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In Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes,Robert M. Emerson, Rachel I. Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw present a series of guidelines, suggestions, and practical advice for creating useful fieldnotes in a variety of settings, demystifying a process that is often assumed to be intuitive and impossible to teach. Using actual unfinished notes as examples, the authors illustrate options for composing, reviewing, and working fieldnotes into finished texts. They discuss different organizational and descriptive strategies and show how transforming direct observations into vivid descriptions results not simply from good memory but from learning to envision scenes as written. A good ethnographer, they demonstrate, must learn to remember dialogue and movement like an actor, to see colors and shapes like a painter, and to sense moods and rhythms like a poet. This new edition reflects the extensive feedback the authors have received from students and instructors since the first edition was published in 1995. As a result, they have updated the race, class, and gender section, created new sections on coding programs and revising first drafts, and provided new examples of working notes. An essential tool for budding social scientists, the second edition of Writing Ethnographic Fieldnoteswill be invaluable for a new generation of researchers entering the field.
Table of Contents
|Preface to the Second Edition||p. ix|
|Preface to the First Edition||p. xiii|
|Fieldnotes in Ethnographic Research||p. 1|
|Ethnographic Participation||p. 2|
|The Complexities of Description||p. 5|
|Inscribing Experienced/Observed Realities||p. 12|
|Implications for Writing Fieldnotes||p. 15|
|Reflections: Writing Fieldnotes and Ethnographic Practice||p. 18|
|In the Field: Participating, Observing, and Jotting Notes||p. 21|
|Participating in Order to Write||p. 24|
|What Are Jottings?||p. 29|
|Making Jottings: How, Where, and When||p. 34|
|Reflections: Writing and Ethnographic Marginality||p. 41|
|Writing Fieldnotes I: At the Desk, Creating Scenes on a Page||p. 45|
|Moving from Field to Desk||p. 48|
|Recalling in Order to Write||p. 51|
|Writing Detailed Notes: Depiction of Scenes||p. 57|
|Narrating a Day's Entry: Organizational Strategies||p. 74|
|In-Process Analytic Writing: Asides and Commentaries||p. 79|
|Reflections: "Writing" and "Reading" Modes||p. 85|
|Writing Field notes II: Multiple Purposes and Stylistic Options||p. 89|
|Stance and Audience in Writing Fieldnotes||p. 90|
|Narrating Choices about Perspective||p. 93|
|Fieldnote Tales: Writing Extended Narrative Segments||p. 109|
|Analytic Writing: In-Process Memos||p. 123|
|Reflections: Fieldnotes as Products ofWriting Choices||p. 126|
|Pursuing Members' Meanings||p. 129|
|Imposing Exogenous Meanings||p. 131|
|Representing Members' Meanings||p. 134|
|Members' Categories in Use: Processes and Problems||p. 151|
|Race, Gender, Class, and Members' Meanings||p. 158|
|Local Events and Social Forces||p. 166|
|Reflections: Using Fieldnotes to Discover/Create Members' Meanings||p. 167|
|Processing Fieldnotes: Coding and Memoing||p. 171|
|Reading Fieldnotes as a Data Set||p. 173|
|Open Coding||p. 175|
|Writing Code Memos||p. 185|
|Selecting Themes||p. 188|
|Integrative Memos||p. 193|
|Reflections: Creating Theory from Fieldnotes||p. 197|
|Writing an Ethnography||p. 201|
|Developing a Thematic Narrative||p. 201|
|Transposing Fieldnotes into Ethnographic Text||p. 206|
|Producing a Completed Ethnographic Document||p. 229|
|Reflections: Between Members and Readers||p. 241|
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