Advocacy and Oppositionoffers a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking. This book provides a theoretical view of the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument.
Each chapter includes “Suggested Supplemental Readings” and “References.”
1. What Is Argumentation?
The Nature of Argumentation.
The Nature of the Audience.
The Historical Development of Argumentation.
Ethical Standards for Argumentation.
2. Where Do I Begin in Argumentation?
Fields of Argumentation.
Burden of Proof.
The Prima Facie Case.
3. What Am I Going to Argue About?
The Nature of Propositions.
The Classification of Propositions.
Phrasing the Proposition.
Defining the Key Terms.
4. How Do I Analyze Propositions?
Locating the Immediate Cause.
Defining Key Terms and Creating the Primary Inference.
Determining the Issues.
5. How Is a Unit of Argument Created?
The Toulmin Model of Arguments.
Simple, Chain, and Cluster Arguments.
6. How Do I Prove My Argument?
The Discovery of Evidence.
Types and Tests of Evidence.
7. How Do I Reason with My Audience?
Argument from Cause.
Argument from Sign.
Argument from Generalization.
Argument from Parallel Case.
Argument from Analogy.
Argument from Authority.
Argument from Dilemma.
8. What Should I Avoid?
Fallacies in Reasoning.
Fallacies of Appeal.
Fallacies in Language.
9. How Are Factual Propositions Argued?
Advocating Propositions of Fact.
Opposing Propositions of Fact.
10. How Are Propositions of Value Argued?
Values in Conflict.
Advocating Propositions of Value.
Opposing Propositions of Value.
11. How Are Propositions of Policy Argued?
Advocating Policy Propositions.
Opposing Policy Propositions.
12. How Do I Present My Arguments to an Audience?
Language Choice and Style.
Building Credibility with an Audience.
Appendix A: What Are the Rules of the Game?
Appendix B: How Do I Write an Argumentative Brief?