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Writing Matters: A Handbook for Writing and Research (Comprehensive Edition with Exercises),9780073405957
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Writing Matters: A Handbook for Writing and Research (Comprehensive Edition with Exercises)

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Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780073405957

ISBN10:
0073405957
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/11/2013
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary


This Comprehensive version of Writing Matters unites research, reasoning, documentation, grammar, and style into a cohesive whole, helping students see the conventions of writing as a network of responsibilities writers have…

… to other writers. Writing Matters emphasizes the responsibility writers share, whether collaborating online in peer review or conducting research with digital and print sources, to treat information fairly and accurately and to craft writing that is unique and original—their own!
… to the audience. Writing Matters emphasizes the need to use conventions appropriate to the readership, to write clearly, and to provide readers with the information and interpretation they need to make sense of a topic.
… to the topic. Writing Matters encourages writers to explore a topic thoroughly and creatively, to assess sources carefully, and to provide reliable information at a depth that does the topic justice.
… to themselves. Writing Matters encourages writers to take their writing seriously and to approach writing tasks as an opportunity to learn about a topic and to expand their scope as writers. Students are more likely to write well when they think of themselves as writers rather than as error-makers.

WRITING MATTERS eBook

The CONNECT COMPOSITION PLUS 2.0 eBook provides Writing Matters content in a digital format that is accessible from within Connect and Blackboard. In support of the engaged learning experience, students can link directly to activities and assignments within Connect from the eBook. Students can have all the resources from Writing Matters right on their desktops!

Personal Learning Plan (PLP)

Through an intuitive, adaptive diagnostic that assesses proficiencies in five core areas of grammar and mechanics, students generate a personalized learning plan tailored to address their needs within the timeframe when students determine what they want to study. The personalized program includes contextualized grammar and writing lessons, videos, animations, and interactive exercises and provides immediate feedback on students’ work and progress. Based on metacognitive learning theories, the Personal Learning Plan continually adapts with each interaction, while built-in time management tools keep students on track to ensure they achieve their course goals. The Personal Learning Plan is designed to improve student writing, allow classroom instruction to focus on critical writing processes, and support the goals of writing programs and individual instructors with reports that present data related to progress, achievement, and students who may be at risk.

Table of Contents

Contents

PART 1 Writing Matters: Planning, Drafting, Revising, Editing, Designing

1 Writing Responsibly in the Information Age 

a. Writing Today 

b. The Writer’s Responsibilities 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Your College’s Plagiarism Policy 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Taking Yourself Seriously as a Writer 

2 Planning Your Project 

a. Analyzing Your Writing Situation

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Your Audience and You 

b. Analyzing an Assignment 

c. Generating Ideas

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Note Taking and Plagiarism 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Keep Track as You Browse 

d. Narrowing or Broadening a Topic 

e. Working with Others: Planning a Collaborative Project 

3 Organizing and Drafting Your Project 

a. Crafting an Effective Thesis 

b. Organizing Your Ideas 

c. Preparing to Draft 

d. Drafting: Explaining and Supporting Your Ideas

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Made-up “evidence”  

STUDENT PROJECT: FIRST DRAFT 

e. Writing with Others: Collaborative Projects 

4 Crafting and Connecting Paragraphs 

a. Writing Relevant Paragraphs 

b. Writing Unified Paragraphs 

c. Writing Coherent Paragraphs 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Guiding the Reader 

d. Developing Paragraphs Using Patterns

e. Writing Introductory Paragraphs 

f. Writing Concluding Paragraphs 

g. Connecting Paragraphs 

5 Drafting and Revising Visuals 

a. Deciding Whether to Illustrate College Writing Projects 

b. Using Visuals as Evidence 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Exploitative Images 

c. Deciding Whether to Copy Visuals or to Create Them 

d. Revising Visuals

6 Revising, Editing, Proofreading, and Formatting 

REVISING GLOBALLY: LEARNING TO RE-SEE 

a. Gaining Perspective

b. Rereading Your Draft

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: The Big Picture 

c. Reconsidering Your Title 

REVISING LOCALLY: EDITING WORDS AND SENTENCES

d. Choosing Your Words with Care

e. Editing Your Sentences

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Making an Essay Long Enough without Wordiness

REVISING WITH OTHERS

f. Revising with Peers

g. Revising with a Tutor or Instructor 

PROOFREADING AND FORMATTING

h. Proofreading

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Beware the Spell Checker!  

i. Formatting an Academic Text 

STUDENT MODEL: Final Draft

j. Creating and Submitting a Portfolio

Student MODEL: PERSONAL STATEMENT 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Explaining Your Choice of Sources

PART 2 Reasoning Matters: Reading, Thinking, and Arguing 

7 Thinking and Reading Critically 

a. Comprehending 

READING RESPONSIBLY: Engaging with What You Read

b. Reflecting

c. Preparing to Write 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Drawing Inferences 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Understanding criticism 

STUDENT MODEL: CRITIQUE 

d. WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Understanding and Representing the Entire Source

8 Analyzing and Crafting Arguments 

a. Persuading and Exploring 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: The Well-Tempered Tone 

b. Making Claims

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Choosing an Engaging Topic

c. Choosing Evidence Rhetorically

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: ESTABLISHING YOURSELF AS A RESPONSIBLE WRITER

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: PREPARING ORAL ARGUMENTS

d. Considering Alternative Viewpoints

e. Assumptions and Common Ground

STUDENT MODEL: EXPLORATORY ARGUMENT

f. Organizing Arguments: Classical, Rogerian, and Toulmin models 

g. Avoiding Logical Fallacies

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Visual Claims and Visual Fallacies

PART 3 Media Matters

9 Designing Printed and Electronic Documents 

a. Understanding the Four Principles of Design

b. Planning Your Design Project 

c. Applying the Principles of Design 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Selecting Fonts with Readers in Mind 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: ESTABLISHING A CONSISTENT FONT

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: DESIGNING FOR THOSE WITH IMPAIRED COLOR VISION

10 Writing for Multiple Media 

a. Writing and Answering Email 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Maintain Confidentiality in Email

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Make Considerate Attachments 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Email and Privacy 

b. Creating Websites or Web Pages 

c. Writing in Interactive Media

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Flaming 

11 Making a Multimedia Presentation

a. Identifying your Purpose, Audience, Context, and Genre 

b. Devising a Topic and Thesis 

c. Organizing the Presentation 

d. Preparing and Rehearsing the Presentation 

e. Delivering the Presentation 

f. Speaking Responsibly 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Active Listening 

PART 4 Research Matters

12 Planning a Research Project 

a. Analyzing the Assignment's Purpose, Audience, and Method of Development

b. Setting a Schedule

c. Choosing and Narrowing a Research Topic 

d. Drafting Research Questions and Hypotheses 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Printed Sources 

e. Choosing Research Sources Strategically

f. Establishing a Research Log 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Avoiding Accidental Plagiarism

g. Building a Working Bibliography 

13 Finding Information

a. Finding Reference Works 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Wikipedia

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Going Beyond Reference Sources

b. Finding Information on the Web

c. Finding Reliable Interactive Media

d. Finding Articles in Journals and Other Periodicals Using Databases and Indexes

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: REALLY Reading REAL Sources

e. Finding Books Using Library Catalogs

f. Finding Government Information

g. Finding Multimedia Sources

Conducting and Reporting Field Research

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Conducting Interviews Fairly

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Avoiding Manipulation and Bias in Observations   

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Reporting Results Fairly

14 Evaluating Information 

a. Evaluating for Relevance and Reliability 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Keeping an Open, Inquiring Mind  

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Online Plagiarism 

b. Evaluating Online Texts: Websites, Blogs, Wikis and Discussion Forums  

c. Evaluating visual sources

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Choosing and Unpacking Complex Sources

15 Using Information Responsibly: Taking Notes and Avoiding Plagiarism 

a. Valuing Research 

b. Using Information Ethically: What You Do and Do Not Have to Acknowledge

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Illustrations and Avoiding Plagiarism

c. Making Notes That Help You Avoid Plagiarizing 

d. Making Research Notes That Help You Write 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Highlighting versus Making Notes

e. Paraphrasing and Patchwriting

f. Summarizing

g. Quoting 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Quotations Fairly

h. Using Analysis, Interpretation, Synthesis, and Critique in Your Notes 

16 Writing the Research Project 

a. Drafting a Thesis Statement 

b. Organizing Your Ideas 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Acknowledging Counterevidence 

c. Drafting Your Research Project 

d. Revising, Proofreading, Formatting, and Publishing Your Project 

17 Citing Expertly

a. Integrating Source Material Responsibly

b. Showing Source Boundaries

c. Emphasizing Your Voice

d. Providing Context
e. Integrating Altered Quotations

PART 5 Documentation Matters: Creating Citations and Informational Notes

18 Documenting Sources: MLA Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Citing and Documenting Sources 

a. Creating MLA-Style In-Text Citations 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Signal Phrases to Demonstrate Your Relationship with Sources

b. Preparing an MLA-Style List of Works Cited

Books--Printed and Electronic
Periodicals--Printed and Electronic
Other Electornic Sources
Audio and Visual Sources
Miscellaneous Sources

c. Using MLA Style for Informational Notes 

d. Formatting a Paper in MLA Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Of Deadlines and Paperclips 

STUDENT MODEL RESEARCH PROJECT: MLA STYLE 

19 Documenting Sources: APA Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Citing and Documenting Sources 

a. Creating APA Style In-Text Citations 

b. Preparing an APA-Style Reference List

Books--Printed and Electronic
Periodicals--Printed and Electronic
Other Electronic Sources
Audio and Visual Sources
Miscellaneous Sources--Printed and Electronic

c. Formatting a Paper in APA Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Of Deadlines and Paperclips 

STUDENT MODEL RESEARCH PROJECT: APA STYLE 

20 Documenting Sources: Chicago Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Citing and Documenting Sources 

a. Creating Chicago-Style Notes and Bibliographic Entries 

Books--Printed and Electronic
Periodicals--Printed and Electronic
Other Electronic Sources
Audio and Visual Sources
Miscellaneous Sources--Printed and Electronic

b. Using Chicago Style for Tables and Figures

c. Formatting a Paper in Chicago Style

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Of Deadlines and Paperclips 

STUDENT MODEL RESEARCH PROJECT: CHICAGO STYLE 

21 Documenting Sources: CSE Style 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Citing and Documenting Sources 

Preparing a CSE-Style Reference List

a. Creating CSE-Style In-Text Citations 

b. Preparing a CSE-Style Reference List

Books--Printed and Electronic
Periodicals--Printed and Electronic
Other Electronic and Miscellaneous Sources

c. Formatting a CSE-Style Paper and Reference List 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Of Deadlines and Paperclips 

STUDENT MODEL RESEARCH PROJECT: CSE STYLE 

PART 6 Genre Matters: Writing in and beyond College

22 Writing in Literature and the Other Humanities 

a. Adopting the Approach of Literature and the Other Humanities 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Reading with Study Guides 

STUDENT MODEL: Textual Analysis

b. Using the Resources of Literature and the Other Humanities 

c. Citing and Documenting sources--MLA and Chicago Style 

d. Using the Language of Literature and the Other Humanities

e. Understanding Writing Projects in Literature and the Other Humanities 

STUDENT MODEL: Interpretive Analysis

f. Writing about Poetry 

STUDENT MODEL: Explication

g. Writing about Drama

PROFESSIONAL MODEL: REVIEW OF A PLAY

23 Writing in the Sciences and Social Sciences 

a. Adopting the Approach of the Sciences and Social Sciences 

b. Using the Research Methods of the Sciences and Social Sciences 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Presenting Data Accurately

c. Citing and Documenting Sources--APA and CSE Style

d. Using the Language of the Sciences and Social Sciences 

e. Writing Assignments in the Sciences and Social Sciences 

STUDENT PROJECT: RESEARCH REPORT

24 Preparing for and Taking an Essay Exam

a. Preparing for an Essay Exam

b. Previewing the Exam

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Your Computer during an Essay Exam 

c. Writing an Effective Exam

d. Doing a Final Check 

STUDENT MODEL: Effective Exam Answer

25 Writing in Business and as a Citizen (by Amy Taggart)

a. Using Business Letter Formats

b. Writing Business Letters 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Letters to the Editor 

c. Writing Business Memos 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Personal Emails and IM at Work 

d. Writing Job Application Letters 

e. Writing Résumés 

f. Writing Reports and Proposals 

g. Writing Press Releases

PART 7 Style Matters: Writing Engagingly

26. Writing Concisely

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Conciseness versus the Too-Short Paper 

a. Eliminating Wordy Expressions 

b. Eliminating Ineffective or Unnecessary Repetition 

c. Avoiding Indirect Constructions 

d. Consolidating Phrases, Clauses, and Sentences 

27 Using Coordination and Subordination

a. Coordinating Terms, Phrases, and Clauses 

b. Coordinating Effectively 

c. Identifying Important Ideas and Supporting Information with Subordination

d. Using Coordination and Subordination Together 

28 Using Parallelism

a. Using Parallelism for Paired Items and Items in a Series 

b. Maintaining Parallelism in Comparisons 

c. Including Function Words to Maintain Parallelism 

d. Maintaining Parallelism for Items in Lists and Outlines

e. Using Parallelism to Create Emphasis 

29 Engaging Readers with Variety and Emphasis

a. Varying Sentence Length and Structure 

b. Varying Sentence Openings 

c. Creating Emphasis with Rhythm

d. Creating Emphasis with Punctuation

e. Using Questions, Commands, and Exclamations 

f. Using Strategic Repetition 

g. Creating Emphasis with Emphatic Verbs 

h. Choosing the Active or Passive Voice 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Voice and Responsibility

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Blending Voices in Your Text

30 Choosing Appropriate Language 

a. Using Language in Context 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Avoiding Online Shortcuts 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Euphemisms and Doublespeak 

b. Avoiding Biased or Hurtful Language 

31 Choosing Effective Words 

a. Diction: Finding the Right Word 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Word Choice and Credibility 

b. Choosing Compelling Words and Figures 

c. Mastering Idioms

d. Avoiding Clichés 

32 Using the Dictionary and Spelling Correctly 

a. Choosing a Dictionary 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Choose Accurate Synonyms 

b. Using a Dictionary 

c. Avoiding Common Spelling Problems

d. Remembering Spelling Rules

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Spelling Errors 

e. Forming Plurals

d. Improving Your Day-to-Day Spelling 

PART 8 Grammar Matters

33 Understanding Grammar

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Why Grammar Matters 

THE PARTS OF SPEECH

a. Nouns 

b. Pronouns 

c. Verbs

d. Adjectives 

e. Adverbs 

f. Prepositions 

g. Conjunctions 

h. Interjections 

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

i. Subjects 

j. Predicates 

k. Verb Types and Sentence Patterns

l. Phrases 

m. Independent and Subordinate Clauses 

n. Sentence Types 

34 Avoiding Sentence Fragments

a. Recognizing Fragments

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Sentence Fragments and Context 

b. Correcting Fragments 

c. Using Intentional Fragments Effectively and Judiciously 

35 Avoiding Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

a. Correctly Joining Independent Clauses 

b. Identifying Incorrectly Joined Independent Clauses: Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Clarifying Boundaries

c. Recognizing When Comma Splices and Fused Sentences Tend to Occur 

d. Correcting Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 

36 Maintaining Agreement 

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

a. Understanding How Subjects and Verbs Agree 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Dialect Variation in Subject-Verb Agreement 

b Ignoring Words That Intervene between the Subject and the Verb 

c. Distinguishing Plural from Singular Compound Subjects 

d. Distinguishing Singular and Plural Indefinite Pronouns 

e. Understanding Collective Noun Subjects 

f. Finding Agreement When the Subject Is a Measurement, a Number, or the Word Number 

g. Recognizing Nouns like Measles and Economics That Are Singular Even Though They End in –s  

h. Treating Titles, Words as Words, and Gerund Phrases as Singular 

i. Matching a Relative Pronoun (Who, Which, or That) to Its Antecedent When the Pronoun Is the Subject of a Subordinate Clause 

j. Finding Agreement When the Subject Follows the Verb 

k. Matching a Linking Verb with Its Subject, not Its Subject Complement 

PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT

l. Matching Pronouns with Indefinite Pronoun and Generic Noun Antecedents 

m. Matching Pronouns with Collective Noun Antecedents 

n. Matching Pronouns with Compound Antecedents 

37 Using Verbs

VERB FORMS

a. Understanding the Basic Forms of Verbs 

b. Using Regular and Irregular Verb Forms Correctly 

c. Combining Main Verbs with Helping Verbs to Form Complete Verbs 

d. Including –s or –es, -d or –ed Endings When Required

e. Distinguishing Rise from Raise, Sit from Set, Lie from Lay 

TENSE

f. Understanding Which Verb Tense to Use 

g. Following Conventions for the Use of the Present Tense  

h. Using Tense Sequence to Clarify Time Relationships 

MOOD

i. Understanding Verb Mood 

j.Using the Subjunctive Mood Correctly 

VOICE

k. Understanding Voice 

l. Choosing between the Active and Passive Voice 

38 Understanding Pronoun Case and Reference  

PRONOUN CASE

a. Using the Subjective Case for Subject Complements 

b. She and I or Her and Me? Keeping Track of Case in Compounds 

c. Keeping Track of Pronoun Case in Appositives 

d. Deciding between We and Us before Nouns  

e. Using the Objective Case Both before and after an Infinitive 

f. Deciding on Pronoun Case with the –ing Form of a Verb  

g. Clarifying Pronoun Case in Comparisons with Than or As

h. Distinguishing Who, Whom, Whoever, and Whomever

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Case and Tone 

CLEAR PRONOUN REFERENCE

i. Avoiding Ambiguous Reference 

j. Avoiding Confusingly Broad Reference with It, This, That, and Which 

k. Avoiding Implied Reference 

l. Reserving You for Directly Addressing the Reader 

m. Avoiding the Indefinite Use of They and It  

n. Designating People with Who, Whom, and Whose, not That and Which

39 Using Adjectives and Adverbs 

a. Differentiating Adjectives and Adverbs 

b. Using Adjectives, Not Adverbs, as Subject Complements after Linking Verbs 

c. Choosing Bad or Badly, Good or Well

d. Using Negatives Correctly 

e. Avoiding Long Strings of Nouns Used as Adjectives 

f. Using Comparative and Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs 

40 Avoiding Confusing Shifts

a. Avoiding Awkward Shifts in Tense 

b. Avoiding Awkward Shifts in Mood and Voice 

c. Avoiding Shifts in Person and Number 

d. Avoiding Awkward Shifts in Direct and Indirect Quotations and Questions 

41 Avoiding Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 

MISPLACED MODIFIERS

a. Avoiding Confusing or Ambiguous Placement 

b. Avoiding Disruptive Placement 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Misplaced Modifiers in the Real World

DANGLING MODIFIERS

c. Identifying Dangling Modifiers 

d. Correcting Dangling Modifiers 

42 Avoiding Mixed and Incomplete Constructions 

MIXED CONSTRUCTIONS

a. Recognizing and Correcting Grammatically Mixed Constructions 

b. Recognizing and Correcting Mismatched Subjects and Predicates 

INCOMPLETE CONSTRUCTIONS

c. Adding Essential Words to Compound and Other Constructions

d. Avoiding Incomplete or Ambiguous Comparisons 

PART 9 ESL Matters (by Ted E. Johnston and M. E. Sokolik)

43 Understanding English Word Order and Sentence Structure 

a. Observing Normal Word Order  

b. Including a Stated Subject 

c. Managing There and It Constructions

d. Eliminating Redundant Subject and Object Pronouns 

e. Sentence Structure with Direct Objects, Indirect Objects, and Object Complements 

f. Observing Word Order Patterns in Questions

g. Observing Inverted Word Order When Certain Conjunctions or Adverbs Begin a Clause 

44 Using Nouns and Noun Determiners  

a. Understanding Different Types of Noun 

b. Using Nouns with Articles (a, an, the) and Other Determiners 

45 Managing English Verbs 

a. Using Phrasal Verbs 

b. Using Gerunds and Infinitives after Verbs and Prepositions

c. Using Participles as Adjectives

d. Using Helping Verbs for Verb Formation

46 Managing Adjectives and Adverbs

a. Placing Adjectives in the Proper Order 

b. Choosing the Correct Prepositions with Adjectives 

c. Placing Adverbs Correctly 

d. Dealing with Confusing Adverbs 

46 Using Prepositions 

a. Recognizing Prepositions 

b. The Functions of Prepositions 

c. Using Prepositions Correctly 

d. Necessary and Unnecessary Prepositions 

PART 10 Detail Matters: Punctuation and Mechanics

47 Using Commas 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Commas and Clarity 

a. Using Commas in Compound Sentences 

b. Using a Comma after Introductory Elements 

c. Using Commas to Set Off Conjunctive Adverbs and Most Transitional Phrases

d. Inserting Commas to Set Off Interjections, Contrasting Information, Expressions of Direct Address, Parenthetical and Conversational Expressions, and Tag Sentences 

e. Using Commas to Separate Items in a Series 

f. Using Commas to Separate Coordinate, Not Cumulative, Adjectives 

g. Using Commas to Set Off Nonessential Appositives, Phrases, and Clauses 

h. Using Commas with Quotations 

i. Using Commas with Numbers, Titles, Place Names and Addresses, and Dates 

j. Using Commas to Avoid Ambiguity

k. Avoiding Commas between Subjects and Verbs, Verbs and Objects 

49 Using Semicolons 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Sending a Signal with Semicolons 

a. Using a Semicolon to Link Independent Clauses 

b. Using a Semicolon before a Conjunctive Adverb or Transitional Phrase Linking Two Independent Clauses 

c. Using a Semicolon to Mark a Series with Internal Commas 

d. Repairing a Comma Splice 

e. Avoiding Overuse 

50 Using Apostrophes 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Contractions in Formal Writing 

a. Using the Apostrophe to Indicate Possession 

b. Using Apostrophes in Contractions and Abbreviated Years 

c. Moving Away from Using Apostrophes to Form Plurals of Abbreviations, Dates, and Words or Letters Used as Words

51 Using Quotation Marks 

a. Setting Off Direct Quotations  

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Quotations Fairly 

b. Indicating Titles of Short Works 

c. Indicating Words Used in a Special Sense 

d. Misusing Quotation Marks 

e. Punctuating Quotations 

f. Altering Quotations with Ellipses and Square Brackets 

g. Introducing and Identifying Quotations 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Acknowledging Indirect Sources

52 Using End Punctuation: Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points 

a. Using Periods to End Statements and Mild Commands 

b. Using Question Marks to End Direct (Not Indirect) Questions 

c. Using Exclamation Points with Strong Commands or to Express Excitement or Surprise 

53 Using Other Punctuation Marks: Dashes, Parentheses, Brackets, Colons, Ellipses, and Slashes 

a. Using Dashes 

b. Using Parentheses 

c. Using Brackets 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using [sic] 

d. Using Colons 

e. Using Ellipses 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Altering Quotations 

f. Using Slashes 

54 Capitalizing 

a. Capitalizing the First Word of Sentence 

b. Capitalizing Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives 

c. Capitalizing Titles and Subtitles 

d. Capitalizing the First-Person Pronoun I and the Interjection O

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Capitalizing in Email and IM 

e. Capitalizing Abbreviations and Acronyms 

55 Italics and Underlining 

a. Italicizing Titles of Longer Works 

b. Italicizing for Emphasis 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Italics for Emphasis

c. Italicizing Names of Vehicles 

d. Italicizing Words, Letters, or Numbers Used as Words

e. Italicizing Unfamiliar Non-English Words and Latin Genus and Species 

f. Underlining Hyperlinks

56 Using Abbreviations

a. Abbreviating Titles before and after Names 

b. Using Familiar Abbreviations: Acronyms and Initialisms 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Using Online Abbreviations Appropriately 

c. Using Abbreviations with Specific Years (BC, BCE, AD, CE), Hours (a.m., p.m.), Numbers (no.), Dollars ($) 

d. Avoiding Abbreviations of Names, Words, Courses, Parts of Books, States and Countries, Days and Months, Holidays and Units of Measurement in Prose 

e. Replacing Latin Abbreviations with English Equivalents in Formal Prose 

57 Using Numbers 

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Ethos and Convention 

a. Spelling Out Numbers When They Can Be Expressed in One or Two words 

b. Following Conventions for Dates, Times, Addresses, Specific Amounts of Money and Other Quantitative Information, and Divisions of Literary Works 

58 Using Hyphens

a. Using Hyphens to Form Compounds

WRITING RESPONSIBLY: Hyphenating with Readers in Mind

b. Using Hyphens to Break Words at Ends of Lines 

Glossary of Key Terms

Glossary of Usage

Credits

Index

ESL Index

Getting It Across and Tech Boxes

Quick Reference and Writing Responsibly Boxes

Editing and Proofreading Symbols and Abbreviatoins



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