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Crime Control in America : An Assessment of the Evidence,9780205418794
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Crime Control in America : An Assessment of the Evidence

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205418794

ISBN10:
0205418791
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $65.80
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Summary

Crime Control in America introduces readers to the many methods of crime control and reviews the research concerning the effectiveness of these methods.

Table of Contents

Foreword xv
Todd R. Clear
Preface xix
SECTION ONE Introduction
Identifying and Evaluating Crime Control
1(26)
Crime Control and Prevention
2(1)
The Crime Problem in America
2(9)
Types of Crimes
3(1)
The Ever-Expanding Criminal Law
4(1)
Incidence of Crime
4(1)
Costs of Crime and Criminals
5(6)
Is Fear of Crime Worse Than Crime Itself?
11(1)
Approaches, Not Just Policies
11(3)
Laws
12(1)
Official Policies, Written and Unwritten
13(1)
Unofficial Approaches
13(1)
Crime Control by Happenstance
13(1)
On the Importance of Definitions
14(2)
Defining the Crime Problem
14(1)
Defining the Solution
15(1)
Defining the Desired Outcome
15(1)
Evaluating Success: An Impossible Task?
16(3)
The Hard and Soft Sciences
16(1)
The Elusive Criminal Justice Experiment
17(1)
You Can Prove Anything with Statistics
17(1)
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
18(1)
Macro- and Micro-Level Crime Control
18(1)
Can Crime Control Succeed without Research?
19(1)
Displacement and Diffusion
19(2)
Measuring Displacement and Diffusion
20(1)
Buffer Zones and Catchment Areas
20(1)
Summary
21(1)
The Tentative Nature of Scientific Knowledge
21(2)
The Measures Used
21(1)
When New Data Become Available
21(1)
Alternate Settings: The Generalization Problem
22(1)
Other Concerns
22(1)
How Resources Dictate Public Policy and Guide Research
23(1)
Academic Crusaders and Bandwagon Science
24(1)
How Crime Control Is Accomplished: A Preview
24(1)
Guns and Drugs: The Real Attention Getters
24(1)
Does It Work?
25(1)
Effective Does Not Always Mean Best
25(1)
Conclusion
25(2)
Crime Control Perspectives
27(19)
Operational Perspectives
28(5)
Due Process and Crime Control
28(2)
System and Nonsystem
30(1)
The Funnel Model of Justice
31(2)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
33(1)
Political Perspectives
33(5)
Liberals and Conservatives
34(2)
Consensus and Conflict
36(2)
Other Perspectives
38(3)
Faith and Fact
38(1)
Crime Control and Revenue Generation
39(1)
Politics and Ivory Towers
39(2)
Goals of Crime Control
41(4)
Deterrence
41(1)
Retribution
42(1)
Incapacitation
43(1)
Rehabilitation
43(1)
Summary
44(1)
Conclusion
45(1)
SECTION TWO Law Enforcement Approaches
Traditional Policing
46(21)
The Theory of Traditional Policing
47(1)
Does Hiring More Cops Reduce Crime?
47(7)
Reasons Why Hiring More Cops Might Not Reduce Crime
47(2)
Lessons from Kansas City
49(2)
The Post-Kansas City Intellectual Debate
51(1)
The Violent Crime Control Act of 1994
52(1)
What Happens When the Police Go on Strike?
53(1)
A Very Thin Blue Line: Is There Really a Police Presence?
53(1)
What Are They Doing on the Job?
53(1)
Does It Work?
54(1)
Freeing Up Resources
54(1)
One- versus Two-Officer Patrols
54(1)
311
54(1)
Patrol Downtime Studies
55(1)
Does It Work?
55(1)
Removing Supposed Procedural Restraints
55(4)
Abolish Miranda
55(1)
Chuck the Exclusionary Rule
56(2)
Does It Work?
58(1)
The Problem with Being Reactive and Random
59(3)
Reactive Policing
59(1)
Rapid Response
60(1)
Random Patrol
61(1)
Does It Work?
62(1)
Bring in the Detectives
62(1)
The RAND Study
62(1)
Recent Developments
63(1)
Does It Work?
63(1)
Other Traditional Approaches to Policing
63(3)
Residency Requirements
63(1)
College Degrees
64(1)
Does It Work?
65(1)
Conclusion
66(1)
Proactive, Directed, and Creative Policing
67(18)
Proactive Arrests
68(2)
Proactive Arrests for High-Risk Repeat Offenders
68(1)
Proactive Arrests for Specific Offenses
69(1)
Does It Work?
70(1)
Interrogations and Enhanced Supervision
70(1)
Does It Work?
70(1)
Directed Patrol
71(3)
Classic Studies
72(1)
Lawrence Sherman and the Hot Spots
72(2)
Does It Work?
74(1)
The Broken Windows Law Enforcement Approach
74(3)
Fear, Disorder, and Crime
75(1)
Quality-of-Life Policing
75(1)
Does It Work?
76(1)
Police-Corrections Partnerships
77(2)
What Does the Research Show?
79(1)
Does It Work?
79(1)
More Partnering: Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces
79(2)
Does It Work?
81(1)
Compstat
81(3)
Does It Work?
84(1)
Conclusion
84(1)
Community Involvement in Policing
85(19)
Community Justice
86(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing
86(1)
Community Policing: Some History
87(2)
Reasons for Community Policing
88(1)
Community Policing: What Is It?
89(1)
Community Policing: Is It Really Happening?
90(2)
Structural Change
91(1)
Attitudinal Change
91(1)
Summary
92(1)
The Definition Problem Rears Its Head
92(1)
Macro- and Micro-Level Research
93(1)
Summary
93(1)
Research on Community Policing's Effectiveness
93(10)
Moving the Police into the Community
93(6)
Does It Work?
99(1)
Bringing the Community to the Police
100(1)
Does It Work?
101(1)
Integrated Community Policing
101(2)
Does It Work?
103(1)
Conclusion
103(1)
Prosecutors and Crime Prosecutors Control
104(21)
Prosecutors
105(2)
Who Are the Prosecutors?
105(1)
Have Prosecutors Been Forgotten?
106(1)
The Shift toward Strategic Prosecution
106(1)
The Harder Side of Prosecution
107(6)
No-Drop Prosecution Policies
107(1)
Police-Prosecutor Partnerships
108(1)
Federal-State Partnerships
109(2)
Project Safe Neighborhoods
111(2)
Does It Work?
113(1)
The Softer Side of Prosecution
113(6)
Victim Assistance
113(1)
Community Prosecution
114(3)
Deferred Prosecution
117(1)
Deferred Sentencing
118(1)
Does It Work?
119(1)
A Plea Bargaining Pandemic?
119(5)
Arguments for and against Plea Bargaining
120(1)
Attempts to Limit Plea Bargaining
121(1)
Ad Hoc Plea Bargaining
122(2)
Does It Work?
124(1)
Conclusion
124(1)
SECTION THREE Courts, Corrections, and Legislative Approaches
Incapacitation and Legislative Approaches
125(25)
Pretrial Incapacitation
126(2)
Preventive Detention
126(1)
Setting Bail at a High Level
127(1)
Does It Work?
128(1)
Posttrial Incapacitation
128(5)
More Prisoners, Less Crime?
128(2)
Selective Incapacitation
130(2)
Involuntary Civil Commitment
132(1)
Does It Work?
133(1)
Fines, Fees, and Forfeiture
133(4)
Traditional Fines
133(2)
Day Fines
135(1)
Fees
136(1)
Forfeiture
136(1)
Does It Work?
137(1)
Legislative Bans
137(8)
Where There's a Demand, There's a Supply
137(1)
Historical Lessons
138(1)
Bans and Their Enforcement
139(1)
Gun Bans
139(2)
Drug Bans
141(4)
Does It Work?
145(1)
Restrictions, Regulations, and Buy-Backs
145(3)
Altering Gun Designs
145(1)
Regulating Gun Transactions
146(1)
Denying Gun Ownership to Dangerous People
146(1)
Buybacks
147(1)
The Right-to-Carry Controversy
147(1)
Does It Work?
148(1)
Conclusion
148(2)
Tough Sentencing and Deterrence
150(22)
Types of Sentences
151(1)
Does Sentence Length Matter?
151(4)
Thinking about Various Types of Offenders
154(1)
Can Incarceration Cause Crime?
154(1)
Sentence Length and Crime
154(1)
Does It Work?
155(1)
Determinate Sentencing
155(1)
The Hydraulic Displacement of Discretion
155(1)
Impact on Prison Populations
155(1)
Impact on Crime
156(1)
Does It Work?
156(1)
Sentence Enhancements
156(2)
Sentence Enhancements for Guns
156(2)
Sentence Enhancements for Hate-Motivated Offenses
158(1)
Does It Work?
158(1)
Mandatory Sentencing
158(7)
A Life of Their Own?
158(2)
Mandatory Sentences for Drug Offenders
160(1)
Mandatory Sentences for Drunk Driving
161(1)
Mandatory Sentences for Persistent Offenders
161(1)
Three-Strikes Legislation
161(4)
Mandatory Death Sentences?
165(1)
Does It Work?
165(1)
Capital Punishment
165(2)
Our Stubborn Adherence to Capital Punishment
166(1)
Does the Death Penalty Deter Crime?
167(1)
Does It Work?
167(1)
Deterring Sex Offenders
167(3)
Megan's Laws
167(2)
Chemical Castration
169(1)
Does It Work?
170(1)
Deterring Gang Violence with Injunctions
170(1)
Does It Work?
171(1)
Conclusion
171(1)
Probation, Parole, and Intermediate Sanctions
172(21)
The Organization and Administration of Probation and Parole
174(1)
Probation
174(1)
Parole
174(1)
Common Probation and Parole Conditions
175(1)
Probation and Parole Issues
175(9)
To Serve or to Supervise
176(3)
Caseload Concerns
179(1)
Offender Characteristics over Time
180(1)
Are Parolees Equipped to Reenter Society?
180(3)
Consequences to Society of Prisoner Reentry
183(1)
Is All Hope Lost? Improving Probation and Parole
183(1)
Does It Work?
184(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
184(8)
The Net Widening Problem
184(1)
A Typology of Intermediate Sanctions
185(1)
Community Restraints
185(3)
Structure and Discipline
188(1)
Hybrid Intermediate Sanctions
189(1)
Does It Work?
190(1)
Summary Thoughts
191(1)
Conclusion
192(1)
Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Job Training
193(19)
A Movement toward the Left
194(1)
Some Definitions
194(1)
Criminals Are Not Created Equal
195(1)
Risk
195(1)
Needs
196(1)
Responsivity
196(1)
Rehabilitation
196(6)
Targeting Cognitive Skills
196(4)
Anger Management
200(1)
Improving Victim Awareness
200(1)
Life Skills Training
201(1)
Does It Work?
202(1)
Treatment
202(4)
Treating Drug Addicts
202(3)
Treating Sex Offenders
205(1)
Does It Work?
206(1)
Job Training
206(4)
The Employment-Crime Connection
206(1)
Job Training for Convicts
207(2)
Job Training for the General Population
209(1)
Housing Dispersal and Mobility Programs
209(1)
Does It Work?
210(1)
More Lessons from Meta-Analysis
210(1)
Conclusion
211(1)
Crime Control in the Courts and Beyond
212(25)
Diversion
213(2)
Examples of Programmatic Diversion
214(1)
Diversion Evaluations
214(1)
Does It Work?
215(1)
Shaming
215(5)
A Brief History of Shaming
216(1)
Examples of Shaming Penalties
216(1)
Criticisms of Shaming
217(1)
Braithwaite's Reintegrative Shaming
218(1)
Does Shaming Reduce Recidivism?
219(1)
Does It Work?
219(1)
Restorative Justice
220(4)
Examples of Restorative Justice
222(1)
What the Research Shows
222(1)
Does It Work?
223(1)
Problem-Solving Courts
224(11)
Drug Courts
228(1)
Domestic Violence Courts
229(2)
Community Courts
231(2)
Other Specialized Courts
233(2)
Does It Work?
235(1)
Conclusion
235(2)
SECTION FOUR Approaches beyond the Criminal Justice System
Individual, Family, and Household Crime Control
237(22)
Government May Still Be Involved
238(1)
Individual Crime Control
238(12)
Guns and Personal Defense
240(6)
Risk-Avoidance Behaviors
246(2)
Risk-Management Behaviors
248(1)
Does It Work?
249(1)
Household and Family Crime Control
250(8)
The Aim of Crime Control in Households and Families
250(1)
How Families Influence Delinquency and Youth Victimization
250(2)
Varieties of Crime Control in Households and Families
252(6)
Does It Work?
258(1)
Conclusion
258(1)
Crime Control in the Community and in Schools
259(26)
Community Crime Control
260(16)
What Is Community?
260(1)
The Social Ecology of Crime
261(5)
Financial Assistance to Communities
266(3)
Other Methods of Community Crime Control
269(7)
Does It Work?
276(1)
School-Based Crime Control
276(8)
Crime in Schools
276(1)
The Role of Schools in Crime Control
277(1)
The Role of the Government in School-Based Crime Control
277(1)
Targeting the School Environment
277(3)
Targeting Students
280(4)
Does It Work?
284(1)
Conclusion
284(1)
Reducing Criminal Opportunities Through Environmental Manipulation
285(18)
Some Perspective
286(1)
A Quick Return to Theory
287(3)
Rational Offenders
287(1)
Crime Pattern Theory
287(1)
Territorial Functioning and Defensible Space
288(1)
The Return of the Broken Windows Theory
288(2)
How Environmental Manipulation Occurs
290(1)
Access Control
290(1)
Surveillance
290(1)
Activity Support
290(1)
Motivation Reinforcement
291(1)
The Effectiveness of Environmental Manipulations
291(11)
Residential Areas
291(3)
Businesses
294(2)
Transportation
296(2)
Other Places
298(2)
Does It Work?
300(2)
Conclusion
302(1)
SECTION FIVE Juvenile Crime Control
Juvenile Crime Control
303(25)
Enter the Justice System
304(1)
The Importance of Communities, Families, and Schools
304(1)
Juvenile Crime
304(4)
Sources of Data
304(1)
Trends in Juvenile Crime
305(1)
The Contagious Nature of Juvenile Crime
306(2)
Differences between the Adult and Juvenile Justice Systems
308(3)
Procedural Issues
310(1)
Detention Centers
310(1)
Heavy Reliance on Probation
310(1)
Recent Reforms in Juvenile Justice
311(3)
Juvenile Waivers
311(1)
Sentencing
311(1)
More Accountability
312(1)
Less Privacy
313(1)
Procedural Protections
313(1)
Summary
313(1)
Making Sense of Juvenile Crime Control
314(1)
A Return to the Control/Prevention Distinction
314(1)
Juvenile Crime Prevention
314(5)
Concrete Evidence?
315(1)
Proven Prevention
315(3)
Promising Prevention
318(1)
Does It Work?
319(1)
Juvenile Crime Control
319(8)
Diversion
319(3)
Traditional Adjudication
322(2)
Targeting Curfew Violators
324(1)
Juvenile Waivers
325(1)
Habitual Juvenile Offender Laws
325(1)
Juvenile Death Penalty
325(1)
Does It Work?
325(2)
Conclusion
327(1)
SECTION SIX Conclusion
Putting It All Together and Explaining Crime Trends
328(17)
A Quick Review
328(3)
Effective Crime Control
329(1)
Failures
330(1)
Uncertainties
330(1)
Three Important Themes
331(2)
Beyond the Justice System
331(1)
Early Intervention Is Key to Success
332(1)
More Research is Needed
332(1)
Explaining Crime Trends
333(10)
Liberal Explanations
334(4)
Conservative Explanations
338(2)
Other Explanations
340(2)
Summary
342(1)
Conclusion
343(2)
Appendix A An Ultra-Brief Introduction to Criminal Justice in the United States
345(8)
Sources of Crime Statistics
345(1)
The Actors
346(2)
Executive Branch
347(1)
Legislative Branch
347(1)
Judicial Branch
347(1)
The Process
348(5)
Pretrial
348(3)
Adjudication
351(1)
Beyond Convinction
351(1)
A Note Concerning Sanctions
352(1)
Notes 353(62)
Name Index 415(4)
Subject Index 419


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