Writing Logically, Thinking Critically

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 6/18/2009
  • Publisher: Longman
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This concise, accessible text teaches students how to write logical, cohesive arguments and how to evaluate the arguments of others. Integrating writing skills with critical thinking skills, this practical book teaches students to draw logical inferences, identify premises and conclusions and use language precisely. Students also learn how to identify fallacies and to distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. Ideal for any composition class that emphasizes argument, this text includes coverage of writing style and rhetoric, logic, literature, research and documentation.

Table of Contents

Guide to Readingsp. xii
Prefacep. xiv
Thinking and Writing-A Critical Connectionp. 1
Thinking Made Visiblep. 1
Critical Thinkingp. 2
An Open Mind-Examining Your World Viewp. 3
Critical Thinking as Self-Defense-Media Literacyp. 6
Writing as a Processp. 10
Invention Strategies-Generating Ideasp. 11
The First Draftp. 12
The Time to Be Criticalp. 13
Audience and Purposep. 14
Writing Assignment 1 Considering Your Audience and Purposep. 15
E-Mail and Text Messagingp. 15
Reason, Intuition, Imagination, and Metaphorp. 17
Summaryp. 20
Key Termsp. 21
Inference-Critical Thoughtp. 22
What Is an Inference?p. 22
How Reliable is an Inference?p. 23
What Is a Fact?p. 24
Facts and Journalismp. 25
What Is a Judgment?p. 26
Achieving a Balance Between Inference and Factsp. 31
Facts onlyp. 32
Inferences Onlyp. 33
Reading Criticallyp. 34
Writing Assignment 2 Reconstructing the Lost Tribep. 35
Making Inferences-Analyzing Imagesp. 37
Examining An Adp. 41
Making Inferences-Writing About Fictionp. 44
Writing Assignment 3 Interpreting Fictionp. 46
Writing Assignment 4 Analyzing Fictionp. 48
Summaryp. 52
Key Termsp. 52
The Structure of Argumentp. 53
Premises and Conclusionsp. 54
Distinguishing Between Premises and Conclusionsp. 55
Standard Formp. 56
Writing Assignment 5 Creating a Political Handoutp. 59
Ambiguous Argument Structurep. 60
Hidden Assumptions in Argumentp. 62
Dangers of Hidden Assumptionsp. 64
Hidden Assumptions and Standard Formp. 65
Hidden Assumptions and Audience Awarenessp. 68
Summariesp. 69
Strategies for Writing A Summaryp. 69
An Example of a Summaryp. 70
Writing Assignment 6 Summarizing an Articlep. 70
Argument and Explanation-Distinctionsp. 72
Summaryp. 75
Key Termsp. 75
Written Argumentp. 77
Focusing Your Topicp. 77
The Issuep. 77
The Question at Issuep. 78
The Thesisp. 79
Two Kinds of Thesis Statementsp. 81
Shaping a Written Argument-Rhetorical Strategiesp. 82
The Introductionp. 82
The Development of Your Argumentp. 83
How Many Premises Should an Argument Have?p. 84
The Conclusionp. 84
A Dialectical Approach to Argumentp. 85
Addressing Counterargumentsp. 85
How Much Counterargument?p. 86
Refutation and Concessionp. 86
Rogerian Strategyp. 87
When There is No Other Sidep. 90
Logical Connections-Coherencep. 91
Joining Wordsp. 91
More on Coherencep. 93
Sample Essaysp. 93
A Two-Step Process for Writing a Complete Argumentp. 98
Writing Assignment 7 Arguing Both Sides of an Issuep. 98
Writing Assignment 8 Taking a Standp. 102
Summaryp. 103
Key Termsp. 103
The Language of Argument-Definitionp. 104
Definition and Perceptionp. 104
Who Controls the Definitions?p. 104
Defining Ourselvesp. 105
Shifting Definitionsp. 106
Definition: The Social Sciences and Governmentp. 108
Language: An Abstract System of Symbolsp. 108
The Importance of Concrete Examplesp. 111
Abstractions and Evasionp. 114
Euphemism and Connotationp. 115
Definition in Written Argumentp. 116
Appositives-A Strategy for Defining Terms Within the Sentencep. 116
Appositives and Argumentp. 118
Punctuation of Appositivesp. 118
Extended Definitionp. 120
Writing Assignment 9 Determining Your State's Position on Gay Marriagep. 123
Writing Assignment 10 Composing an Argument Based on a Definitionp. 124
Inventing a New Word to Fill a Needp. 128
Writing Assignment 11 Creating a New Wordp. 129
Summaryp. 130
Key Termsp. 130
Fallacious Argumentsp. 131
What Is a Fallacious Argument?p. 131
Appeal to Authorityp. 132
Appeal to Fearp. 133
Appeal to Pityp. 133
Begging the Questionp. 134
Double Standardp. 135
Equivocationp. 136
False Analogyp. 137
False Causep. 139
False Dilemmap. 140
Hasty Generalizationp. 141
Personal Attackp. 141
Poisoning the Wellp. 142
Red Herringp. 142
Slippery Slopep. 143
Straw Manp. 143
Writing Assignment 12 Analyzing an Extended Argumentp. 151
Key Termsp. 154
Deductive and Inductive Argumentp. 157
Key Distinctionsp. 157
Necessity Versus Probabilityp. 157
From General to Specific, Specific To Generalp. 158
The Relationship Between Induction and Deductionp. 159
Deductive Reasoningp. 164
Class Logicp. 164
Relationships Between Classesp. 165
Inclusionp. 165
Exclusionp. 166
Overlapp. 166
Class Logic and the Syllogismp. 168
The Subject and the Predicatep. 169
Truth, Validity, and Soundnessp. 169
Guilt By Associationp. 171
More on Syllogismsp. 172
Hypothetical Argumentsp. 176
The Valid Hypothetical Argumentp. 176
The Invalid Hypothetical Argumentp. 177
Necessary and Sufficient Conditionsp. 177
Hypothetical Chainsp. 178
Hypothetical Claims and Everyday Reasoningp. 179
Inductive Reasoningp. 183
Generalizationp. 183
The Direction of Inductive Reasoningp. 184
Testing Inductive Generalizationsp. 185
Criteria for Evaluating Statistical Generalizationsp. 185
Hasty Generalizationsp. 187
Thinking Critically About Surveys and Statisticsp. 188
Mistaking Correlation for Causationp. 189
Epidemiologyp. 190
Considering the Sourcep. 191
Writing Assignment 13 Questioning Generalizationsp. 196
Writing Assignment 14 Conducting a Survey: A Collaborative Projectp. 196
Summaryp. 197
Key Termsp. 198
The Language of Argument-Stylep. 200
Parallelismp. 200
The Structure of Parallelismp. 200
Logic of the Parallel Seriesp. 202
Emphasizing Ideas with Parallelismp. 203
Sharpening Sentences, Eliminating Wordinessp. 204
Concrete Subjectsp. 205
Active and Passive Verbsp. 205
Passive Verbs and Evasionp. 206
When the Passive is Appropriatep. 206
Consistent Sentence Subjectsp. 207
Summaryp. 209
Key Termsp. 209
A Quick Guide to Integrating Research into your Own Writingp. 210
Where to Beginp. 210
Three Options for Including Researchp. 211
Blend Quotations and Paraphrases Into Your Own Writingp. 211
Make the Purpose Clearp. 212
Punctuation and Format of Quotationsp. 212
Omitting Words from a Direct Quotation-Ellipsisp. 213
Plagiarismp. 213
Additional Readingsp. 215
"Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Nicholas Carrp. 215
"Blinded by Science," Chris Mooneyp. 223
"When Human Rights Extend to Nonhumans," Donald G. McNeil Jr.p. 231
Text Creditsp. 234
Indexp. 236
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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