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Consider Ethics: Theory, Readings and Contemporary Issues,9780321202802
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Consider Ethics: Theory, Readings and Contemporary Issues

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780321202802

ISBN10:
0321202805
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $77.20
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  • Consider Ethics : Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues
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    Consider Ethics : Theory, Readings, and Contemporary Issues




Summary

A combination text/reader, Consider Ethics provides a balance of theory and application in one volume. Chapters on ethical theory, followed by related classic readings and debates about six contemporary ethical problems. Unique coverage of care ethics and free will. Contains significant selections from primary sources from a variety of influential ethical perspectives - Aristotle, Hobbes, Hume, Kant, Bentham, Mill, Darwin, Baier - helping readers to explore the actual writings of important philosophical figures and gain a sense of their systems and distinctive styles. Readings range from familiar contemporary problems such as euthanasia and the death penalty to the ethical issues of war. A wealth of examples throughout illustrate abstract philosophical ideas, facilitate readers' understanding. Anyone interested in learning more about ethics and free will and how they impact everyday life.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
CHAPTER 1: THINKING ABOUT ETHICS 1(17)
ETHICS AND CRITICAL THINKING
1(5)
What's the Question?
1(2)
Ad Hominem Fallacy
3(1)
The Principle of Charity and the Strawman Fallacy
4(1)
Consistency
5(1)
STUDYING ETHICS
6(3)
The Nature of Ethical Principles
6(2)
Knowing Ethical Principles
8(1)
Natural Morality Versus Transcendent Morality
9(1)
GOD'S COMMANDMENTS AND ETHICS
9(4)
Ethical Principles as Divine Commandments
10(1)
Problems with Theological Voluntarism
11(1)
God's Law and Punishment
12(1)
RELIGION AND ETHICS
13(1)
READING
EUTHYPHRO
Plato
13(2)
EXERCISES
15(2)
ADDITIONAL READING
17(1)
NOTES
17(1)
CHAPTER 2: ETHICS AND REASON 18(14)
REASONING ABOUT ETHICS
18(6)
Reasons and Emotions
18(1)
Reasoning About an Ethical Issue
19(1)
Reasoning About Conditional Principles
20(1)
Kant and Categorical Principles
21(1)
Kant's Categorical Imperative
22(1)
Absolute Ethical Principles
23(1)
ELEMENTS OF KANTIAN ETHICS
24(2)
Reason and Will
24(1)
Nonnatural Ethics
25(1)
CRITICISMS OF KANTIAN ETHICS
26(1)
Who Is Excluded from Kant's Kingdom of Ends?
26(1)
Conflicts Among Principles
26(1)
CONCLUSION
26(1)
READING
THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE METAPHYSICS OF MORALS, CRITIQUE OF PRACTICAL REASON
Immanual Kant
27(2)
EXERCISES
29(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
30(1)
NOTES
31(1)
CHAPTER 3: ETHICS AND EMOTIONS 32(15)
FOLLOW YOUR REASON OR FOLLOW YOUR HEART?
32(4)
Reason or Feelings: History of the Conflict
33(1)
Affection and Duty: The Case of Huck Finn
34(1)
Hume Versus Kant
34(2)
OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE FEELINGS
36(1)
Subjective Feelings
36(1)
Objective Feelings
37(1)
INTUITIONISM
37(4)
What Do We Intuit?
38(1)
Questions About Intuitionism
39(1)
Which Intuitions Should We Trust?
39(2)
CONCLUSION
41(1)
READING
A TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE
Hume
41(3)
EXERCISES
44(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
45(1)
NOTES
46(1)
CHAPTER 4: UTILITARIAN ETHICS 47(17)
UTILITARIAN THEORY
47(2)
Making Utilitarian Calculations
47(1)
Taking the Mystery out of Ethics
48(1)
Misconceptions of Utilitarian Ethics
48(1)
ACT- VERSUS RULE-UTILITARIANS
49(2)
Act-Utilitarians
49(1)
Rule-Utilitarians
49(1)
The Rules of Practices
50(1)
UTILITARIANS AND THE QUALITY OF PLEASURES
51(2)
Bentham: All Pleasures Are Equal
52(1)
Mill and the Qualities of Pleasure
52(1)
CRITICISMS OF UTILITARIAN ETHICS
53(1)
Psychological Criticisms
53(1)
NOZICK'S CHALLENGE TO UTILITARIAN ETHICS
53(2)
Dostoyevsky's Challenge to Utilitarian Ethics
55(1)
THE USES OF UTILITARIAN ETHICS
55(1)
Utilitarian Ethics and Public Policy
56(1)
OPPOSITION TO UTILITARIANISM
56(1)
William James and Ethical Temperaments
56(1)
READING
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF MORALS AND LEGISLATION
Jeremy Bentham
56(4)
EXERCISES
60(2)
ADDITIONAL READING
62(1)
NOTES
63(1)
CHAPTER 5: SOCIAL CONTRACT ETHICS 64(15)
FRAMING THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
64(3)
Social Contracts and Human strife
65(1)
Rousseau's Social Contract
65(1)
Social Contracts and Human Nature
65(2)
FAIRNESS AND SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY: JOHN RAWLS
67(1)
Behind the Veil of Ignorance
67(1)
Justice as Fairness
68(1)
GAUTHIER'S CONTRACTARIAN ETHICS
68(2)
The Prisoner's Dilemma
69(1)
THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MYTH AND ITS UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS
70(3)
Radical Individualism
70(2)
Narrow Obligations
72(1)
Choosing Morality
72(1)
Outside the Social Contract
72(1)
CONCLUSION
73(1)
READING
LEVIATHAN
Thomas Hobbes
73(4)
EXERCISES
77(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
78(1)
NOTES
78(1)
CHAPTER 6: EGOISM, RELATIVISM, AND PRAGMATISM 79(17)
EGOISM
79(5)
Psychological Egoism
80(1)
Criticisms of Psychological Egoism
80(1)
Ethical Egoism
81(3)
Individual Ethical Egoism
81(1)
Why Care for Others?
82(1)
Universal Ethical Egoism
83(1)
RELATIVISM
84(5)
Sociological Relativism and Cultural Relativism
84(1)
Benefits of Cultural Relativism
84(1)
Criticisms of Cultural Relativism
85(2)
Grounds for Cultural Relativism
87(1)
Other Forms of Ethical Relativism
88(1)
PRAGMATISM
89(1)
READING
PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL HOPE
Richard Rorty
90(3)
EXERCISES
93(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
94(1)
NOTES
95(1)
CHAPTER 7: VIRTUE ETHICS 96(18)
THE DISTINCTIVE FOCUS OF VIRTUE ETHICS
97(2)
Considering Character
97(1)
Practicing Virtue
98(1)
Virtue and Special Commitments
99(1)
THE STRENGTHS OF VIRTUE ETHICS
99(1)
CRITICISMS OF VIRTUE THEORY
99(5)
What Counts as Virtue
99(2)
Virtue Theory and Individualism
101(1)
Virtue and Society
102(1)
Are There Multiple Sets of Virtues?
103(1)
VIRTUE THEORY AND MEDICINE
104(2)
Medical Beneficence
104(1)
A Virtuous Medical Hero
105(1)
READING
NICOMACHEAN ETHICS
Aristotle
106(4)
EXERCISES
110(2)
ADDITIONAL READING
112(1)
NOTES
113(1)
CHAPTER 8: CARE ETHICS 114(19)
THE NEGLECT OF WOMEN'S ETHICAL VIEWS
114(2)
Psychological Studies of Ethical Reasoning
115(1)
THE CARE PERSPECTIVE ON ETHICS
116(5)
The Relation of Caring to Rules
117(2)
Caring and Utilitarian Ethics
119(1)
Care Ethics and Impersonal Duties
120(1)
WOMEN AND ETHICS
121(2)
Perils of "Feminine" Ethics
121(1)
Womanly Virtues
122(1)
The Value of Feminist Ethics
122(1)
READING
THE NEED FOR MORE THAN JUSTICE
Annette Baier
123(5)
EXERCISES
128(3)
ADDITIONAL READING
131(1)
NOTES
132(1)
CHAPTER 9: THE SCOPE OF MORALITY 133(18)
WHO IS DUE MORAL CONSIDERATION?
133(4)
Social Contract Ethics
133(1)
Kantian Ethics
134(1)
Tom Regan's Kantian Account of Animal Rights
134(2)
Utilitarians and the Moral Community
136(1)
Eastern Views
136(1)
MORAL AGENTS
137(5)
Moral Agency and Intent
137(3)
An Experiment in Moral Agency
140(1)
Arguments Against Nonhuman Moral Agency
140(2)
DARWIN AND THE MORAL STATUS OF NONHUMAN ANIMALS
142(1)
READING
THE DESCENT OF MAN
Darwin
143(5)
EXERCISES
148(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
148(1)
NOTES
149(2)
CHAPTER 10: ETHICAL NONOBJECTIVISM 151(14)
THE NATURE OF ETHICAL NONOBJECTIVISM
151(1)
Nonobjectivism Is Not Neutral
151(1)
Noncognitivism
152(1)
ARGUMENTS FOR ETHICAL NONOBJECTIVISM
152(6)
The Argument from Moral Diversity
152(1)
The Argument from the Impossibility of Argument About Ethics
153(2)
The Argument from Simplicity: Ockham's Razor
155(3)
THE CONTINUING STRUGGLE BETWEEN OBJECTIVISTS AND NONOBJECTIVISTS
158(1)
Alternatives to Nonobjectivism
159(1)
READING
LANGUAGE, TRUTH, AND LOGIC
A.J. Ayer
159(4)
EXERCISES
163(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
164(1)
NOTES
164(1)
CHAPTER 11: MORAL REALISM 165(11)
CONTEMPORARY MORAL REALISM
165(1)
The Modesty of Moral Realism
165(1)
Moral Realism and Empirical Research
166(1)
MORAL REALISM AND THE ARGUMENT FROM SIMPLICITY
166(3)
Establishing Facts
166(2)
Establishing Moral Facts
168(1)
MORAL FACTS AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS
169(1)
Kuhn on the History of Science
169(1)
Moral Realism and Theoretical Revolution
170(1)
TWO WAYS THAT MORAL REALISM MIGHT FAIL
170(2)
One: A Better Theory
170(1)
Two: No Moral Consensus
170(2)
READING
REALISM
Michael Smith
172(2)
EXERCISES
174(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
175(1)
CHAPTER 12: HOW HARD IS ETHICS? 176(9)
THE DEMANDS OF ETHICAL LIVING
176(2)
Are We Naturally Moral?
177(1)
Starting Assumptions About Ethics
177(1)
COMPARING ETHICAL SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF DIFFICULTY
178(3)
Eastern Views
178(1)
Kant's Austere Ethics
179(1)
Care Ethics
179(1)
Aristotle and Virtue
180(1)
Intuitionists
180(1)
Utilitarians
181(1)
DUTY AND FEELINGS
181(1)
READING
THE BOOK OF MENCIUS
Mencius
182(1)
EXERCISES
183(1)
ADDITIONAL READING
184(1)
NOTES
184(1)
CHAPTER 13: FREE WILL 185(30)
DETERMINISM
185(3)
God and Determinism
185(1)
Science and Determinism
186(1)
Hume's Argument for Determinism
186(1)
Reactions to Determinism
187(1)
FATALISM
188(2)
Determinism and Fatalism
189(1)
DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL
190(5)
Simple Compatibilism
190(2)
Deep Compatibilism
192(2)
Rationalist Compatibilism
194(1)
LIBERTARIAN FREE WILL AND THE REJECTION OF DETERMINISM
195(6)
Libertarian Free Will
195(1)
Existentialist Versions of Libertarian Free Will
196(2)
C.A. Campbell's Libertarian Free Will
198(3)
READING
ASYMMETRICAL FREEDOM
Susan Wolf
201(8)
EXERCISES
209(3)
ADDITIONAL READING
212(2)
NOTES
214(1)
CHAPTER 14: FREEDOM, MORAL RESPONSIBILITY, AND ETHICS 215(19)
TYPES OF RESPONSIBILITY
216(2)
Role Responsibility
216(1)
Taking Role Responsibility
216(2)
MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE UTILITY OF PUNISHMENT
218(1)
CONDITIONS FOR MORAL RESPONSIBILITY
219(2)
Could You Do Otherwise?
219(2)
MORAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ETHICS
221(3)
Ethics Without Moral Responsibility
221(1)
Moral Judgments and Moral Responsibility
222(1)
Retribution
223(1)
CONCLUSION
224(1)
READING
MORAL LUCK
Thomas Nagel
225(6)
EXERCISES
231(1)
NOTES
232(2)
CHAPTER 15: CURRENT ETHICAL DEBATES 234(82)
THE ETHICS OF WAR
234(16)
THE ROAD TO BASRA
Martin L. Cook and Phillip A.Hamann
234(9)
WHITE FLAGS ON THE ROAD TO BASRA
Gabriel Palmer-Fernandez
243(6)
ADDITIONAL READING
249(1)
DEATH PENALTY
250(7)
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
Robert S. Gerstein
250(4)
DISSENTING OPINION IN GREGG V. GEORGIA
Thurgood Marshall
254(2)
ADDITIONAL READING
256(1)
EUTHANASIA
257(24)
PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE: A TRAGIC VIEW
John D. Arras
257(7)
EUTHANASIA: THE WAY WE DO IT, THE WAY THEY DO IT
Margaret P. Battin
264(16)
ADDITIONAL READING
280(1)
THE JUST DISTRIBUTION OF SCARCE MEDICAL RESOURCES
281(11)
SHOULD ALCOHOLICS COMPETE EQUALLY FOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION?
Alvin H. Moss and Mark Siegler
281(6)
ALCOHOLICS AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Carl Cohen and Martin Benjamin
287(4)
ADDITIONAL READING
291(1)
ABORTION
292(10)
THE IMMORALITY OF ABORTION
John T. Noonan
292(4)
ABORTION AND THE CONCEPT OF A PERSON
Jane English
296(5)
ADDITIONAL READING
301(1)
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
302(14)
AGAINST AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
Lisa H. Newton
302(3)
THE JUSTICE OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
Ronald Dworkin
305(10)
ADDITIONAL READING
315(1)
Credits 316(1)
Index 317


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