9780801883101

Women's Life in Greece And Rome

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780801883101

  • ISBN10:

    0801883105

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 8/23/2005
  • Publisher: Johns Hopkins Univ Pr

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Summary

This highly acclaimed collection provides a unique look into the public and private lives and legal status of Greek and Roman women of all social classes-from wet nurses, prostitutes, and gladiatrixes to poets, musicians, intellectuals, priestesses, and housewives. The third edition adds new texts to sections throughout the book, vividly describing women's sentiments and circumstances through readings on love, bereavement, and friendship, as well as property rights, breast cancer, female circumcision, and women's roles in ancient religions, including Christianity and pagan cults.

Author Biography

Mary R. Lefkowitz is the Andrew W. Mellon Professor in Humanities emerita at Wellesley. Maureen B. Fant is an independent writer and scholar living in Rome.

Table of Contents

List of plates xxi
Preface to the second edition xxiii
Preface to the third edition xxvi
I. WOMEN'S VOICES
Female poets
Sappho
2(2)
1. To Aphrodite
2(1)
2. When I look at you
3(1)
3. Anactoria
3(1)
4. Parting
3(1)
5. Remembering the girl Atthis
4(1)
6. The wedding of Hector and Andromache
4(1)
Corinna
4(1)
7. The contest of Cithaeron and Helicon
4(1)
8. Reflections on a woman poet
5(1)
Praxilla
5(1)
9. Two fragments
5(1)
Erinna
5(1)
10. Childhood
5(1)
11. Two epigrams for Baucis
6(1)
Anyte
6(1)
12. Miletus
6(1)
13. Antibia
6(1)
14. Thersis
6(1)
15. Philaenis
7(1)
Nossis
7(1)
16. To Hera
7(1)
17. To Aphrodite
7(1)
18. To Artemis
7(1)
19. Polyarchis
7(1)
20. Thaumarete
7(1)
21. Callo
7(1)
Sulpicia
8(1)
22. To Messala
8(1)
23. To Cerinthus
8(1)
Claudia Trophime
9(1)
24. Two epigrams
9(1)
Inscribed on the Colossus of Memnon
9(1)
25. Caecilia Trebulla
10(1)
26. Balbilla
10(1)
27. Damo
10(1)
Men's words in women's mouths
28. Medea's complaint
10(1)
29. Andromache's ideal behaviour
11(1)
30. How a wife ought to behave
11(1)
31. Deianeira contrasts childhood with life after marriage
12(1)
32. The lot of women: Procne
12(1)
33. Pasiphae
13(1)
34. In defence of women
13(1)
35. A fragment of a comedy
14(2)
II. MEN'S OPINIONS
Praise
Inscriptions
16(5)
36. Archedice
16(1)
37. Aspasia
16(1)
38. Dionysia
16(1)
39. Claudia
16(1)
40. Eucharis
17(1)
41. Amymone. housewife
17(1)
42. An accomplished woman
17(1)
43. Murdia
17(1)
44. Pythion and Epicydilla
18(1)
45. From the tomb of the Statilii
19(1)
46. Epitaph for a little girl, Politta
19(1)
47. Allia Potestas
19(1)
48. Athenodora
20(1)
49. Urbana, housewife
20(1)
50. Macria Helike, a Christian
21(1)
Literary sources
21(2)
51. Cornelia's noble nature
21(1)
52. Tiberius chooses to die in place of Cornelia
22(1)
53. Womanly virtue
22(1)
Invective
54. Pandora
23(1)
55. How to pick a wife
24(1)
56. The nature of women
25(1)
57. The female mind
25(2)
58. The best days in a woman's life
27(1)
Greek tragedy
27(2)
59. The uselessness of women
28(1)
60. The unreasonableness of women
28(1)
61. The worthlessness of women
28(1)
Satire and irony
29(58)
62. Woman as the equivalent of evil
29(1)
63. Weighing bad women against good
29(1)
64. The price of a wife
30(1)
65. Wives and courtesans compared
30(1)
66. An overbearing wife
30(1)
67. The dangers of literacy
31(1)
68. The disadvantage of a rich wife
31(1)
69. Juvenal on women in general
31(3)
70. Bereavement
34(1)
71. Cicero on Clodia
34(4)
III. PHILOSOPHERS ON THE ROLE OF WOMEN
72. The female role
38(3)
73. Educating women to make them more like men
41(6)
74. Men and women should be treated alike
47(3)
75. A Roman philosopher advocates women's education
50(5)
IV. LEGAL STATUS IN THE GREEK WORLD
Crete
76. Laws relating to women
55(3)
Athens
77. Funeral law
58(1)
78. The banker Pasion's will
59(1)
79. Aristotle's will
59(2)
80. Provisions for female children
61(1)
81. Married heiresses
62(1)
82. Widow of Diodotus
62(2)
83. Property
64(1)
84. Maintenance
64(1)
85. Payment of a dowry
64(1)
86. Proof of marriage
64(1)
87. A mistress's scheme
65(1)
88. A husband's defence
66(5)
89. The case for the prosecution in a poisoning trial
71(2)
90. The past activities of a courtesan
73(9)
Amorgos
91. A mortgage
82(1)
92. Security for a dowry
83(1)
93. Transactions with a society
83(1)
94. Leased property
83(1)
Sparta
95. Opinions attributed to the sophist Gorgias
84(1)
96. A saying attributed to the philosopher Antisthenes
84(1)
97. The education of Spartan mothers
84(1)
98. The advantages of Spartan education and marriage customs
85(2)
99. Anecdotes
87(1)
100. The behaviour of Etruscan women
88(1)
Egypt
101. A marriage contract
89(2)
102. Annulment of a marriage contract
91(1)
103. Agreement to transfer a concubine
91(1)
104. Problems over a dowry
92(1)
105. A wife requests restitution of a dowry
92(1)
106. A husband complains that his wife stole his property
92(2)
V. LEGAL STATUS IN THE ROMAN WORLD
Early Rome
107. The laws of the kings
94(1)
108. The Twelve Tables (excerpts)
95(1)
109. Husbands' punishment of wives
96(1)
110. The first divorce for sterility
96(1)
111. Punishment for adultery
97(1)
The Roman jurists
On women's status within the family
98(4)
112. On guardianship
98(1)
113. Patria potestas and adoption
99(1)
114. Patria potestas
100(1)
115. Guardianship
100(1)
116. Guardianship
100(1)
117. Guardianship
100(1)
118. Pregnancy, status, and paternity
101(1)
119. Children of slaves
102(1)
On the Julian marriage laws
102(9)
120. Men must marry
103(1)
121. Prizes for marriage and having children
103(1)
122. Augustus' law
103(1)
123. The consequences of adultery
104(1)
124. Petitions to the emperor
105(1)
125. Adultery
105(2)
126. Concubinage
107(1)
127. The right of life and death
108(1)
128. Social status and marriage
109(1)
129. Social status
110(1)
On marriage
111(5)
130. Consent as the basis of marriage
111(1)
131. Consent as the basis of marriage
111(1)
132. Marital subordination
112(2)
133. Social status and citizenship of children
114(1)
134. Marriage after adultery
114(1)
135. Eligibility for marriage
114(1)
136. Conditions for the dissolution of marriage
115(1)
137. The dowry
115(1)
On legal powers of women
116(1)
138. How women could make use of their freedom to contract
116(1)
139. The wife's property
116(1)
140. Division of property between husband and wife
116(1)
141. The husband's liability
117(1)
On sexual mores
117(2)
142. Adultery defined
117(1)
143. Prostitution
118(1)
144. Punishments
118(1)
145. Marriage with a freedman
118(1)
146. How a woman loses her social status
119(1)
147. Rape
119(1)
Roman Egypt
148. Marriage and inheritance
119(1)
149. A final dowry payment
120(1)
150. Dowry payment through a bank
121(1)
151. Legitimacy
121(1)
152. A mother's last will and testament
122(1)
153. Calpurnia Heraclea, a woman landowner
123(1)
154. A woman's petition to act without a kyrios
124(1)
155. A prostitute and her mother
125(1)
156. A husband's complaint about an assault on his wife
125(1)
157. A woman greengrocer brings a charge
126(1)
158. A violent quarrel
126(1)
159. A wife's complaint against an abusive husband
127(2)
VI. PUBLIC LIFE
Women's bravery in legend and history
Legend
129(4)
160. The courage of the poet Telesilla
129(1)
161. Marpessa and the defence of Tegea
130(1)
162. A memorial to Telesilla
130(1)
163. Thargalia
130(1)
164. Artemisia, the sea-captain
130(1)
165. Cloelia the hostage
131(1)
166. The rape of Lucretia
132(1)
History
133(9)
167. Women who risked their lives to save their husbands
134(1)
168. A funeral eulogy
135(4)
169. Pythias, a courageous slave-woman
139(1)
170. On Arria
140(1)
171. Arria's death
141(1)
172. On Fannia
141(1)
Political life
173. Women demonstrate and obtain repeal of the Oppian law
142(5)
174. Sempronia, a revolutionary
147(1)
175. A portrait of Cleopatra
147(2)
176. Hortensia's speech
149(2)
177. Caenis, concubine of the Emperor Vespasian
151(1)
178. Women advocates
151(1)
179. Electioneering
152(1)
180. The family of Julia Domna
153(2)
Women's organisations
181. A trade union?
155(1)
182. A women's club
155(1)
183. The curia of women
156(1)
184. The women's collegium
156(1)
185. A grant for funeral rites
156(1)
186. The matrons
156(1)
187. Raising money
156(1)
188. A meeting of married women
157(1)
189. A women's 'senate'
157(1)
190. A plan to restore the 'senate'
157(1)
Honorific inscriptions
191. The chaste As
158(1)
192. Aufria, woman of letters
158(1)
193. Lalla of Arneae (gymnasiarch)
158(1)
194. A benefactress
158(1)
195. Food for children
159(1)
196. Eumachia
159(1)
197. Junia Theodora
160(1)
198. Flavia Publicia Nicomachis
160(1)
199. Modia Quintia
160(1)
200. Aurelia Leite
160(1)
201. Scholasticia
161(1)
Victors
202. A royal victor
161(1)
203. Winner of a four-horse chariot race
161(1)
204. Winner of a two-horse chariot race
161(1)
205. From the Panathenaic victor lists
162(1)
206. Women victors
162(1)
207. Melosa
162(1)
VII. PRIVATE LIFE
Correct behaviour
208. Chastity
163(1)
209. Greek and Roman customs compared
164(1)
210. Imperial upbringing
165(1)
211. Seating for gladiatorial shows
165(1)
212. The household of P. Larcius Nicia
165(1)
Education of females
213. The education of Eurydice
166(1)
214. The need for educated parents
166(1)
215. Heraidous, a girl who is learning to read
166(1)
Intellectual life
216. Plato's female pupils
167(1)
217. A female philosopher
167(1)
218. Epigram on Hipparchia
168(1)
219. A learned woman
168(1)
220. Agrippina's memoirs
168(1)
221. A philosopher
169(1)
222. A Roman philosopher
169(1)
223. Women's eloquence
169(1)
224. Sulpicia
169(1)
225. Sayings attributed to Aspasia by Socrates
170(1)
Women and women
226. Biote
170(1)
227. Praxidice and Dyseris
170(1)
228. The dildo
170(2)
229. Going to a festival
172(2)
230. The go-between
174(1)
231. Lesbians as a bad omen
175(1)
232. A letter from a soldier's wife
176(1)
Women and men
233. The rape of the Sabine women
176(2)
234. 'Birth control'
178(1)
235. The courtesan Aspasia, mistress of Pericles
178(1)
236. Disadvantages of a liberal education
179(1)
237. Melite
180(1)
238. Betrayal
180(1)
239. A butcher and his wife
181(1)
240. Graffito on a tomb
181(1)
241. Women unfavourably compared with boy lovers
181(1)
242. Advice on marriage
182(2)
243. To Calpurnia Hispulla
184(1)
244. To his wife Calpurnia
185(1)
245. To Calpurnia
185(1)
246. To Calpurnia
186(1)
247. To Calpurnius Fabatus
186(1)
248. From a husband who misses his wife
186(1)
Babies
249. Exposure of a female child
187(1)
250. Hiring a wet-nurse
187(1)
251. Graxia who nursed her own children
188(1)
252. A letter from a parent offering to pay for a wet-nurse
188(1)
253. The philosopher Favorinus on breast-feeding
188(2)
Parents and children
254. Posilla Senenia
190(1)
255. A mother's request
190(1)
256. A mother's last wish
190(1)
257. A mother's instructions about her son's education
190(1)
258. The good old days
190(1)
259. Cornelia's children
191(1)
260. A letter from Cornelia to Gaius Gracchus
191(1)
261. Seneca to his mother
192(1)
262. The death of the Helvidiae
193(1)
263. The death of Minicia Marcella
194(1)
264. Epitaph of Mintia Marcella
194(1)
265. Julia, daughter of Augustus
195(1)
266. Julia's wit
195(1)
The home
267. How to train a wife
196(7)
268. Letter from a woman about domestic matters
203(1)
269. Letter from a woman managing an estate
203(1)
Celebrations
270. Attempts to explain Roman marriage customs
204(1)
271. A wedding invitation
205(1)
272. A birthday party
205(1)
Epitaphs
273. Phrasicleia
205(1)
274. Bitte
206(1)
275. Xenoclea
206(1)
276. From a husband
206(1)
277. A widower
206(1)
278. Epitaph with curse
206(1)
279. A devoted couple
206(1)
280. From the second husband
207(1)
281. From a father
207(1)
282. From a mother
207(1)
VIII. OCCUPATIONS
Apprenticeship
283. An apprenticeship agreement
208(1)
Self-employment
284. An incentive to female enterprise
208(1)
285. Valeria Maxima, owner of a farm
209(1)
Prostitution
286. Nemeas the aulos player
209(1)
287. Prostitutes
209(1)
288. The trial of the hetaera Phryne of Thespiae
210(1)
289. The palace brothel
210(1)
290. The senate vs. Vistilia
210(1)
291. Justinian on pimps
211(1)
292. Vibia Calybenis, the procuress
212(1)
293. Graffiti
213(1)
294. A runaway slave
213(1)
Women gladiators
295. Freedom
213(1)
296. Lady gladiators
214(1)
297. In the Colosseum
214(1)
298. Domitian's entertainment for the masses
214(1)
299. Lion slayers
214(1)
300. Amazons in the Colosseum
214(1)
301. Fans
214(1)
302. Septimius Severus calls a halt
215(1)
The arts and entertainment
303. An exceptional tumbler
215(1)
304. A tumbler
216(1)
305. Aglas the trumpet-player
216(1)
306. A harpist
216(1)
307. Women painters
216(1)
308. An actress
217(1)
309. A troupe of castanet-dancers
217(1)
310. Menophila
217(1)
311. A citharist
217(1)
312. Phoebe Vocontia
218(1)
313. Twin singers
218(1)
314. A musical family
218(1)
315. A singer
218(1)
316. A lutenist
218(1)
Skilled labour
317. Handiwork
218(1)
318. Handiwork
219(1)
319. A weaver of gold
219(1)
320. A reader
219(1)
321. A dressmaker
219(1)
Sales and services
322. A washerwoman
219(1)
323. A society of launderers
219(1)
324. A grocer
220(1)
325. The women's market
220(1)
326. A bar-maid
220(1)
Other records of women's employment
Papyri
220(1)
327. Egypt, 3rd cent. BC
220(1)
328. Egypt, Roman Imperial period
220(1)
Inscriptions
221(4)
329. Occupations of freedwomen
221(1)
330. Occupations of freedwomen
221(1)
331. Occupations of freedwomen
221(1)
332. Occupations of women, from inscriptions on gravestones
221(1)
333. A storeroom attendant
221(1)
334. Women in the service of the imperial household
222(1)
335. Occupations of slaves and freedwomen in Italy
222(2)
336. Occupations in Roman Athens
224(1)
337. Jobs named on lead curse tablets
224(1)
IX. MEDICINE AND ANATOMY
Philosophers observe nature
338. Origins of the desire for procreation
225(1)
339. The female role in generation
226(3)
340. Menstruation
229(1)
Writings of practising physicians
The Hippocratic Corpus
230(13)
341. Intercourse, conception and pregnancy
230(3)
342. A contraceptive
233(1)
343. Women's illnesses
233(4)
344. Displacement of the womb
237(1)
345. Hysterical suffocation
238(1)
346. Dislocation of the womb
239(1)
347. Dropsy in the womb
240(1)
348. The dangerous periods during pregnancy
241(1)
349. Hysteria in virgins
242(1)
350. Case histories
243(1)
Galen
351. Comparison of male and female anatomy
243(3)
352. Psychological origins of hysteria
246(2)
Aretaeus of Cappadocia
248(2)
353. The wandering womb
248(1)
354. Inflammation of the womb
249(1)
Soranus
250(9)
355. Menstruation, conception, contraception and abortion
250(5)
356. Childbirth: instructions for the midwife
255(1)
357. Treatment for hysterical suffocation
256(3)
Writings on medical matters by laymen
358. The women of Miletus (a traditional story)
259(1)
359. Pregnancy
259(1)
360. Treatments for diseases of the womb
260(2)
361. The dangers of sharing a bath with women
262(1)
362. Side effects of menstruation
262(1)
Case histories from inscriptions
363. Epitaph for a woman who died while pregnant
263(1)
364. Malpractice
263(1)
365. Death in childbirth
263(1)
366. Death in childbirth
263(1)
367. Taking the cure
263(1)
368. Socratea
264(1)
Female medical practitioners
Physicians
264(1)
369. Antiochis
264(1)
370. Primilla
264(1)
371. Terentia Prima
264(1)
372. Four doctors
265(1)
373. Panthia
265(1)
374. Domnina
265(1)
Midwives
265(2)
375. Qualities and training
265(1)
376. A midwife and physician
266(1)
377. Epitaphs of midwives
267(1)
378. Epitaph of a midwife
267(1)
Wet-nurses
267(6)
379. A nurse
267(1)
380. Advice on hiring a wet-nurse
268(2)
381. Two contracts for wet-nurses for slave children
270(2)
382. Receipt of wages for nursing
272
X. RELIGION
Dionysus/Bacchus
383. Imported Phrygian rituals
273(1)
384. Rules of ritual
273(1)
385. Epitaph for a priestess
274(1)
386. Authorisation to establish a temple
274(1)
387. Equipment for women's orgiastic rites
274(1)
388. Senatus consultum de bacchanalibus
275(1)
389. Rules in the cult of Dionysus
276(1)
390. The festival of Agrionia
276(1)
Hera
391. Chrysis, priestess of Hera
277(1)
392. The cult of Hera
277(1)
Demeter
393. The story of Persephone
278(2)
394. Thesmophoria
280(1)
395. Regulations for women attending the festival of Demeter
281(1)
396. The order of the procession at the Mysteries
281(1)
Athena
397. Inscribed monument dedicated by a woman
281(1)
398. The priestess and temple of Athena Nike
282(1)
399. The religious duties of aristocratic young girls
282(1)
400. A procession
282(1)
Artemis
401. A puberty ritual
283(1)
402. Offerings to Artemis at Brauron
284(1)
403. Dedications to Artemis Brauronia
284(1)
404. Ritual procedures
284(1)
Aphrodite
405. Dedication of statues of women
285(1)
Asclepius
406. Cures of women's diseases
285(2)
Serapis
407. A petition to Ptolemy and Cleopatra
287(1)
Vesta
408. Vestal Virgins
288(2)
409. Vestal Virgins
290(1)
410. Augustus and the Vestal Virgins
291(1)
411. Inscription to the chief Vestal
291(1)
Bona Dea
412. A divine portent
291(1)
413. Desecration of the rites of the Bona Dea
292(2)
Witchcraft
414. Medea
294(1)
415. A love potion
295(1)
416. Bitto's curse
296(1)
417. Ingredients for a love charm
296(2)
418. Epitaph with a curse
298(1)
419. A comprehensive curse
298(1)
420. A curse against Aristo
298(1)
421. A curse against Aristocydes
299(1)
422. A remedy for induration of the breasts
299(1)
423. A remedy for ascent of the womb
299(1)
424. Women alchemists
299(1)
Priestesses
425. Marnia
300(1)
426. Priestesses at the sanctuary of Hilaeira and Phoebe
301(1)
427. Priestesses of Eileithyia and Zeus Sosipolis at Olympia
301(1)
428. Flavia Ammon
301(1)
429. The priestess Lalla
301(1)
430. Tullia, priestess of Hestia
302(1)
431. The priestess Alexandria
302(1)
432. Tata
302(1)
433. Cassia Victoria
303(1)
434. Theano the arrhephoros
303(1)
435. Thesmophane
303(1)
436. A priestess of Demeter at Eleusis
304(1)
437. Berenice
304(1)
438. Flavia Vibia Sabina
304(1)
439. Paulina, priestess of several mystery cults
304(2)
440. Umbria Matronica
306(1)
Christianity
441. Teachings of Paul of Tarsus on women
307(2)
442. Teachings about women attributed to Paul
309(1)
443. The conversion of Lydia and the exorcism of a slave-girl
310(1)
444. St Thecla's devotion to St Paul
311(2)
445. The martyrdom of St Perpetua
313(5)
446. Persecution under Diocletian
318(5)
447. Gnostic ritual
323(1)
448. Drinking parties
324(1)
449. Celibacy
325(2)
450. St Macrina and her mother Emmelia
327(4)
Late pagan 'saints'
451. The martyrdom of the pagan philosopher Hypatia
331(2)
452. Sosipatra the philosopher
333(2)
Notes 335(25)
Abbreviations 360(3)
Bibliography 363(4)
Appendix to the third edition 367(33)
Geographical and chronological concordance 400(2)
Concordance of sources 402(5)
Index of women and goddesses 407(7)
General index 414

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