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Effective Training : Systems, Strategies and Practices,9780130327390
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Effective Training : Systems, Strategies and Practices

by ;
Edition:
2ND
ISBN13:

9780130327390

ISBN10:
0130327395
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For undergraduate and graduate courses in Human Resources Development, Human Resources Management, and Organizational Training. This text, both academic and practical, discusses theory and principles of training as they relate to organizational objectives and strategies. This new edition emphasizes the value of developing training programs, with examples provided for both large and small organizations, relating training to the overall strategy of a firm.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
CHAPTER 1 Overview of Training in Organizations 1(27)
Overview of Training
4(7)
Opportunities and Challenges in the New Millennium
4(2)
Important Concepts and Meanings
6(5)
The Role of Training in Organizations
11(4)
Training, Budgets, and Management Responsibilities
12(2)
Strategy, Training, and Organizational Development
14(1)
Structure of Training Organizations
15(4)
Training as Part of the HR Function
15(1)
The Training Organization
16(2)
Training in Large and Small Businesses
18(1)
A Training Process Model
19(9)
Open Systems
19(2)
Training as an Open System
21(1)
Training: A Process
21(4)
Training as Continuous Improvement
25(3)
CHAPTER 2 Strategic Planning, Training, and OD 28(43)
Overview
31(2)
Strategic Planning Process
33(15)
Organizational Mission
34(1)
Strategy
34(1)
Strategic Contingencies
35(3)
Proactive and Reactive Strategy
38(1)
Matching Internal to External Strategy
39(1)
HR and HRD Influences on Competitive Strategy
40(6)
What About Small Business?
46(2)
HRD's Role in Supporting Strategy
48(8)
Developing an HRD Strategy
49(3)
The Training Environment and Amount of Centralization
52(1)
Some Strategic Training Alternatives
53(3)
OD, Strategy, and Training
56(11)
OD and Strategy
57(3)
Levels of Internal Change and Resistance
60(2)
Training and OD
62(5)
Case Analysis
67(4)
CHAPTER 3 Learning Motivation and Performance 71(43)
A Few Words About Theory
74(1)
Understanding Motivation and Performance
75(9)
Motivation: Why Do They Act Like That?
76(8)
Self-Efficacy and Motivation
84(1)
Understanding Learning
85(3)
What Is Learning?
85(3)
Two Integrative Theories of Learning
88(12)
Gagné's Learning Types
88(9)
Social Learning Theory
97(3)
Relating Instruction to Learning
100(3)
Why Are They Resisting and What Can I Do About It?
103(3)
Motivation to Learn
103(2)
Group Dynamics
105(1)
Training That Motivates Adults to Learn
106(1)
Training Relevance, Value, and Readiness to Learn
106(1)
Allowing Trainees Control over Their Learning
106(1)
Involving Trainees in the Process
107(1)
Individual Differences Related to Learning
107(3)
Case Analysis
110(4)
CHAPTER 4 Needs Analysis 114(65)
Why Conduct a Training Needs Analysis?
115(2)
When to Conduct a Training Needs Analysis
117(2)
Where to Look for Performance Discrepancies
119(2)
The Framework for Conducting a TNA
121(28)
Organizational Analysis
122(4)
Operational Analysis
126(15)
Person Analysis
141(7)
Gathering TNA Data: Final Thoughts
148(1)
Outcomes of TNA
149(3)
Nontraining Needs
149(3)
Training Needs
152(1)
Approaches to TNA
152(6)
Proactive TNA
152(3)
Reactive TNA
155(3)
Reactive Versus Proactive
158(1)
The Small Business
158(3)
Assistance for Small Businesses
160(1)
TNA and Design
161(9)
Case Analyses
170(4)
Appendix 4.1
174(5)
CHAPTER 5 Training Design 179(53)
Organizational Constraints
181(6)
Organizational/Environmental Constraints
181(6)
Developing Objectives
187(5)
Identifying Objectives
188(1)
Writing a Good Learning Objective
189(3)
Why Use Training Objectives
192(2)
The Trainee
193(1)
The Training Designer
193(1)
The Trainer
193(1)
Training Evaluator
193(1)
Facilitation of Learning: Focus on the Trainee
194(7)
KSAs (Individual Differences)
194(2)
Motivation of Trainee
196(5)
Facilitation of Learning: Focus on Training Design
201(4)
Social Learning Theory
201(3)
Strategic Knowledge
204(1)
Facilitation of Transfer: Focus on Training
205(7)
Conditions of Practice
206(2)
Maximize Similarity
208(1)
Vary the Situation
208(1)
Other Considerations to Facilitate Transfer
209(3)
Facilitation of Transfer: Focus on Organizational Intervention
212(4)
Supervisor Support
213(1)
Peer Support
213(1)
Trainer Support
213(1)
Reward Systems
214(1)
Climate and Culture
214(2)
Design Theory
216(5)
Elaboration Theory
216(2)
Gagné-Briggs Theory
218(3)
The Small Business
221(2)
Outcomes of Design
223(7)
Case Analyses
230(2)
CHAPTER 6 Training Methods 232(53)
Overview of the Chapter
234(1)
Matching Methods with Outcomes
234(1)
Lectures and Demonstrations
235(8)
Straight Lecture/Lecturette
235(1)
Discussion Method
236(1)
Demonstrations
236(1)
Strengths and Limitations of Lectures and Demonstration
237(6)
Computer-Based Training
243(12)
Programmed Instruction
243(3)
Intelligent Tutoring Systems
246(1)
Interactive Multimedia
247(1)
Virtual Reality
248(1)
Strengths and Limitations of CBT
249(6)
Games and Simulations
255(10)
Equipment Simulators
255(1)
Business Games
255(3)
In-Basket Technique
258(1)
Case Studies
258(1)
Role Play
259(1)
Behavior Modeling
260(1)
Strengths and Limitations of Games and Simulations
260(5)
On-the-Job Training
265(5)
Job Instruction Technique (JIT)
266(1)
Apprenticeship Training
267(1)
Coaching
268(1)
Training the Trainer for OJT
268(1)
Strengths and Limitations of OJT
269(1)
Audiovisual Enhancements to Training
270(11)
Static Media
271(1)
DynamicAudiovisual Methods
272(2)
Strengths and Limitations of Audiovisuals
274(7)
Case Analysis
281(4)
CHAPTER 7 Development and Implementation of Training 285(59)
Instructional Methods
287(28)
Lecture/Discussion
287(6)
Demonstration
293(2)
Computer-Based Training
295(6)
Games and Simulations
301(1)
Business Games, In-Basket, and Case Studies
302(3)
Role Play and Behavior Modeling
305(4)
On-the-Job Training
309(6)
Audiovisual Enhancements
315(8)
Static Media
316(2)
Dynamic Media
318(5)
Facilities
323(3)
The Training Room
323(3)
Off-Site Training Facilities
326(1)
The Trainer
326(2)
Trainer KSAs
326(1)
Trainer Credibility
327(1)
Integrated Instructional Strategy
328(6)
Content: Learning Points
328(1)
Method of Instruction
328(1)
Facilities, Material and Equipment, and Trainers
329(1)
The Strategy
330(1)
The Alternative to Development
331(3)
Implementation
334(8)
Dry Run
335(1)
Pilot Program
336(1)
Tips for Trainers
336(6)
Case Analysis
342(2)
CHAPTER 8 Evaluation of Training 344(56)
Rationale for Evaluation
345(1)
Resistance to Training Evaluation
346(1)
Nothing to Evaluate
346(1)
No One Really Cares About Evaluating Training
346(1)
Evaluation Is a Threat to My Job
347(1)
So We Must Evaluate
347(1)
Types of Evaluation Data Collected
348(34)
Process Data
349(2)
Outcome Data
351(31)
Evaluation Design Issues
382(8)
Basic Designs
382(1)
More Complex Designs
383(2)
What Design to Use
385(1)
What About Small Business?
386(4)
Case Analyses
390(2)
Appendix 8.1
392(8)
CHAPTER 9 Key Areas of Organizational Training 400(42)
Orientation Training
402(15)
Why It Is Important
402(1)
What Organizations Are Doing
403(9)
Training Points
412(5)
Diversity Training
417(5)
Why It Is Important
418(2)
What Organizations Are Doing
420(1)
Training Points
420(2)
Sexual Harassment Training
422(5)
Why It Is Important
423(1)
What Organizations Are Doing
424(1)
Training Points
424(3)
Team Training
427(6)
Why It Is Important
428(1)
What Organizations Are Doing
429(1)
Training Points
429(4)
Other Training Programs and Issues
433(7)
Training and Equity
433(1)
The Glass Ceiling
433(2)
Disabled
435(1)
Basic Skills Training
436(1)
Safety Training
437(3)
Case Analysis
440(2)
CHAPTER 10 Management Development 442(34)
Why Focus on Management Development?
443(2)
Managers Get a Lot of Training
443(1)
Managers Are Accountable for Success
444(1)
Managers' Jobs Are Complex
444(1)
Our Approach to Management Development
445(1)
General Overview of the Managerial Job
445(3)
Managerial Roles
445(2)
Organizational Factors
447(1)
Integrating Strategy, Structure, and Technology
447(1)
General Characteristics of Managers
448(4)
Management Styles
448(1)
Categories of Management Characteristics
449(2)
Integrating Managerial Roles and Characteristics
451(1)
Roles, KSAs, and Management Level
452(1)
Integration: Strategies and Management Characteristics
452(3)
Technical Competence and Context
452(1)
Interpersonal Competence and Context
453(1)
Conceptual Competence and Context
453(1)
Personal Traits and Context
454(1)
Management Style and Context
454(1)
Management Development Implications
455(3)
Understanding Context
455(1)
Self-Awareness and Diagnostic Skills
456(1)
Managerial Person Analysis
456(2)
Sources of Knowledge/Skill Acquisition
458(5)
Externally Based Training
458(1)
Corporate Universities
459(1)
Types of Management Development Programs
460(3)
The Special Needs of the Technical Manager
463(1)
History and Experience
463(1)
Skills
463(1)
Traits
463(1)
Leadership Style
464(1)
Strategies for Development of Technical Managers
464(1)
Training for Executive-Level Management
464(9)
Skills, Traits, and Leadership Style
465(1)
Strategies for Development of Executives and Future
Executives (Managers)
466(3)
Succession Planning
469(3)
What About Small Business?
472(1)
Case Analysis
473(3)
Endnotes 476(25)
Index 501

Excerpts

We created the idea for the first edition of this book while fishing on a beautiful lake in northern Manitoba. Both of us were teaching a human resource development course and were unsatisfied with the texts available at the time. Our main concern was that we really needed two texts for the course, one providing the theory and scholarship surrounding the learning-teaching experience and one providing the application and "how to" part of the experience. In this second edition we continue to focus on these dual objectives. We added an example of a training program for a small company called Fabrics Inc. and spread it across the appropriate chapters as an illustration of how the concepts can be applied. The case is developed step-by-step from needs analysis through design and evaluation. For example, in Chapter 4, the needs analysis process used in Fabrics Inc. is detailed so the student sees what is actually done. Then it is picked up again at the end of the design chapter and again the student is brought through the process to the end of design. This approach gives the student a real understanding of the things that need to be done and how they are actually done. We continue to differ from other training books in that we place training activities in the context of organizational strategy. Whether you are a student or a practitioner, this book will be of both conceptual and practical value for developing training programs that meet strategic and tactical needs. At the same time, an overarching model of the training process will guide you step-by-step through the training procedures, from initial needs analysis through the evaluation of training's effectiveness. As human resource competencies become a significant competitive advantage, the pace and intensity of organizational training increases dramatically. Human resource development or "performance improvement" departments must demonstrate that their programs enhance competencies that are of strategic value. As a company's strategies change, the types of management competencies and styles need to change as well, and human resource development is responsible for this alignment. We address these and related issues because we believe that effective training practices are determined by the organizational context in which they occur. Unique Characteristics of This Book This book differs from others on the same topic in a number of ways. Those in italics are new to this edition. For example, we: Integrate training into the strategic planning process. Show the important relationship between organizational development practitioners and trainers. Provide an overarching model of the training process, with a more detailed model of each phase of the process, making it easy to see how each phase connects in reaching the training objectives. Provide an understanding of training and its implementation as it relates to the small business. Integrate learning anddesign theoriesinto the development of training so the reader understands how theory helps design effective training. Describe the step-by-step process of developing an actual training package as we move through each of the training process stages from needs analysis through the evaluation. Provide numerous examples of actual training situations in companies to highlight aspects of the training process. Provide a step-by-step process for developing learning objectives with many examples of good and bad objectives. Include appendixes in some chapters for advanced learning opportunities. Use a contingency approach, identifying alternative approaches to the training process and the associated strengths and limitations, rather than a "one best way." Incorporate a macro and micro theory of design into the design of training. Provide a comprehensive case in Chapter 2 that is applicable throughout


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