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Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide  (MLA Update),9780321202536

Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide (MLA Update)

by ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780321202536

ISBN10:
0321202538
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $35.60
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Summary

The definitive research paper guide, Lester combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on researching and writing online.Comprehensive, but not overwhelming, Lester provides students with step-by-step guidance through the research writing process from selecting and narrowing a topic, to formatting the finished document. And it backs up the instruction with the most complete array of samples of any research writing guide on the market. Another of the text's ongoing strengths is its extremely thorough and accurate coverage of citation styles for a wide variety of disciplines. This edition maintains Lester's successful approach while detailing the uses of new computer technologies that are changing the face of research.In addition, an all-new Interactive Edition CD-ROM offers the entire text in an electronic format for easy reference while writing and researching on a computer. Numerous multimedia features include: interactive research activities, weblinks, and resources. The CD is FREE when bundled with the text.Available at an unbelievably low price in two formats perfect and spiral-bound with tabs Lester's text is one that students will keep throughout their college careers.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Instructor xiii
Preface to the Student xix
CHAPTER 1 WRITING FROM RESEARCH 1(9)
1a Why Do Research?
1(1)
1b Learning Format Variations
2(1)
1c Understanding a Research Assignment
3(5)
Understanding the Terminology
3(5)
1d Establishing a Schedule
8(2)
CHAPTER 2 FINDING A TOPIC 10(22)
2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem
11(5)
Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics
12(1)
Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues
13(3)
2b Talking with Others to Refine the Topic
16(2)
Personal Interviews
16(1)
Internet Discussion Groups
17(1)
2c Using the World Wide Web to Refine Your Topic
18(1)
Using an Internet Subject Directory
18(1)
Using an Internet Keyword Search
19(1)
2d Using the Library's Electronic Databases to Narrow the Subject
19(2)
2e Using a Library's Electronic Book Catalog
21(2)
2f Using Compact Diskettes
23(1)
2g Using Printed Materials to Evaluate Your Potential Topic
23(3)
Scanning Periodicals and Books
23(2)
Searching the Headings in the Printed Indexes
25(1)
2h Drafting a Research Proposal
26(3)
The Short Proposal
26(1)
The Long Proposal
26(1)
Explaining Your Purpose in the Research Proposal
27(1)
Identifying Your Audience in the Research Proposal
28(1)
Identifying Your Role as a Researcher in the Proposal
28(1)
2i Expressing Your Thesis
29(2)
Using an Enthymeme
30(1)
Your Research Project
31(1)
CHAPTER 3 GATHERING DATA IN THE LIBRARY 32(22)
3a Launching the Search
32(1)
3b Developing a Working Bibliography
33(1)
3c Finding Books on Your Topic
34(6)
Using Your Library's Electronic Book Catalog
35(1)
Using the Online and Printed Bibliographies
36(4)
3d Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals
40(6)
Searching the Electronic Indexes to Periodicals
40(1)
Finding Indexes Devoted to Your Discipline
40(2)
Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes
42(1)
Searching for an Index to Abstracts
43(3)
3e Searching for a Biography
46(1)
3f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes
47(1)
3g Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files
47(2)
3h Searching for Government Documents
49(2)
3i Searching for Essays within Books
51(1)
3j Using the Microforms
52(1)
Your Research Project
53(1)
CHAPTER 4 SEARCHING THE WORLD WIDE WEB 54(24)
4a Reading an Internet Address
54(3)
4b Using a Search Engine
57(6)
Subject Directory Search Engines
57(3)
Robot-Driven Search Engines
60(1)
Metasearch Engines
60(1)
Specialized Search Engines
61(1)
Educational Search Engines
62(1)
4c Using a Subject Directory
63(1)
4d Using a Keyword Search
63(3)
Tips for Searching
63(3)
4e Accessing Online Sources
66(4)
Home Pages
66(1)
Articles
66(1)
Journals
67(1)
Magazines
67(1)
Newspapers and News Sources
68(1)
Books
69(1)
4f Using Online Versions of Articles
70(1)
4g Using Gopher, FTP, Telnet
70(1)
4h Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups
71(2)
Listserv E-mail News Groups
71(1)
Real-Time Chatting
71(2)
4i Examining Library Holdings Via Internet Access
73(1)
4j Finding an Internet Bibliography
73(1)
4k Conducting Archival Research
74(3)
Your Research Project
77(1)
CHAPTER 5 FIELD RESEARCH: COLLECTING DATA OUTSIDE THE LIBRARY 78(9)
5a Investigating Hometown Sources
78(4)
Interviewing Knowledgeable People
78(1)
Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail
79(1)
Reading Personal Papers
80(1)
Attending Lectures and Public Addresses
80(1)
Investigating Government Documents
81(1)
5b Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio
82(1)
5c Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire
82(1)
5d Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation
83(2)
Your Research Project
85(2)
CHAPTER 6 ORGANIZING IDEAS AND SETTING GOALS 87(15)
6a Charting a Direction and Setting Goals
87(5)
Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Note-Taking
88(1)
Listing Key Words and Phrases to Set Directions for Note-Taking
88(1)
Writing a Rough Outline
89(1)
Using Questions to Identify Issues
89(1)
Setting Goals by Using the Modes of Development
89(1)
Using Approaches Across the Curriculum to Chart Your Major Ideas
90(1)
Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research
91(1)
6b Using Academic Models (Paradigms)
92(4)
A General All-Purpose Model
93(1)
Paradigm for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories
93(1)
Paradigm for the Analysis of Creative Works
94(1)
Paradigm for Argument and Persuasion Papers
94(1)
Paradigm for Analysis of History
95(1)
Paradigm for a Comparative Study
95(1)
6c Writing a Formal Outline
96(5)
Using Standard Outline Symbols
97(1)
Writing a Formal Topic Outline
97(2)
Writing a Formal Sentence Outline
99(1)
Using Your Notes, Photocopies, Internet Printouts, and the Research Journal to Enrich Your Organizational Plan
100(1)
Using a Basic, Dynamic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work
100(1)
Your Research Project
101(1)
CHAPTER 7 FINDING AND READING THE BEST SOURCES 102(21)
7a Finding the Best Source Materials
102(7)
7b Selecting a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources
109(2)
7c Reading All or Part of a Source
111(6)
Reading the Key Parts of an Article
111(1)
Reading the Key Parts of a Book
111(4)
Reading the Key Parts of an Internet Article
115(2)
7d Responding to the Sources
117(2)
Selecting Key Ideas for Your Notes
117(1)
Outlining the Key Ideas of a Source
118(1)
Making Notations on Photocopied Materials
118(1)
Writing a Rough Summary
119(1)
7e Preparing an Annotated Bibliography
119(1)
7f Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic
120(2)
Your Research Project
122(1)
CHAPTER 8 PRACTICING ACADEMIC INTEGRITY 123(10)
8a Using Sources to Establish Your Credibility
123(1)
8b Placing the Source in Its Proper Context
124(1)
8c Honoring Property Rights
124(1)
8d Avoiding Plagiarism
125(4)
Common Knowledge Exceptions
126(1)
Borrowing from a Source Correctly
127(2)
8e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects
129(1)
8f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms
130(1)
8g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Website
131(1)
Your Research Project
132(1)
CHAPTER 9 WRITING NOTES 133(13)
9a Creating Effective Notes
134(2)
Honoring the Conventions of Research Style
134(1)
Using a Computer for Note-Taking
134(2)
Developing Handwritten Notes
136(1)
9b Writing Personal Notes
136(1)
9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes
137(2)
Quoting Primary Sources
138(1)
Quoting Secondary Sources
138(1)
9d Writing Paraphrased Notes
139(2)
9e Writing Summary Notes
141(1)
9f Writing Précis Notes
142(2)
Use the Précis to Review Briefly an Article or Book
142(1)
Use the Précis to Write an Annotated Bibliography
143(1)
Use the Précis in a Plot Summary Note
143(1)
Use the Précis as the Form for an Abstract
143(1)
9g Writing Notes from Field Research
144(1)
Your Research Project
144(2)
CHAPTER 10 DRAFTING THF PAPER IN AN ACADEMIC STYLE 146(13)
10a Focusing Your Argument
147(1)
Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas
148(1)
10b Refining the Thesis Sentence
148(3)
Using Questions to Focus the Thesis
149(1)
Using Key Words to Focus the Thesis
150(1)
Adjust or Change Your Thesis During Research if Necessary
151(1)
10c Writing an Academic Title
151(1)
10d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files
152(5)
Writing from Your Notes
152(1)
Writing with Unity and Coherence
153(1)
Writing in the Proper Tense
154(1)
Using the Language of the Discipline
154(1)
Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing
155(1)
Writing in the Third Person
155(1)
Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner
156(1)
Placing Graphics Effectively in a Research Essay
156(1)
10e Avoiding Sexist and Biased language
157(1)
Your Research Project
158(1)
CHAPTER 11 BLENDING REFERENCE MATERIAL INTO YOUR WRITING 159(21)
11a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text
159(2)
Making a General Reference without a Page Number
159(1)
Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number
160(1)
Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name
160(1)
Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material
160(1)
11b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed
161(1)
Citing the Title of a Magazine Article
161(1)
Citing the Title of a Report
161(1)
Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body
161(1)
11c Identifying Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number
161(1)
11d Identifying Internet Sources
162(1)
11e Omitting Page Numbers to Internet Citations
163(1)
11f Citing Indirect Sources
164(1)
11g Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work
165(1)
11h Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies
166(1)
11i Adding Extra Information to In-text Citations
167(1)
One of Several Volumes
167(1)
Two or More Works by the Same Writer
167(1)
Several Authors in One Citation
167(1)
Additional Information with the Page Number
168(1)
11j Punctuating Citations Properly and With Consistency
168(3)
Commas and Periods
168(1)
Semicolons and Colons
169(1)
Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
170(1)
Single Quotation Marks
170(1)
11k Indenting Long Quotations
171(1)
11l Citing Poetry
172(1)
Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less
172(1)
Quoting Three Lines or More
172(1)
Signaling Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry
173(1)
11m Handling Quotations from a Play
173(1)
11n Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter
174(1)
11o Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points
174(3)
11p Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets
177(1)
Parentheses
177(1)
Brackets
177(1)
Your Research Project
178(2)
CHAPTER 12 WRITING THE INTRODUCTION, BODY, AND CONCLUSION 180(15)
12a Writing the Introduction of the Paper
180(5)
Provide the Thesis Statement
180(1)
Relate to the Well Known
181(1)
Provide Background Information
181(1)
Review the Literature
182(1)
Review the History and Background of the Subject
182(1)
Take Exception to Critical Views
183(1)
Challenge an Assumption
183(1)
Provide a Brief Summary
183(1)
Define Key Terms
184(1)
Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence
185(1)
12b Writing the Body of the Research Paper
185(5)
Relate a Time Sequence
186(1)
Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary Characters
186(1)
Develop Cause and Effect
187(1)
Define Your Key Terminology
187(1)
Explain a Process
188(1)
Ask Questions and Provide Answers
188(1)
Cite Evidence from the Source Materials
189(1)
Use a Variety of Other Methods
189(1)
12c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper
190(4)
Restate the Thesis and Reach Beyond It
191(1)
Close with an Effective Quotation
191(1)
Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author
192(1)
Compare the Past to the Present or the Present to the Future
192(1)
Offer a Directive or Solution
192(1)
Discuss Test Results
193(1)
Your Research Project
194(1)
CHAPTER 13 REVISING, PROOFREADING, AND FORMATTING THE ROUGH DRAFT 195(29)
13a Conducting a Global Revision
195(3)
Revising the Introduction
196(1)
Revising the Body
196(1)
Revising the Conclusion
196(1)
Participating in Peer Review
197(1)
13b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style
198(3)
Title Page or Opening Page
198(1)
Outline
199(1)
Abstract
199(1)
The Text of the Paper
200(1)
Content Endnotes Page
200(1)
Appendix
200(1)
Works Cited
201(1)
13c Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript
201(1)
Using the Computer to Edit Your Text
202(1)
13d Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript
202(1)
Your Research Project
203(21)
Short Literary Research Paper
203(6)
Long Research Paper
209(15)
CHAPTER 14 WORKS CITED: MLA STYLE 224
14a Formatting the Works Cited Page
225(3)
14b Bibliography Form-Books
228(15)
14c Bibliography Form-Periodicals
243(7)
14d Bibliography Form-Newspapers
250(2)
14e Bibliography Form-Government Documents
252(2)
14f Bibliography Form-Electronic Sources
254(10)
Citing Sources Found on the Internet
254(1)
World Wide Web Sites
255(9)
14g Bibliography Form-CD-ROMs
264(2)
14h Bibliography Form-Other Electronic Sources
266(1)
14i Bibliography Form-Other Sources
267
CHAPTER 15 WRITING IN APA STYLE 27(283)
15a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing literature
277(1)
Theoretical Article
277(1)
Report of an Empirical Study
278(1)
Review Article
278(1)
15b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Paper
278(1)
15c Using In-text Citations in APA Style
279(7)
15d Preparing a Working Draft or Publishing the Manuscript
286(1)
15e Preparing the References list
287(8)
Book
288(2)
Periodical
290(1)
Abstract
291(1)
Review
291(1)
Report
291(1)
Nonprint Material
291(1)
Internet Sources
292(3)
CD-ROM Material
295(1)
15f Variations on the APA Style for Other Disciplines in the Social Sciences 295
Linguistics
295(2)
Sociology and Social Work
297(1)
15g Formatting an APA Paper
297(2)
Theoretical Paper
297(1)
Report of Empirical Research
298(1)
Review Article
298(1)
15h Writing the Abstract
299(1)
15i Sample Paper in APA Style
299(11)
CHAPTER 16 CMS STYLE: USING FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES 310(26)
16a Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text
311(1)
16b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes
312(2)
Book
313(1)
Collection or Anthology
313(1)
Journal Article
313(1)
Magazine Article
313(1)
Newspaper Article
314(1)
Review Article
314(1)
16c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources
314(1)
Scholarly Project
314(1)
Journal Article Online
314(1)
Database not on the World Wide Web
314(1)
Article from an Online Service
314(1)
Book Online
315(1)
CD-ROM Source
315(1)
Electronic Bulletin Board
315(1)
E-mail
315(1)
16d Writing Subsequent Footnote References
315(1)
16e Writing Endnotes rather than Footnotes
316(1)
16f Writing Content Notes
316(3)
16g Using the CMS System for Papers in the Humanities
319(2)
16h Using the CMS System for Papers in the Fine Arts
321(1)
16i Writing a Bibliography Page
322(1)
16j Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style
322(14)
CHAPTER 17 CBE STYLE FOR THE NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES 336(16)
17a Writing In Text Citations with Numbers
331(7)
17b Using Numbers with Bibliography Entries
338(2)
17c Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year
340(2)
17d Using Name and Year with Bibliography Entries
342(1)
17e Arranging the Cited References List by Name and Year
343(1)
17f Sample Paper Using the CBE Number System
344(8)
CHAPTER 18 PREPARING ELECIRONIC RESEARCH PROJECTS 352
18a Getting Started
352(1)
18b Using Word Processing
353(1)
18c Building Electronic Presentations
354(1)
18d Research Paper Web Pages and Sites
355(4)
Creating a Single Web Page
356(1)
Creating a Website with Multiple Pages
357(1)
Using a Web Page Editor to Create Web Pages
358(1)
Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text
358(1)
Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper
358(1)
18e Planning Electronic Research Papers
359(1)
Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper
359(1)
Designing Your Electronic Research
359(1)
18f Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper
360(1)
Graphic File Formats
360(1)
Creating Your Own Digital Graphics
360(1)
18g Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper
361(1)
18h Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers
362(1)
Your Research Project
362
Appendix A: Glossary of Manuscript Style A-1
Appendix B: Finding Sources for a Selected Discipline A-31
Credits C-1
Index I-1


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