Toward More Input from Remote Locations
Toward More Source Data Automation
Toward More Realistic Output
Experience Box: Good Habits: Protecting YourComputer System, Your Data, & Your Health

CHAPTER 6: COMMUNICATIONS, NETWORKS,& SAFEGUARDS: THE WIRED &WIRELESS WORLD

6.1 FROM THE ANALOG TO THE DIGITALAGE

The Digital Basis of Computers: Electrical Signalsas Discontinuous Bursts
The Analog Basis of Life: Electrical Signals asContinuous Waves
Purpose of the Modem: Converting Digital Signalsto Analog Signals & Back
Converting Reality to Digital Form

6.2 NETWORKS

The Benefits of Networks
A Few Disadvantages of Networks
Types of Networks: WANs, MANs, & Others
How Networks Are Structured: Client/Server &Peer to Peer
Intranets, Extranets, & VPNs
Components of a Network
Network Topologies
Ethernet

6.3 WIRED COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA

Wired Communications Media: Wires &Cables
Wired Communications Media for Homes

6.4 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONSMEDIA

The Electromagnetic Spectrum, the Radio-Frequency (RF) Spectrum, & Bandwidth
Practical Action: Telecommuting & Telework:The Nontraditional Workplace
Five Types of Wireless CommunicationsMedia
Long-Distance Wireless: One-WayCommunication
Long-Distance Wireless: Two-WayCommunication
Short-Range Wireless: Two-WayCommunication

6.5 CYBERTHREATS, HACKERS, &SAFEGUARDS

Cyberthreats
Practical Action Box: WikiLeaks & DDoS
Practical Action Box: Ways to Minimize VirusAttacks
Some Cybervillains: Hackers & Crackers
Online Safety
Practical Action Box: How to Deal withPasswords
Experience Box: Virtual Meetings: Linking UpElectronically

CHAPTER 7: PERSONAL TECHNOLOGY: THEFUTURE IS YOU

7.1 Convergence, Portability, &Personalization

Convergence
Portability
Personalization
Popular Personal Technologies

7.2 Portable Media Players

How PMP/MP3 Players Work
The Societal Effects of PMPs
Using PMPs in College

7.3 High-Tech Radio: Satellite, HighDefinition & Internet

Satellite Radio
HD Radio
Internet Radio
Podcasting

7.4 Digital Cameras: ChangingPhotography

How Digital Cameras Work
The Societal Effects of Digital Cameras
Practical Action Box: Online Viewing & Sharingof Digital Photos

7.5 Digital Television

Three Kinds of Television: DTV, HDTV,SDTV
The Societal Effects of the New TV

7.6 E-Book Readers: The New ReadingMachines

How an E-Book Reader Works
The Drawbacks of E-Book Readers

7.7 Tablet PCs

7.8 Smartphones: More Than Talk

How a Mobile Phone Works
The Societal Effects of Cellphones

7.9 Videogame Systems: The UltimateConvergence Machine?

EXPERIENCE BOX: The “Always On”Generation

CHAPTER 8: DATABASES ARE IN YOUR LIFE:DIGITAL ENGINES FOR TODAY’SECONOMY

8.1 MANAGING FILES: Basic Concepts

How Data Is Organized: The Data Storage
Hierarchy
The Key Field

8.2 Database Management Systems

The Benefits of Database Management Systems
Three Database Components
Practical Action Box: Accuracy &Completeness
The Database Administrator

8.3 Database Models

Hierarchical Database
Network Database
Relational Database
Object-Oriented Database
Multidimensional Database

8.4 Data Mining

The Process of Data Mining

8.5 DATABASES & THE DIGITAL ECONOMY:E-Commerce & E-Business

E-Commerce: Online Buying & Selling

8.6 INFORMATION SYSTEMS INORGANIZATIONS: Using Databases to HelpMake Decisions

The Qualities of Good Information
Information Flows within an Organization
Computer-Based Information Systems
Office Information Systems
Transaction Processing Systems
Management Information Systems
Decision Support Systems
Executive Support Systems
Expert Systems

8.7 Artificial Intelligence

Expert Systems
Natural Language Processing
Intelligent Agents
Pattern Recognition
Fuzzy Logic
Virtual Reality & Simulation Devices
Robotics
Two Approaches to Artificial Intelligence: Weakversus Strong AI
Artificial Life, the Turing Test, & AI Ethics

8.8 DATABASES: Concerns about Privacy &Identity Theft

The Threat to Privacy
Identity Theft
EXPERIENCE BOX: Preventing Your Identity fromGetting Stolen

CHAPTER 9: THE CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITALAGE: SOCIETY & INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY TODAY

9.1 TRUTH ISSUES: Manipulating DigitalData

Manipulation of Sound
Manipulation of Photos
Manipulation of Video & Television

9.2 SECURITY ISSUES: Threats to Computers &Communications Systems

Errors & Accidents
Natural Hazards
Computer Crimes
Computer Criminals
Practical Action Box: Is the Boss Watching You?Trust in the Workplace

9.3 SECURITY SAFEGUARDS: ProtectingComputers & Communications

Deterrents to Computer Crime
Identification & Access
Encryption
Protection of Software & Data
Disaster-Recovery Plans

9.4 QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES: TheEnvironment, Mental Health, Child Protection, &the Workplace

Environmental Problems
Mental-Health Problems
Protecting Children: Pornography, SexualPredators, & Online Bullies
Workplace Problems: Impediments toProductivity

9.5 ECONOMIC & POLITICAL ISSUES:Employment & the Haves/Have-Nots

Technology, the Job Killer?
Gap between Rich & Poor
Whom Does the Internet Serve?
In a World of Breakneck Change, Can You StillThrive?
Experience Box: Student Use of Computers: SomeControversies

CHAPTER 10: BUILDING SYSTEMS & APPLICATIONS:SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT,PROGRAMMING, & LANGUAGES

10.1 Systems Development and the Life Cycle ofa Software Project

The Purpose of a System
Getting the Project Going: How It Starts, Who’sInvolved
The Six Phases of Systems Analysis &Design
The First Phase: Preliminary Investigation
The Second Phase: Systems Analysis
The Third Phase: Systems Design
The Fourth Phase: Systems Development
The Fifth Phase: Systems Implementation
The Sixth Phase: Systems Maintenance

10.2 PROGRAMMING: Traditionally a Five-StepProcedure

The First Step: Clarify the ProgrammingNeeds
The Second Step: Design the Program
The Third Step: Code the Program
The Fourth Step: Test the Program
The Fifth Step: Document & Maintain theProgram

10.3 Five Generations of ProgrammingLanguages

First Generation: Machine Language
Second Generation: Assembly Language
Third Generation: High-Level or ProceduralLanguages
Fourth Generation: Very-High-Level or Problem-Oriented Languages
Fifth Generation: Natural Languages

10.4 Programming Languages UsedToday

FORTRAN: The language of mathematics and thefirst high-level language
COBOL: The language of business
BASIC: The easy language
Pascal: The simple language
C: For portability, operating systems, andscientific use
C++: Enhancement of C
LISP: For artificial intelligence programs

10.5 Object-Oriented & VisualProgramming

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)
Visual Programming: The Example of VisualBASIC

10.6 MARKUP & SCRIPTING LANGUAGES

HTML: For creating 2-D web documents andlinks
VRML: For creating 3-D web pages
XML: For making the web work better
JavaScript: For dynamic web pages
Flash: Also for creating dynamic web pages
ActiveX: For creating interactive web pages
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
Perl: For CGI scripts
PHP (Personal Home Page, or PHP HypertextPreprocessor)
Experience Box: Critical Thinking Tools


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