This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 10/26/2012.
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Ways of the World has quickly become one of the most widely adopted new world history textbooks and offers a genuine alternative for your world history survey. Designed as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical trends, themes, and developments. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis. The brief narrative allows you to supplement with your own readings and course materials and provides an affordable option for your students. Ways of the World is now integrated with LearningCurve, online adaptive quizzing that reinforces students' reading. Available in combined and split volumes and in a variety of electronic formats. Also available in a docutext edition with sources.
Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998; The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.
Table of Contents
PrefaceVersions and Supplements MapsSpecial Features Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History The History of the Universe The History of a Planet The History of the Human Species... in a Single Paragraph Why World History? Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e. The Big Picture Turning Points in Early World History The Emergence of Humankind The Globalization of Humankind The Revolution of Farming and Herding The Turning Point of Civilization A Note on Dates *Mapping Part One 1 Chapter One: First Peoples; First Farmers: Most of History in a Single Chapter, To 4000 b.c.e. Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations Into Eurasia Into Australia Into the Americas Into the Pacific The Ways We Were The First Human Societies Economy and the Environment The Realm of the Spirit Settling Down: The Great Transition Breakthroughs to Agriculture Common Patterns Variations The Globalization of Agriculture Triumph and Resistance The Culture of Agriculture Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture Pastoral Societies Agricultural Village Societies Chiefdoms Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic Second Thoughts What's the Significance Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Paleolithic Era in Perspective *Portrait: Ishi, The Last of His People 2 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies, 3500 b.c.e.–500 b.c.e. Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations Introducing the First Civilizations The Question of Origins An Urban Revolution The Erosion of Equality Hierarchies of Class Hierarchies of Gender Patriarchy in Practice The Rise of the State Coercion and Consent Writing and Accounting The Grandeur of Kings Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Environment and Culture Cities and States Interaction and Exchange Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations *Portrait: Paneb of Egypt Part Two: Second Wave Civilizations in World History, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. The Big Picture After the First Civilizations: What Changed and What Didn’t? Continuities in Civilization Changes in Civilization Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization*Mapping Part Two 3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks The Persian Empire The Greeks Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese Rome: From City-State to Empire China: From Warring States to Empire Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires The Collapse of Empires Intermittent Empire: The Case of India Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Distinctive Features of Second-Wave Eurasian Civilizations *Portrait: Trung Trac, Resisting the Chinese Empire 4 Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. China and the Search for Order The Legalist Answer The Confucian Answer The Daoist Answer Cultural Traditions of Classical India South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation The Buddhist Challenge Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East Zoroastrianism Judaism The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order The Greek Way of Knowing The Greek Legacy The Birth of ChristianityÉwith Buddhist Comparisons The Lives of the Founders The Spread of New Religions Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions Reflections: Religion and Historians Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Second-Wave Era *Portrait: Perpetua, Christian Martyr 5 Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e. Society and the State in China An Elite of Officials The Landlord Class Peasants Merchants Class and Caste in India Caste asVarna Caste as Jati The Functions of Caste Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire Slavery and Civilization The Making of Roman Slavery Resistance and Rebellion Comparing Patriarchies A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in India *Portrait: Ge Hong, a Chinese Scholar in Troubled Times 6 Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas, 500 b.c.e.–1200 c.e. Continental Comparisons African Civilizations Meroe: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom Along the Niger River: Cities without States Civilizations of Mesoamerica The Maya: Writing and Warfare Teotihuacan: The Americas’ Greatest City Civilizations of the Andes Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement Moche: A Civilization of the Coast Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu Africa Cultural Encounters Society and Religion Alternatives to Civilization: North America The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Continental Population in the Second-Wave Era *Portrait: Piye, Kushite Conqueror of Egypt Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500 The Big Picture Defining a Millennium Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old, Something Blended The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third Wave Era *Mapping Part Three 7 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia The Growth of the Silk Roads Goods in Transit Cultures in Transit Disease in Transit Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara Commercial Beginnings in West Africa Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin *Portrait: Thorfinn Karlsefni, Viking Voyager 8 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300 Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement Women in the Song Dynasty China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making The Tribute System in Theory The Tribute System in Practice Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan Korea and China Vietnam and China Japan and China China and the Eurasian World Economy Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary China and Buddhism Making Buddhism Chinese Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism Reflections: Why Do Things Change? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve *Snapshot: Chinese Technological Achievements *Portrait: Izumi Shikibu, Japanese Poet and Lover 9 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500 The Birth of a New Religion The Homeland of Islam The Messenger and the Message The Transformation of Arabia The Making of an Arab Empire War, Conquest, and Tolerance Conversion Divisions and Controversies Women and Men in Early Islam Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison The Case of India The Case of Anatolia The Case of West Africa The Case of Spain The World of Islam as a New Civilization Networks of Faith Networks of Exchange Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship *Portrait: Mansa Musa, West African Monarch and Muslim Pilgrim 10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division, 500–1300 Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa Asian Christianity African Christianity Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past The Byzantine State The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence Byzantium and the World The Conversion of Russia Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000 Society and the Church, 500–1000 Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300 Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition The West in Comparative Perspective Catching Up Pluralism in Politics Reason and Faith Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further StudyLearningCurve *Snapshot: European Borrowing *Portrait: Cecilia Penifader, An English Peasant and Unmarried Woman 11 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500 Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads The World of Pastoral Societies Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History Breakout: The Mongol Empire From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire Explaining the Mongol Moment Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases China and the Mongols Persia and the Mongols Russia and the Mongols The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network Toward a World Economy Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies *Portrait, Khutulun, A Mongol Wrestler Princess 12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century The Shapes of Human Communities Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe Ming Dynasty China European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas The Aztec Empire The Inca Empire Webs of Connection A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012 Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000 *Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750 The Big Picture Debating the Character of an Era An Early Modern Era? A Late Agrarian Era? *Mapping Part Four 13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750 European Empires in the Americas The European Advantage The Great Dying The Columbian Exchange Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas Colonies of Sugar Settler Colonies in North America The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire Experiencing the Russian Empire Russians and Empire Asian Empires Making China an Empire Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America *Portrait: Do–a Marina, Between Two Worlds 14. Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750 Europeans and Asian Commerce A Portuguese Empire of Commerce Spain and the Philippines The East India Companies Asian Commerce Silver and Global Commerce The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade The Slave Trade in Context The Slave Trade in Practice Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866) *Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back 15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750 The Globalization of Christianity Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation Christianity Outward Bound Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World China: New Directions in an Old Tradition India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science The Question of Origins: Why Europe? Science as Cultural Revolution Science and Enlightenment Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century European Science beyond the West Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution *Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914 The Big Picture European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism Eurocentric Geography and History Countering Eurocentrism *Mapping Part Five 16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914 Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context Comparing Atlantic Revolutions The North American Revolution, 1775–1787 The French Revolution, 1789–1815 The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804 Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825 Echoes of Revolution The Abolition of Slavery Nations and Nationalism Feminist Beginnings Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism *Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java 17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914 Explaining the Industrial Revolution Why Europe? Why Britain? The First Industrial Society The British Aristocracy The Middle Classes The Laboring Classes Social Protest Europeans in Motion Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia The United States: Industrialization without Socialism Russia: Industrialization and Revolution The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century After Independence in Latin America Facing the World Economy Becoming like Europe? Reflections: History and Horse Races Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide *Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet 18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950 Industry and Empire A Second Wave of European Conquests Under European Rule Cooperation and Rebellion Colonial Empires with a Difference Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa Assessing Colonial Development Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era Education Religion "Race" and "Tribe" Reflections: Who Makes History? Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940 *Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times 19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914 Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis The Crisis Within Western Pressures The Failure of ConservativeModernization The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century "The Sick Man of Europe" Reform and Its Opponents Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power The Tokugawa Background American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration Modernization Japanese Style Japan and the World Reflections: Success and Failure in History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further StudyLearningCurve Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836 *Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012 The Big Picture Since World War I: A New Period in World History?*Mapping Part Six 20 Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918 An Accident Waiting to Happen Legacies of the Great War Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan The Fascist Alternative in Europe Hitler and the Nazis Japanese Authoritarianism A Second World War The Road to War in Asia The Road to War in Europe The Outcomes of Global Conflict The Recovery of Europe Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression *Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust 21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present Global Communism Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism Russia: Revolution in a Single Year China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle Building Socialism in Two Countries Communist Feminism Socialism in the Countryside Communism and Industrial Development The Search for Enemies East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War Military Conflict and the Cold War Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry Paths to the End of Communism China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976 *Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist 22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence The End of Empire in World History Explaining African and Asian Independence Comparing Freedom Struggles The Case of India: Ending British Rule The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid Experiments with Freedom Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011 *Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist 23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945 The Transformation of the World Economy Reglobalization Growth, Instability, and Inequality Globalization and an American Empire The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism Feminism in the West Feminism in the Global South International Feminism Religion and Global Modernity Fundamentalism on a Global Scale Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism The Global Environment Transformed Green and Global Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR Second Thoughts What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study LearningCurve *Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011 *Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism Notes Index Acknowledgments About the Author