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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780321412904

ISBN10:
0321412907
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $80.00
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Summary

The market-leading guide to arguments, Writing Arguments has proven highly successful in teaching readers to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own. Teaches readers to write better arguments. How to write arguments; how to do research for arguments. Anyone interested in writing better arguments.

Table of Contents

Color Plates xxi
Preface xxii
Acknowledgments xxxi
Part One Overview of Argument
1(72)
Argument: An Introduction
3(19)
What Do We Mean by Argument?
3(2)
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
3(1)
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
4(1)
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
4(1)
Wilfred Owen, ``Dulce et Decorum Est''
5(2)
The Defining Features of Argument
7(6)
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
7(3)
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
10(1)
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion
10(3)
Argument and the Problem of Truth
13(3)
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee
16(1)
Gordon Adams (student), ``Petition to Waive the University Mathematics Requirement''
17(4)
Conclusion
21(1)
Reading Arguments
22(28)
Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers
22(1)
Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer
23(2)
Lisa Turner, ``Playing with Our Food''
25(7)
Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe
28(3)
Suspending Doubt: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer's Views
31(1)
Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter
32(2)
Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument
34(4)
Understanding the Genres of Argument
34(3)
Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre
37(1)
Strategy 4: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement
38(3)
Disagreement about Facts or Their Relevance
39(1)
Disagreement about Values, Beliefs, or Assumptions
39(2)
Council for Biotechnology Information, ``Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers''
41(3)
Writing an Analysis of a Disagreement
44(1)
``An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information''
44(2)
Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation
46(3)
Accepting Ambiguity and Uncertainty
46(1)
Seeking Sources of Facts and More Complete Versions of Alternative Views
47(1)
Determining What Values Are at Stake for You and Articulating Your Own Values
48(1)
Considering Ways to Synthesize Alternative Views
48(1)
Conclusion
49(1)
Writing Arguments
50(23)
Who Writes Arguments and Why?
50(3)
Tips for Improving Your Writing Process
53(3)
Starting Point, Exploration, and Research
53(1)
Writing a First Draft
54(1)
Revising through Multiple Drafts
55(1)
Editing for Style, Impact, and Correctness
56(1)
Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking
56(7)
Freewriting or Blind Writing
57(1)
Idea Mapping
58(1)
Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
59(2)
Brainstorming for Pro and Con Because Clauses
61(1)
Brainstorming a Network of Related Issues
62(1)
Shaping Your Argument: Classical Argument as a Planning Tool
63(4)
The Structure of Classical Argument
63(3)
An Illustration of Classical Argument as a Planning Guide
66(1)
Discovering Ideas: Two Sets of Exploratory Writing Tasks
67(4)
Set 1: Starting Points
68(2)
Set 2: Exploration and Rehearsal
70(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 1--3
71(2)
Part Two Principles of Argument
73(120)
The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons
75(12)
An Introduction to the Classical Appeals
75(1)
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
76(3)
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
77(2)
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
79(2)
Pseudo-Arguments: Fanatical Believers and Fanatical Skeptics
79(1)
Another Source of Pseudo-Arguments: Lack of Shared Assumptions
79(2)
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
81(3)
What Is a Reason?
81(1)
Advantages of Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
82(2)
Application of This Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing
84(1)
Application of This Chapter's Principles to the Reading of Arguments
85(1)
Conclusion
86(1)
The Logical Structure of Arguments
87(22)
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the ``Logical Structure'' of an Argument?
87(4)
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
91(6)
Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support
97(5)
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
102(6)
Difference between Writer-Based and Audience-Based Reasons
102(3)
Finding Audience-Based Reasons: Asking Questions about Your Audience
105(3)
Conclusion
108(1)
Using Evidence Effectively
109(20)
General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Evidence
109(2)
Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence
110(1)
Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts
111(1)
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
111(11)
Kinds of Evidence
111(5)
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
116(2)
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
118(2)
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
120(2)
Gathering Evidence
122(2)
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
122(1)
Gathering Data from Interviews
122(1)
Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
123(1)
Conclusion
124(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 4--6
124(2)
David Langley (student), `` 'Half-Criminals' or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders''
126(3)
Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos
129(12)
Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
129(2)
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
131(1)
Be Knowledgeable about Your Issue
131(1)
Be Fair
131(1)
Build a Bridge to Your Audience
132(1)
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Belief and Emotions
132(4)
Use Concrete Language
133(1)
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
134(1)
Use Narratives
134(1)
Choose Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
135(1)
Using Images for Emotional Appeal
136(2)
Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments
138(2)
Conclusion
140(1)
Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views
141(20)
One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments
141(1)
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views
142(3)
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
145(1)
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
145(5)
Summarizing Opposing Views
145(2)
Refuting Opposing Views
147(1)
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
148(1)
Conceding to Opposing Views
149(1)
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
150(1)
Marybeth Hamilton (student), From ``First Place: A Healing School for Homeless Children''
150(2)
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument
152(1)
Delayed-Thesis Argument
153(1)
Ellen Goodman, ``Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance''
153(4)
Rogerian Argument
156(1)
Rebekah Taylor (student), ``A Letter to Jim''
157(2)
Conclusion
159(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapters 7 and 8
159(2)
Conducting Visual Arguments
161(32)
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument
162(4)
Use of Type
163(1)
Use of Space or Layout
164(1)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements
165(1)
Drug Enforcement Administration, ``A Single Hit of Ecstasy . . .'' (advocacy advertisement)
166(1)
Common Sense for Drug Policy, ``What We Know About Ecstasy'' (advocacy advertisement)
167(3)
Use of Color
168(1)
Use of Images and Graphics
168(1)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components
169(1)
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
170(6)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images
172(4)
The Genres of Visual Argument
176(2)
Posters and Fliers
176(1)
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
177(1)
The Pro-Choice Public Education Project, ``When Your Right . . .'' (advocacy advertisement)
178(4)
Cartoons
180(1)
Web Pages
181(1)
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument
182(2)
Leah Johnson (student), ``Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future?'' (poster)
184(1)
Using Information Graphics in Arguments
185(4)
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
185(2)
Using a Graph to Tell a Story
187(1)
Bar Graphs
187(1)
Pie Charts
188(1)
Line Graphs
188(1)
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
189(3)
Designing the Graphic
190(1)
Numbering, Labeling, and Titling the Graphic
190(1)
Referencing the Graphic in Your Text
191(1)
Conclusion
192(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapter 9
192(1)
Part Three Arguments in Depth: Six Types of Claims
193(164)
An Introduction to the Types of Claims
195(13)
An Overview of the Types of Claims
195(5)
Type 1: Simple Categorical Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where You and Your Audience Agree on the Meaning of Y)
196(1)
Type 2: Definitional Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where the Definition of Y Is Contested)
197(1)
Type 3: Cause/Consequence Arguments (Does X Cause Y? Is Y a Consequence of X?)
197(1)
Type 4: Resemblance Arguments (Is X Like Y?)
198(1)
Type 5: Evaluation Arguments (Is X Good or Bad? Is X a Good or Bad Y?)
198(1)
Type 6: Proposal Arguments (Should We Do X?)
199(1)
How Knowledge of Claim Types Will Help You Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas
200(3)
Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments
203(2)
Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments
204(1)
An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument
204(1)
Aaron Friedman, ``All That Noise for Nothing''
205(3)
Categorical and Definitional Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y
208(34)
An Overview of Categorical Arguments
209(1)
Simple Categorical Arguments
210(4)
Difference between Facts and Simple Categorical Claims
210(1)
Variations in the Wording of Simple Categorical Claims
211(1)
Supporting Simple Categorical Claims: Supply Examples
212(1)
Refuting Simple Categorical Claims
213(1)
An Overview of Definitional Arguments
214(1)
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments
214(3)
Conceptual Problems of Definition
217(2)
Why Can't We Just Look in the Dictionary?
217(1)
Definitions and the Rule of Justice: At What Point Does X Quit Being a Y?
217(2)
Kinds of Definitions
219(3)
Aristotelian Definition
219(2)
Effect of Context and Authorial Purpose on Aristotelian Definitions
221(1)
Operational Definitions
222(1)
Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument
222(4)
Reportive Approach: Research How Others Have Used the Term
223(1)
Stipulative Approach: Create Your Own Definition
224(2)
Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument
226(1)
Writing a Definitional Argument
227(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 11
227(3)
Exploring Ideas
227(1)
Organizing a Definitional Argument
228(1)
Revising Your Draft
229(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument
230(1)
Questioning the Criteria
230(1)
Questioning the Match
231(1)
Readings
231(1)
``Low-Carb Diets Unhealthy Trend''
231(3)
Critiquing ``Low-Carb Diets Unhealthy Trend''
233(1)
Kathy Sullivan (student), ``Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board''
234(2)
Critiquing ``Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board''
236(1)
Charles Krauthammer, ``This Isn't a 'Legal' Matter, This Is War''
236(3)
Critiquing ``This Isn't a 'Legal' Matter, This Is War''
238(1)
Eugene Volokh, ``You Can Blog, But You Can't Hide''
239(3)
Critiquing ``You Can Blog, But You Can't Hide''
241(1)
Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause) Y
242(28)
An Overview of Causal Arguments
243(1)
The Nature of Causal Arguing
244(1)
Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms
245(2)
Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
247(6)
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
247(2)
Second Method: Use Various Inductive Methods to Establish a High Probability of a Causal Link
249(3)
Third Method: Argue by Analogy or Precedent
252(1)
Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments
253(2)
Writing Your Causal Argument
255(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 12
255(3)
Exploring Ideas
255(2)
Organizing a Causal Argument
257(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
258(1)
Readings
259(1)
Daeha Ko (student), ``The Monster That Is High School''
259(3)
Critiquing ``The Monster That Is High School''
261(1)
United Way, ``Kids Who Do Not Participate . . .'' (advocacy advertisement)
262(1)
Critiquing the United Way Advocacy Ad
262(1)
Olivia Judson, ``Different but (Probably) Equal''
263(3)
Critiquing ``Different but (Probably) Equal''
265(1)
Carlos Macias (student), `` 'The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!'---The Credit Card Industry's Role in Causing Student Debt''
266(4)
Critiquing ``The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!''
269(1)
Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) Like Y
270(19)
An Overview of Resemblance Arguments
271(2)
Arguments by Analogy
273(3)
Using Undeveloped Analogies
273(1)
Using Extended Analogies
274(2)
Arguments by Precedent
276(2)
Writing a Resemblance Argument
278(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 13
278(1)
Exploring Ideas
279(1)
Organizing a Resemblance Argument
279(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument
279(1)
Readings
280(1)
Megan Matthews (student), ``Whales Need Silence''
280(1)
Critiquing ``Whales Need Silence''
281(1)
Matthew Miller, ``It Shouldn't Take a Disaster to Help America's Blameless''
281(3)
Critiquing ``It Shouldn't Take a Disaster to Help America's Blameless''
283(1)
Sven Van Assche, ``Knock! Knock!'' (political cartoon)
284(1)
Critiquing the Internet Chat Room Cartoon
284(1)
Susan Brownmiller, From Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape
285(4)
Critiquing the Passage from Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape
288(1)
Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X Is Right (Wrong)
289(31)
An Overview of Evaluation Arguments
289(1)
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
290(2)
Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument
292(4)
Determining Criteria for a Categorical Evaluation Argument
292(2)
Determining Whether X Meets the Criteria
294(2)
An Overview of Ethical Arguments
296(1)
Two Major Ethical Systems
297(1)
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
297(1)
Principles as the Base of Ethics
298(1)
Conducting an Ethical Argument
298(3)
Constructing a Principles-Based Argument
299(1)
Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument
299(2)
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
301(1)
Writing an Evaluation Argument
302(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 14
302(3)
Exploring Ideas
303(1)
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
303(1)
Revising Your Draft
304(1)
Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument
305(3)
Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
305(1)
Critiquing an Ethical Argument
306(2)
Readings
308(1)
Sam Isaacson (student), ``Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?''
308(3)
Critiquing ``Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?''
310(1)
Tiffany Anderson (student), ``A Woman's View of Hip-Hop''
311(3)
Critiquing ``A Woman's View of Hip-Hop''
314(1)
Mike Luckovich, ``The Military's Raising Enlistment Age'' (political cartoon)
314(1)
Critiquing the Military Recruitment Cartoon
315(1)
Geoffrey Johnson, ``Marking Earth Day Inc.''
315(2)
Critiquing ``Marking Earth Day Inc.''
317(1)
David Holcberg, ``Human Organs for Sale?''
317(3)
Critiquing ``Human Organs for Sale?''
319(1)
Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X
320(37)
An Overview of Proposal Arguments
321(1)
The Structure of Proposal Arguments
322(1)
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
322(1)
The Need for Presence
322(1)
The Need to Overcome People's Natural Conservatism
322(1)
The Difficulty of Predicting Future Consequences
323(1)
The Problem of Evaluating Consequences
323(1)
Developing a Proposal Argument
323(2)
Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists
323(1)
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
324(1)
The Justification: Convincing Your Readers That Your Proposal Should Be Enacted
325(1)
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
325(1)
Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
326(5)
Using the ``Stock Issues'' Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
331(2)
Writing a Proposal Argument
333(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 15
333(5)
Exploring Ideas
334(1)
Organizing a Proposal Argument
335(1)
Revising Your Draft
336(2)
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Advertisement
338(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
338(1)
Readings
339(1)
Laurel Wilson (student), ``A Proposal to Provide Tips for Hosts at Stone's End''
340(4)
Critiquing ``A Proposal to Provide Tips for Hosts at Stone's End''
343(1)
Mark Bonicillo (student), ``A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States'' (MLA-style research paper)
344(7)
Critiquing ``A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States''
351(1)
Center for Children's Health and the Environment, ``More Kids Are Getting Brain Cancer. Why?'' (advocacy advertisement)
351(2)
Critiquing the Advocacy Ad from the Center for Children's Health and the Environment
352(1)
Maia Szalavitz, ``Let a Thousand Licensed Poppies Bloom''
353(4)
Critiquing ``Let a Thousand Licensed Poppies Bloom''
355(2)
Part Four The Researched Argument
357(69)
Finding and Evaluating Sources
359(28)
Formulating a Research Question
360(2)
Understanding Differences in the Kinds of Sources
362(5)
Books versus Periodicals versus Web Sites
362(1)
Scholarly Books versus Trade Books
362(4)
Scholarly Journals versus Magazines
366(1)
Print Sources versus Cyberspace Sources
367(1)
Finding Books: Searching Your Library's Online Catalog
367(1)
Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database
368(2)
What Is a Licensed Database?
368(1)
Keyword Searching
369(1)
Illustration of a Database Search
369(1)
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
370(5)
The Logic of the Internet
371(2)
Using Web Search Engines
373(1)
Determining Where You Are on the Web
373(2)
Reading Your Sources Rhetorically
375(2)
Reading with Your Own Goals in Mind
375(1)
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
376(1)
Taking Effective Notes
377(1)
Evaluating Sources
378(3)
Angle of Vision
378(1)
Degree of Advocacy
379(2)
Reliability
381(1)
Credibility
381(1)
Understanding the Rhetoric of Web Sites
381(4)
The Web as a Unique Rhetorical Environment
381(1)
Analyzing the Purpose of a Site and Your Own Research Purpose
381(1)
Sorting Sites by Domain Type
382(1)
Evaluating a Web Site
383(2)
National Resources Defense Council, ``Spread of Active Sonar Threatens Whales'' (Web page)
385(1)
Conclusion
386(1)
Using, Citing, and Documenting Sources
387(39)
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
387(3)
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
390(1)
Using Attributive Tags to Separate Your Ideas from Your Source's
390(1)
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
390(1)
Working Sources into Your Own Prose
391(4)
Summarizing
391(1)
Paraphrasing
392(1)
Quoting
392(3)
Avoiding Plagiarism
395(1)
Understanding Parenthetical Citation Systems with Bibliographies
396(1)
Understanding MLA Style
397(12)
The MLA Method of In-Text Citation
397(1)
MLA Format for the ``Works Cited'' List
398(1)
MLA Citations
399(9)
Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style
408(1)
Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper
409(1)
Understanding APA Style
409(8)
APA Method of In-Text Citation
410(1)
APA Format for the ``References'' List
411(1)
APA Citations
411(6)
Conclusion
417(1)
Student Example of an APA-Style Research Paper
417(1)
Megan Matthews (student), ``Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales''
418(8)
Appendixes
426(25)
One Informal Fallacies
426(9)
The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument
426(1)
An Overview of Informal Fallacies
427(1)
Fallacies of Pathos
428(1)
Fallacies of Ethos
429(1)
Fallacies of Logos
430(5)
Two The Writing Community: Working in Groups
435(16)
From Conflict to Consensus: How to Get the Most Out of the Writing Community
435(1)
Avoiding Bad Habits of Group Behavior
436(1)
The Value of Group Work for Writers
436(1)
Forming Writing Communities: Skills and Roles
437(1)
Working in Groups of Five to Seven People
437(2)
Working in Pairs
439(2)
Group Project: Holding a ``Norming Session'' to Define ``Good Argumentative Writing''
441(2)
``Bloody Ice''
443(1)
``RSS Should Not Provide Dorm Room Carpets''
444(2)
``Sterling Hall Dorm Food''
446(1)
``ROTC Courses Should Not Get College Credit''
446(2)
``Legalization of Prostitution''
448(1)
A Classroom Debate
449(2)
Credits 451(2)
Index 453


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