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Annual Editions: Homeland Security provides a convenient, inexpensive, up-to-date collection of carefully selected articles from the most respected national and international magazines, newspapers, and journals. Interesting, informative, and well-written articles by journalists, political scientists, historians, sociologists, government officials, researchers, and military and public affairs specialists provide students with an effective and useful perspective on policies and plans to protect this country from acts of terrorism. For additional support for this title, visit our student website: www.dushkin.com/online.
Table of Contents
UNIT 1. The Concept of Homeland Security
1. America the Vulnerable, Stephen E. Flynn, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2002
Stephen Flynn focuses on existing flaws in U.S. border security and international transport networks. He argues that there is “an alternative between maintaining trade and travel lanes so open that they practically invite terrorists to do their worst, and turning off the global … spigot whenever a terrorist attack occurs or a credible threat of one arises.”
2. The Experiment Begins, National Journal, June 15, 2002
Together, the authors of these short articles offer a comprehensive look at the monumental challenges faced by the U.S. government in creating the new Department of Homeland Security. They identify key issues that must be addressed if this new department is to have a chance at fulfilling its primary mission.
3. A Watchful Eye, Steven Brill, Newsweek, February 24, 2003
Steven Brill offers “five realities” to help the reader sort through the political rhetoric that increasingly envelops the issue of management of homeland security. He argues that spending more money will not guarantee security.
4. The State of Our Defense, Romesh Ratnesar, Time, February 24, 2003
Romesh Ratnesar argues that while the Bush administration has kept the issue of terrorism at the forefront of its policy agenda, it has done little to reduce the threat of terrorism. He concludes, “…that in many respects the homeland is no more secure than it was on September 10, 2001.”
UNIT 2. Organizing Homeland Security
5. Organizing the War on Terrorism, William L. Waugh Jr. and Richard T. Sylves, Public Administration Review, September 2002
This article examines differences between the national emergency management system and the counterterrorism system. Richard Sylves and William Waugh argue that the creation of the new Department of Homeland Security could undermine the existing cooperation between the many current disaster agencies.
6. The Ultimate Turf War, Richard E. Cohen, Siobhan Gorman, and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr., National Journal, January 4, 2003
According to the authors “…a total of 88 congressional committees and subcommittees have jurisdiction over issues related to homeland security.” They argue that effective operation of the Department of Homeland Security requires some of these “infamous 88” to relinquish their oversight rights.
7. Requirements for a New Agency, Government Computer News, February 10, 2003
This article discusses the problems associated with developing and managing an information technology system for the new Department of Homeland Security. It concludes “DHS will only be as effective as its Information Technology allows it to be.”
8. Homeland Security Funding Primer: Where We’ve Been, Where We’re Headed, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, May 1, 2003
A breakdown of government-wide budget requests for the Department of Homeland Security is provided in this primer, which includes an overview of past allocations, major initiatives, and funding requests for fiscal year 2004.
UNIT 3. The Federal Government and Homeland Security
9. The NRC: What Me Worry?, Daniel Hirsch, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 2002
According to Daniel Hirsch, “Security at the nation’s nuclear plants has been grossly inadequate for decades, and the nuclear industry and its captive regulatory agency, the NRC, have refused to do anything about it—both before and after September 11.”
10. Transportation Security Administration Faces Huge Challenges, Steve Dunham, Journal of Homeland Security, February 2002
The Transportation Security Administration’s first major challenge, according to Steve Dunham, is to “…remedy the security deficiencies in air travel in the United States.” His article provides an overview of the duties and responsibilities of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA).
11. Total Information Awareness: Down, but Not Out, Farhad Manjoo, Salon.com, January 28, 2003
Total Information Awareness (TIA) is a Department of Defense research project designed to identify terrorists through the use of “personal data collected in computer databases.” The program, described by some as the “…most massive surveillance program ever tried by the federal government” poses a serious challenge to existing privacy protections.
UNIT 4. State and Local Governments and Homeland Security
12. Catastrophic Terrorism—Local Response to a National Threat, Frank Keating, Journal of Homeland Security, August 2001
Frank Keating, the former governor of Oklahoma, examines the relationship between local, state, and federal agencies in response to terrorist attacks. Drawing on his experiences from the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 and Dark Winter, a disaster response exercise in 2001, he offers five basic guidelines for interaction among these agencies.
13. Governing After September 11th: A New Normalcy, Parris N. Glendening, Public Administration Review, September 2002
The governor of Maryland highlights in this article the issues that states face in the aftermath of the attacks on September 11, 2001. He discusses some of the organizational, legislative, and economic challenges that must be dealt with.
14. Bush Meets With N.Y. Mayor and Promises More Aid for Cities, John Machacek, USA Today, March 19, 2003
States and localities are increasingly dissatisfied with the formulas for distribution of federal funds for homeland security. Cities like New York are faced with major expenditures in a time of budget shortfalls.
15. States, Cities Step Up Security and Squabble Over Costs, USA Today, April 6, 2003
Conflicts between the federal government and local authorities over the escalating cost of homeland security continue. This article provides a number of examples of the costs facing local and state governments.
16. A Burnt-Orange Nation, Siobhan Gorman and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr., National Journal, March 1, 2003
While the federal government continues to be preoccupied with Iraq, state and local governments continue to make their preparations for possible terrorist attacks. Siobhan Gorman and Sydney Freedberg highlight the challenges faced by states and localities.
UNIT 5. First Responders
17. Man With a Plan, Macon Morehouse, People, March 17, 2003
In an interview with People magazine, Department of Homeland Security secretary Tom Ridge offers his advice on how to prepare for a terrorist attack. Ridge suggests keeping an emergency kit with 3 day’s worth of supplies including food, water, and, yes, duct tape.
18. All Citizens Now First Responders, Brian Michael Jenkins, USA Today, March 23, 2003
According to Brian Jenkins, the main targets of the new Homeland Security color-alert system are government agencies. These agencies, however, cannot protect all citizens at all times. Jenkins argues that Americans must become involved “in the defense of their communities…” in order for homeland security to succeed.
19. Community Policing and Terrorism, Matthew C. Scheider and Robert Chapman, Journal of Homeland Security, April 2003
Matthew Scheider and Robert Chapman argue that community policing, which requires citizen involvement, will lead to more effective terrorism prevention and response and will help reduce both fear of an attack and fear during an attack.
20. Smallpox, Big Worries, Julie Piotrowski, Modern Healthcare, January 6, 2003
Some 500,000 health care workers are supposed to voluntarily receive the smallpox vaccine as an unprecedented first step in preparing for a smallpox attack. Some first responders are prepared to take the risk, while others are just not sure this plan is worth the potential danger or the costs.
21. Managing the Response to a Major Terrorist Event, John R. Powers, Homeland Defense Journal, February 24, 2003
John Powers argues that many first responders currently lack “…a unifying concept of operations.” He believes that in order to save time and lives during a terrorist incident, first responders must establish and be able to function within a “network of networks,” which he describes in this article.
UNIT 6. New Technologies in Homeland Security
22. Guarding Against Missiles, Fred Bayles, USA Today, April 13, 2003
Fearing future terrorist attacks with shoulder-fired missiles on passenger planes, members of Congress have proposed the use of antimissile systems on U.S. aircraft. While some support the installation of “countermeasures” on passenger aircraft, others believe that there are less costly ways to address this potential threat.
23. Modernizing Homeland Security, John D. Cohen and John A. Hurson, Blueprint, March/April 2002
John Cohen and John Hurson argue that in order to respond more effectively to terrorism we must continue to improve communications. They advocate the linking of data systems and the integration of emergency response systems.
24. Aerospace Giants Repackage Military Technology for Home, John Croft, Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 21, 2002
Aerospace companies are trying to help fill the need for increased “communications interoperability” that became evident in the wake of the attacks on September 11, 2001. Companies such as Raytheon are developing mobile command centers that will allow communication between all first responders regardless of radio compatibility.
UNIT 7. Vulnerabilities and Threats
25. Waiting for Bioterror, Katherine Eban, The Nation, December 9, 2002
Much attention has been paid to the possibility that terrorists may possess and use biological agents such as anthrax and smallpox. The U.S. government has taken a number of steps to enhance preparedness for and response capability to such an attack. Despite this, Katherine Eban argues that there are problems with the public health system that, if left uncorrected, will leave the United States vulnerable to bioterrorism.
26. Nuclear Nightmares, Bill Keller, New York Times Magazine, May 26, 2002
When the Soviet Union collapsed, a disturbingly large number of nuclear weapons and radioactive materials were left under frequently minimal security. This article looks at the possibility that some of those materials could find, or could have found, their way into the hands of terrorist groups or states that sponsor terrorism, and could be used to mount a devastating attack on the United States and our allies.
27. The Cyber-Terror Threat, Barton Gellman, Washington Post, July 14, 2002
In the post–September 11 world, the threat of an attack on the American mainland involving conventional weapons and/or weapons of mass destruction is very real. This article addresses the possibilities that our nation’s critical electronic infrastructure may be vulnerable and that an attack combining cyberterrorism with a traditional physical attack poses a grave risk.
28. Agriculture Shock, Virginia Gewin, Nature, January 9, 2003
The enormous economic and health consequences of an attack on plants and animals are often overlooked in discussions of possible future terrorist threats. This article examines the threats that terrorism poses to plant and animal health as well as the wide-ranging ramifications that would rise from such an attack.
UNIT 8. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
29. Civil Liberties and Homeland Security, Valerie L. Demmer, The Humanist, January/February 2002
Valerie Demmer believes that Bush administration policies to prevent terrorism such as the U.S. Patriot Act have lead to the “…erosion of civil liberties.” According to Demmer, the government’s“ …McCarthy-like tactics strip citizens of their fundamental rights while not being effective in—and often not having anything to do with—stopping terrorism.”
30. Homeland Security and the Lessons of Waco, Mary Zeiss Stange, The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 11, 2003
Mary Zeiss Stange claims that the steps taken by the government in the war on terrorism are similar to the steps taken in the 1993 Waco incident. The problem with this is that the cult members’ civil rights were violated in 1993 and the same sort of rights violations are being made legal today for the purpose of preventing terrorism.
31. Fears Mount Over ‘Total’ Spy System, J. Michael Waller, Insight, December 24, 2002–January 6, 2003
According to the government, Total Information Awareness (TIA), an experimental system created to help prevent terrorism, uses the Internet to “detect, classify, and identify foreign terrorists and decipher their plans.” Civil rights groups are protesting TIA because they fear that the program gives the government unnecessary access to our private lives and too much power.
32. Access Denied, Brian Costner, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April 2002
Worried about the information available on the Internet, the Department of Energy began removing files from their Web site. Brian Costner argues that “in the process the public got shut out.”
33. Heading in the Wrong Direction, The Economist, March 8, 2003
This article compares the U.S. government’s indefinite detention of Jose Padilla, a U.S. citizen, to the 1962 arrest of Nelson Mandela in an apartheid regime in South Africa. It notes that unlike Padilla, “Mandela was given access to lawyers and his prosecutors had to follow rules of due process.”
UNIT 9. Intelligence and Homeland Security
34. Filling the Gaps in Security, Michael Scardaville, The World & I, June 2002
Michael Scardaville argues “…the greatest failing on September 11 was the inability of our intelligence and law enforcement agencies to prevent the attacks.” He offers a series of recommendations to improve homeland security.
35. Can Sense-Making Keep Us Safe?, M. Mitchell Waldrop, Technology Review, March 2003
M. Mitchell Waldrop discusses new intelligence software that can detect transactions or relationships between people that might not appear via any other form of intelligence gathering. This software may play a vital role in preventing future terrorist attacks.
36. Time for a Rethink, The Economist, April 20, 2002
This article examines the problems facing the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), including the lack of centralized leadership and a culture that balks at interagency cooperation. It argues that significant reform is necessary to meet today’s challenges.
UNIT 10. The Future of Homeland Security
37. The State of Homeland Security, Alex Salkever, Business Week Online, May 13, 2003
Alex Salkever outlines some of the changes in homeland security that have been made since 9/11 as he tries to address the question, “Is America safer now than before?” He offers mixed reviews of ongoing efforts.
38. Government, Business, and the Response to Terrorism, Murray Weidenbaum, USA Today Magazine (Society for the Advancement of Education), May 2002
Murray Weidenbaum examines the roles of government and private enterprise in homeland security. He argues that businesses have been saddled with a “hidden tax” that may have long-term effects.
39. Principles the Department of Homeland Security Must Follow for an Effective Transition, Michael Scardaville, The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder, February 28, 2003
Michael Scardaville outlines five basic principles that the newly created Department of Homeland Security “should follow” as it faces the momentous task of consolidating 22 federal agencies.
40. Defusing Dangers to U.S. Security, Harlan Ullman, The World & I, January 2003
According to Harlan Ullman, the United States has five important pieces of “unfinished business” at home and abroad. This article outlines major outstanding issues that the Bush administration must resolve in order to ensure the nation’s security.