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Ways of the World: A Brief Global History, Combined Volume

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780312444433

ISBN10:
0312444435
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/26/2012
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
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    Ways of the World, Combined Version (Volumes I & II) A Brief Global History




Summary

Ways of the World has quickly become one of the most widely adopted new world history textbooks and offers a genuine alternative for your world history survey. Designed as a brief text, Ways of the World focuses on the big picture of significant historical trends, themes, and developments. Author Robert W. Strayer, a pioneer in the world history movement with years of classroom experience, provides a thoughtful and insightful synthesis. The brief narrative allows you to supplement with your own readings and course materials and provides an affordable option for your students. Ways of the World is now integrated with LearningCurve, online adaptive quizzing that reinforces students' reading. Available in combined and split volumes and in a variety of electronic formats. Also available in a docutext edition with sources.

Author Biography

Robert W. Strayer (PhD, University of Wisconsin) taught African, Soviet, and world history for many years at SUNY College at Brockport, where he received Chancellor’s Awards for Excellence in Teaching and for Excellence in Scholarship. In 1998 he was visiting professor of world and Soviet history at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. Since 2002, he has taught world history at the University of California, Santa Cruz; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Cabrillo College. His scholarship includes work in African history (Kenya: Focus on Nationalism, 1975; The Making of Mission Communities in East Africa, 1978); Soviet history (Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?,1998;  The Communist Experiment, 2007) and World History (The Making of the Modern World, 1988, 1995; Ways of the World, 2009, 2011). He is a long-time member of the World History Association and served on its Executive Committee.

Table of Contents

Preface

Versions and Supplements 

Maps

Special Features

Prologue: From Cosmic History to Human History

The History of the Universe

The History of a Planet

The History of the Human Species... in a Single Paragraph

Why World History?

Comparison, Connection, and Change: The Three Cs of World History

Snapshot: A History of the Universe as a Cosmic Calendar 

Part One: First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 500 b.c.e.

The Big Picture

Turning Points in Early World History 

     The Emergence of Humankind 

    The Globalization of Humankind  

     The Revolution of Farming and Herding

     The Turning Point of Civilization 

     A Note on Dates

*Mapping Part One

1 Chapter One: First Peoples; First Farmers: Most of History in a Single Chapter, To 4000 b.c.e.

Out of Africa to the Ends of the Earth: First Migrations 

     Into Eurasia 

     Into Australia 

     Into the Americas

     Into the Pacific

The Ways We Were

     The First Human Societies 

     Economy and the Environment 

     The Realm of the Spirit

     Settling Down: The Great Transition

Breakthroughs to Agriculture

     Common Patterns 

     Variations

The Globalization of Agriculture

     Triumph and Resistance 

     The Culture of Agriculture

Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture

     Pastoral Societies 

     Agricultural Village Societies 

     Chiefdoms

Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic

Second Thoughts

     What's the Significance 

     Big Picture Questions 

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Paleolithic Era in Perspective

*Portrait: Ishi, The Last of His People

2 First Civilizations: Cities, States, and Unequal Societies, 3500 b.c.e.–500 b.c.e.

Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations

     Introducing the First Civilizations

     The Question of Origins

     An Urban Revolution

The Erosion of Equality

     Hierarchies of Class

     Hierarchies of Gender

     Patriarchy in Practice

The Rise of the State

     Coercion and Consent

     Writing and Accounting

     The Grandeur of Kings

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt

     Environment and Culture

     Cities and States

     Interaction and Exchange

Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word?

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Writing in Ancient Civilizations

*Portrait: Paneb of Egypt

Part Two: Second Wave Civilizations in World History, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

The Big Picture

After the First Civilizations: What Changed and What Didn’t?

     Continuities in Civilization

     Changes in Civilization

Snapshot: World Population during the Age of Agricultural Civilization

*Mapping Part Two

3 State and Empire in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks

     The Persian Empire

     The Greeks

     Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars

     Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era

Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese

     Rome: From City-State to Empire

     China: From Warring States to Empire

    Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires

     The Collapse of Empires

Intermittent Empire: The Case of India

Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Distinctive Features of Second-Wave Eurasian Civilizations

*Portrait: Trung Trac, Resisting the Chinese Empire

4 Culture and Religion in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

China and the Search for Order

     The Legalist Answer

     The Confucian Answer

     The Daoist Answer

Cultural Traditions of Classical India

     South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation

     The
Buddhist Challenge

     Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion

Moving toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East

     Zoroastrianism

     Judaism

The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order

     The Greek Way of Knowing

     The Greek Legacy

The Birth of ChristianityÉwith Buddhist Comparisons

     The Lives of the Founders

     The Spread of New Religions

     Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions

Reflections: Religion and Historians

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Thinkers and Philosophies of the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Perpetua, Christian Martyr

5 Society and Inequality in Eurasia/North Africa, 500 b.c.e.–500 c.e.

Society and the State in China

     An Elite of Officials

     The Landlord Class

     Peasants

     Merchants

Class and Caste in India

     Caste as Varna

     Caste as
Jati

     The Functions of Caste

Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire

     Slavery and Civilization

      The Making of Roman Slavery

     Resistance and Rebellion

Comparing Patriarchies

     A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China

     Contrasting Patriarchies in Athens and Sparta

Reflections: Arguing with Solomon and the Buddha

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance? Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Social Life and Duty in India *Portrait: Ge Hong, a Chinese Scholar in Troubled Times

6 Commonalities and Variations: Africa and the Americas, 500 b.c.e.–1200 c.e.

Continental Comparisons

African Civilizations

     Meroe: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization

     Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom

     Along the Niger River: Cities without States

Civilizations of Mesoamerica

     The Maya: Writing and Warfare

     Teotihuacan: The Americas’ Greatest City

     Civilizations of the Andes

     Chavin: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement

     Moche: A Civilization of the Coast

     Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior

Alternatives to Civilization: Bantu Africa

     Cultural Encounters

     Society and Religion

Alternatives to Civilization: North America

     The Ancestral Pueblo: Pit Houses and Great Houses

     Peoples of the Eastern Woodlands: The Mound Builders

Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in World History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Continental Population in the Second-Wave Era

*Portrait: Piye, Kushite Conqueror of Egypt

Part Three: An Age of Accelerating Connections, 500–1500

The Big Picture

Defining a Millennium

     Third-Wave Civilizations: Something New, Something Old, Something Blended

     The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third Wave Era

*Mapping Part Three

7 Commerce and Culture, 500–1500

Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia

    The Growth of the Silk Roads

     Goods in Transit

     Cultures in Transit

     Disease in Transit

Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean

     Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World

     Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia

     Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa

Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara

     Commercial Beginnings in West Africa

     Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa

An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Ancient and Modern

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Economic Exchange along the Silk Roads

Snapshot: Economic Exchange in the Indian Ocean Basin *Portrait: Thorfinn Karlsefni, Viking Voyager

8 China and the World: East Asian Connections, 500–1300

Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China

     A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement

     Women in the Song Dynasty

China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making

     The Tribute System in Theory

     The Tribute System in Practice

     Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier

Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan

     Korea and China

     Vietnam and China

     Japan and China

China and the Eurasian World Economy

     Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia

     On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary

China and Buddhism

     Making Buddhism Chinese

     Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism

Reflections: Why Do Things Change?

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: Chinese Technological Achievements

*Portrait: Izumi Shikibu, Japanese Poet and Lover

9 The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections, 600–1500

The Birth of a New Religion

     The Homeland of Islam

     The Messenger and the Message

     The Transformation of Arabia

The Making of an Arab Empire

     War, Conquest, and Tolerance

     Conversion

     Divisions and Controversies

     Women and Men in Early Islam

Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison

     The Case of India

     The Case of Anatolia

     The Case of West Africa

     The Case of Spain

The World of Islam as a New Civilization

     Networks of Faith

     Networks of Exchange

Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Key Achievements in Islamic Science and Scholarship

*Portrait: Mansa Musa, West African Monarch and Muslim Pilgrim

10 The Worlds of Christendom: Contraction, Expansion, and Division, 500–1300

Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa

     Asian Christianity

     African Christianity

Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past

     The Byzantine State

     The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence

      Byzantium and the World

     The Conversion of Russia

Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse

     Political Life in Western Europe, 500–1000

     Society and the Church, 500–1000

     Accelerating Change in the West, 1000–1300

     Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition

The West in Comparative Perspective

     Catching Up

     Pluralism in Politics

     Reason and Faith

Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: European Borrowing

*Portrait: Cecilia Penifader, An English Peasant and Unmarried Woman

11 Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongol Moment, 1200–1500

Looking Back and Looking Around: The Long History of Pastoral Nomads

     The World of Pastoral Societies

     Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History

Breakout: The Mongol Empire

     From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire

     Explaining the Mongol Moment

Encountering the Mongols: Comparing Three Cases

     China and the Mongols

    Persia and the Mongols

     Russia and the Mongols

The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network

     Toward a World Economy

     Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale

     Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm

     The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic

Reflections: Changing Images of Nomadic Peoples

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Varieties of Pastoral Societies

*Portrait, Khutulun, A Mongol Wrestler Princess

12 The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

The Shapes of Human Communities

     Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America

     Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois

     Herding Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe

     Ming Dynasty China

     European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal

     European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World

     In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

     On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires

Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas

     The Aztec Empire

     The Inca Empire

Webs of Connection

A Preview of Coming Attractions: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era, 1500–2012

Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Major Developments around the World in the Fifteenth Century

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1000–2000

*Portrait: Zheng He, China's Non-Chinese Admiral

Part Four: The Early Modern World, 1450–1750

The Big Picture

Debating the Character of an Era

    An Early Modern Era?

     A Late Agrarian Era?

*Mapping Part Four

13 Political Transformations: Empires and Encounters, 1450–1750

European Empires in the Americas

     The European Advantage

     The Great Dying

     The Columbian Exchange

Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas

     In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas

     Colonies of Sugar

     Settler
Colonies in North America

The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire

     Experiencing the Russian Empire

    Russians and Empire

Asian Empires

     Making China an Empire

     Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire

     Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire

Reflections: The Centrality of Context in World History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For
Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Ethnic Composition of Colonial Societies in Latin America

*Portrait: Do–a Marina, Between Two Worlds

14. Economic Transformations: Commerce and Consequence, 1450–1750

Europeans and Asian Commerce

     A Portuguese Empire of Commerce

     Spain and the Philippines

     The East India Companies

     Asian Commerce

Silver and Global Commerce

The "World Hunt": Fur in Global Commerce

Commerce in People: The Atlantic Slave Trade

     The Slave Trade in Context

     The Slave Trade in Practice

     Consequences: The Impact of the Slave Trade in Africa

Reflections: Economic Globalization—Then and Now

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For
Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: The Slave Trade in Numbers (1501-1866)

*Portrait: Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, To Slavery and Back

15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science, 1450–1750

The Globalization of Christianity

     Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation

     Christianity Outward Bound

     Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish America

     An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits

Persistence and Change in Afro-Asian Cultural Traditions

     Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

     China: New Directions in an Old Tradition

     India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

     The Question of Origins: Why Europe?

     Science as Cultural Revolution

     Science and Enlightenment

     Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century

     European Science beyond the West

Reflections: Cultural Borrowing and Its Hazards

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For
Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Catholic/Protestant Differences in the Sixteenth Century

Snapshot: Major Thinkers and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution

*Portrait: Ursula de Jesus, An Afro-Peruvian Slave and Christian Visionary

Part Five: The European Moment In World History, 1750–1914

The Big Picture

European Centrality and the Problem of Eurocentrism

     Eurocentric Geography and History

     Countering Eurocentrism

*Mapping Part Five

16 Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes, 1750–1914

Atlantic Revolutions in a Global Context

Comparing Atlantic Revolutions

     The North American Revolution, 1775–1787

     The French Revolution, 1789–1815

     The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804

     Spanish American Revolutions, 1810–1825

Echoes of Revolution

     The Abolition of Slavery

     Nations and Nationalism

     Feminist Beginnings

Reflections: Revolutions Pro and Con

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Key Moments in the Growth of Nationalism

*Portrait: Kartini, Feminism and Nationalism in Java

17 Revolutions of Industrialization, 1750–1914

Explaining the Industrial Revolution

     Why Europe?

     Why Britain?

The First Industrial Society

     The British Aristocracy

     The Middle Classes

     The Laboring Classes

     Social Protest

     Europeans in Motion

Variations on a Theme: Comparing Industrialization in the United States and Russia

     The United States: Industrialization without Socialism

     Russia:
Industrialization and Revolution

The Industrial Revolution and Latin America in the Nineteenth Century

     After Independence in Latin America

     Facing the World Economy

     Becoming like Europe?

Reflections: History and Horse Races

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Measuring the Industrial Revolution

Snapshot: The Industrial Revolution and the Global Divide

*Portrait: Ellen Johnston, Factory Girl and Poet

18 Colonial Encounters in Asia and Africa, 1750–1950

Industry and Empire

A Second Wave of European Conquests

Under European Rule

     Cooperation and Rebellion

     Colonial Empires with a Difference

Ways of Working: Comparing Colonial Economies

     Economies of Coercion: Forced Labor and the Power of the State

     Economies of Cash-Crop Agriculture: The Pull of the Market

     Economies of Wage Labor: Migration for Work

     Women and the Colonial Economy: Examples from Africa

     Assessing Colonial Development

Believing and Belonging: Identity and Cultural Change in the Colonial Era

     Education

     Religion

     "Race" and "Tribe"

Reflections: Who Makes History?

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Long-Distance Migration in an Age of Empire, 1846–1940

*Portrait: Wanjiku of Kenya, An Ordinary Woman in Extraordinary Times

19 Empire in Collision: Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, 1800–1914

Reversal of Fortune: China’s Century of Crisis

     The Crisis Within

     Western Pressures

     The Failure of Conservative Modernization

The Ottoman Empire and the West in the Nineteenth Century

     "The Sick Man of Europe"

     Reform and Its Opponents

     Outcomes: Comparing China and the Ottoman Empire

The Japanese Difference: The Rise of a New East Asian Power

     The Tokugawa Background

     American Intrusion and the Meiji Restoration

     Modernization Japanese Style

     Japan and the World

Reflections: Success and Failure in History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Chinese/British Trade at Canton, 1835–1836

*Portrait: Commissioner Lin, Confronting the Opium Trade

Part Six: The Most Recent Century, 1914–2012

The Big Picture

Since World War I: A New Period in World History?

*Mapping Part Six

20 Collapse at the Center: World War, Depression, and the Rebalancing of Global Power, 1914–1970s

The First World War: European Civilization in Crisis, 1914–1918

     An Accident Waiting to Happen

     Legacies of the Great War

Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression

Democracy Denied: Comparing Italy, Germany, and Japan

     The Fascist Alternative in Europe

     Hitler and the Nazis

     Japanese Authoritarianism

     A Second World War

     The Road to War in Asia

     The Road to War in Europe

     The
Outcomes of Global Conflict

The Recovery of Europe

Reflections: War and Remembrance: Learning from History

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: Comparing the Impact of the Depression

*Portrait: Etty Hillesum, Witness to the Holocaust

21 Revolution, Socialism, and Global Conflict: The Rise and Fall of World Communism, 1917–Present

Global Communism

Comparing Revolutions as a Path to Communism

     Russia: Revolution in a Single Year

     China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle

Building Socialism in Two Countries

     Communist Feminism

     Socialism in the Countryside

     Communism and Industrial Development

     The Search for Enemies

East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War

     Military Conflict and the Cold War

     Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry

Paths to the End of Communism

     China: Abandoning Communism and Maintaining the Party

     The Soviet Union: The Collapse of Communism and Country

Reflections: To Judge or Not to Judge

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: China under Mao, 1949–1976

*Portrait: Anna Dubova, A Peasant Woman and Soviet Communist

22 The End of Empire: The Global South on the Global Stage, 1914–Present

Toward Freedom: Struggles for Independence

     The End of Empire in World History

     Explaining African and Asian Independence

Comparing Freedom Struggles

     The Case of India: Ending British Rule

     The Case of South Africa: Ending Apartheid

Experiments with Freedom

     Experiments in Political Order: Party, Army, and the Fate of Democracy

     Experiments in Economic Development: Changing Priorities, Varying Outcomes

     Experiments with Culture: The Role of Islam in Turkey and Iran

Reflections: History in the Middle of the Stream

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

Snapshot: World Population Growth, 1950-2011

*Portrait: Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Muslim Pacifist

23 Capitalism and Culture: A New Phase of Global Interaction, since 1945

The Transformation of the World Economy

     Reglobalization

     Growth, Instability, and Inequality

     Globalization and an American Empire

The Globalization of Liberation: Focus on Feminism

     Feminism in the West

     Feminism in the Global South

     International Feminism

Religion and Global Modernity

     Fundamentalism on a Global Scale

     Creating Islamic Societies: Resistance and Renewal in the World of Islam

     Religious Alternatives to Fundamentalism

Experiencing the Anthropocene Era: Environment and Environmentalism

     The Global Environment Transformed

     Green and Global

Final Reflections: Pondering the OAR

Second Thoughts

     What’s the Significance?

     Big Picture Questions

     Next Steps: For Further Study

LearningCurve

*Snapshot: Global Development and Inequality: 2011

*Portrait: Rachel Carson, Pioneer of Environmentalism

Notes

Index

Acknowledgments

About the Author

 

*New to this edition



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