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Elementary Surveying : An Introduction to Geomatics

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780131481893

ISBN10:
0131481894
Format:
Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $163.00

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Summary

For freshman and sophomore courses in surveying.This is a highly readable best-selling text that presents basic concepts and practical material in each of the areas fundamental to modern surveying (geomatics) practice. Its depth and breadth are ideal for self-study. The Eleventh Edition includes more than 400 figures and illustrations to help clarify discussions, and numerous worked example problems to illustrate computational procedures.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Introduction
1(21)
Definition of Surveying
1(2)
Geomatics
3(1)
History of Surveying
4(3)
Geodetic and Plane Surveys
7(3)
Importance of Surveying
10(1)
Specialized Types of Surveys
11(1)
Surveying Safety
12(1)
Land and Geographic Information Systems
13(1)
Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies
14(1)
The Surveying Profession
15(1)
Professional Surveying Organizations
16(1)
Surveying on the Internet
17(1)
Future Challenges in Surveying
18(4)
Problems
19(1)
Bibliography
20(2)
Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes
22(1)
PART I UNITS AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
22(7)
Introduction
22(1)
Units of Measurement
22(2)
International System of Units (SI)
24(2)
Significant Figures
26(2)
Rounding Off Numbers
28(1)
PART II FIELD NOTES
29(43)
Field Notes
29(1)
General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes
30(1)
Types of Field Books
31(1)
Kinds of Notes
32(1)
Arrangements of Notes
32(2)
Suggestions for Recording Notes
34(1)
Introduction to Automatic Data Collectors
35(4)
Transfer of Files from Data Collectors
39(1)
Digital Data File Management
39(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Automatic Data Collectors
41(4)
Problems
42(1)
Bibliography
43(2)
Theory of Errors in Observations
45(27)
Introduction
45(1)
Direct and Indirect Observations
45(1)
Errors in Measurements
46(1)
Mistakes
46(1)
Sources of Errors in Making Observations
47(1)
Types of Errors
47(1)
Precision and Accuracy
48(1)
Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors
49(1)
Probability
49(1)
Most Probable Value
50(1)
Residuals
51(1)
Occurrence of Random Errors
51(4)
General Laws of Probability
55(1)
Measures of Precision
55(3)
Interpretation of Standard Deviation
58(1)
The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors
58(2)
Error Propagation
60(5)
Error of a Sum
61(1)
Error of a Series
61(2)
Error in a Product
63(1)
Error of the Mean
64(1)
Applications
65(1)
Conditional Adjustment of Observations
65(1)
Weights of Observations
66(1)
Least Squares Adjustment
67(5)
Problems
68(2)
Bibliography
70(2)
Leveling--Theory, Methods, and Equipment
72(1)
PART I LEVELING--THEORY AND METHODS
72(12)
Introduction
72(1)
Definitions
72(2)
North American Vertical Datum
74(1)
Curvature and Refraction
75(2)
Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation
77(7)
Measuring Vertical Distances by Taping or Electronic Methods
77(1)
Differential Leveling
77(2)
Barometric Leveling
79(1)
Trigonometric Leveling
80(4)
PART II EQUIPMENT FOR DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING
84(43)
Categories of Levels
84(1)
Telescopes
85(1)
Level Vials
86(2)
Tilting Levels
88(1)
Automatic Levels
89(1)
Digital Levels
90(2)
Tripods
92(1)
Hand Level
92(1)
Level Rods
93(2)
Testing and Adjusting Levels
95(7)
Requirements for Testing and Adjusting Instruments
95(1)
Adjusting for Parallax
96(1)
Testing and Adjusting Level Vials
96(1)
Preliminary Adjustment of the Horizontal Cross Hair
96(1)
Testing and Adjusting the Line of Sight
97(2)
Problems
99(1)
Bibliography
100(2)
Leveling---Field Procedures and Computations
102(25)
Introduction
102(1)
Carrying and Setting up a Level
102(2)
Duties of a Rodperson
104(1)
Differential Leveling
105(4)
Precision
109(2)
Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits
111(1)
Reciprocal Leveling
112(1)
Three-Wire Leveling
113(1)
Profile Leveling
113(6)
Staking and Stationing the Reference Line
113(2)
Field Procedures for Profile Leveling
115(2)
Drawing and Using the Profile
117(2)
Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling
119(1)
Use of the Hand Level
119(1)
Sources of Error in Leveling
119(3)
Instrumental Errors
119(1)
Natural Errors
120(1)
Personal Errors
121(1)
Mistakes
122(1)
Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes
122(5)
Problems
123(2)
Bibliography
125(2)
Distance Measurement
127(1)
PART I METHODS FOR MEASURING DISTANCES
127(2)
Introduction
127(1)
Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements
127(1)
Pacing
128(1)
Odometer Readings
128(1)
Optical Rangefinders
129(1)
Tacheometry
129(1)
Subtense Bar
129(1)
PART II DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS BY TAPING
129(16)
Introduction to Taping
129(1)
Taping Equipment and Accessories
130(1)
Care of Taping Equipment
131(1)
Taping on Level Ground
132(2)
Lining In
132(1)
Applying Tension
132(1)
Plumbing
132(1)
Marking Tape Lengths
132(1)
Reading the Tape
133(1)
Recording the Distance
134(1)
Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground
134(2)
Slope Measurements
136(1)
Sources of Error in Taping
137(4)
Incorrect Length of Tape
137(1)
Temperature Other Than Standard
138(1)
Inconsistent Pull
139(1)
Sag
139(1)
Tape Not Horizontal and Tape Off Line
140(1)
Improper Plumbing
140(1)
Faulty Marking
141(1)
Incorrect Reading or Interpolation
141(1)
Summary of Effects of Taping Errors
141(1)
Tape Problems
141(2)
Combined Corrections in a Taping Problem
143(2)
PART III ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT
145(42)
Introduction
145(1)
Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy
145(3)
Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement
148(2)
Electro-Optical Instruments
150(3)
Total Station Instruments
153(1)
EDM Instruments Without Reflectors
153(1)
Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances
154(2)
Reduction of Short Lines by Elevation Differences
155(1)
Reduction of Short Lines by Zenith or Vertical Angle
156(1)
Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement
156(10)
Personal Errors
157(1)
Instrumental Errors
158(2)
Natural Errors
160(1)
Problems
161(3)
Bibliography
164(2)
Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings
166(21)
Introduction
166(1)
Units of Angle Measurement
166(1)
Kinds of Horizontal Angles
167(1)
Direction of a Line
168(1)
Azimuths
169(1)
Bearings
170(1)
Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings
171(1)
Computing Azimuths
172(2)
Computing Bearings
174(1)
The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field
175(2)
Magnetic Declination
177(2)
Variations in Magnetic Declination
179(1)
Software for Determining Magnetic Declination
179(2)
Local Attraction
181(1)
Typical Magnetic Declination Problems
181(1)
Mistakes
182(5)
Problems
183(3)
Bibliography
186(1)
Total Station Instruments; Angle Measurements
187(1)
PART I TOTAL STATION INSTRUMENTS
187(11)
Introduction
187(1)
Characteristics of Total Station Instruments
187(3)
Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments
190(1)
Parts of a Total Station Instrument
190(4)
Handling and Setting up a Total Station Instrument
194(3)
Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments
197(1)
PART II ANGLE MEASUREMENTS
198(669)
Relationship of Angles and Distances
198(1)
Measuring Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments
199(2)
Measuring Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method
201(1)
Closing the Horizon
202(2)
Measuring Deflection Angles
204(2)
Measuring Azimuths
206(1)
Measuring Vertical (or Zenith) Angles
206(2)
Sights and Marks
208(1)
Prolonging a Straight Line
209(2)
Balancing-In
211(1)
Random Traverse
212(1)
Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences
213(1)
Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories
214(3)
Adjustment of Plate-Level Vials
216(1)
Adjustment of Tripods
216(1)
Adjustment of Tribrachs
216(1)
Adjustment of Optical Plummets
217(1)
Adjustment of Circular Level Bubbles
217(1)
Sources of Error in Total Station Work
217(6)
Instrumental Errors
218(3)
Natural Errors
221(1)
Personal Errors
222(1)
Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Measurement
223(1)
Mistakes
224(3)
Problems
224(2)
Bibliography
226(1)
Traversing
227(13)
Introduction
227(2)
Methods of Measuring Traverse Angles or Directions
229(1)
Traversing by Interior Angles
229(1)
Traversing by Angles to the Right
229(1)
Traversing by Deflection Angles
229(1)
Traversing by Azimuths
230(1)
Measurement of Traverse Lengths
230(1)
Selection of Traverse Stations
231(1)
Referencing Traverse Stations
231(2)
Traverse Field Notes
233(1)
Angle Misclosure
234(1)
Traversing with Total Station Instruments
235(1)
Radial Traversing
236(1)
Sources of Error in Traversing
237(1)
Mistakes in Traversing
238(2)
Problems
238(1)
Bibliography
239(1)
Traverse Computations
240(30)
Introduction
240(1)
Balancing Angles
241(2)
Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings
243(1)
Departures and Latitudes
244(1)
Departure and Latitude Closure Conditions
245(1)
Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision
246(1)
Traverse Adjustment
247(3)
Compass (Bowditch) Rule
248(2)
Least-Squares Method
250(1)
Rectangular Coordinates
250(1)
Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations
251(4)
Balancing Angles by Adjusting Azimuths or Bearings
251(2)
Balancing Departures and Latitudes by Adjusting Coordinates
253(2)
Lengths and Directions of Lines from Departures and Latitudes, or Coordinates
255(1)
Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions
256(2)
Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys
258(1)
Use of Open Traverses
259(3)
State Plane Coordinate Systems
262(1)
Traverse Computations Using Computers
263(1)
Locating Blunders in Traverse Measurements
263(2)
Mistakes in Traverse Computations
265(5)
Problems
265(4)
Bibliography
269(1)
Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations
270(31)
Introduction
270(1)
Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles
271(2)
Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line
273(2)
Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions
275(2)
Intersection of a Line with a Circle
277(3)
Intersection of Two Circles
280(2)
Three-Point Resection
282(3)
Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
285(4)
Inaccessible Point Problem
289(3)
Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection
292(3)
Conclusions
295(6)
Problems
295(4)
Bibliography
299(2)
Area
301(22)
Introduction
301(1)
Methods of Measuring Area
301(1)
Area by Division into Simple Figures
302(1)
Area by Offsets from Straight Lines
303(2)
Regularly Spaced Offsets
303(1)
Irregularly Spaced Offsets
304(1)
Area by Coordinates
305(4)
Area by Double Meridian Distance Method
309(3)
Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries
312(1)
Partitioning of Lands
313(4)
Trial and Error Method
313(2)
Use of Simple Geometric Figures
315(1)
Coordinate Method
316(1)
Area by Measurements from Maps
317(3)
Area by Counting Coordinate Squares
317(1)
Area by Scaled Lengths
318(1)
Area by Digitizing Coordinates
318(1)
Area by Planimeter
318(2)
Sources of Error in Determining Areas
320(1)
Mistakes in Determining Areas
320(3)
Problems
320(2)
Bibliography
322(1)
The Global Positioning System--Introduction and Principles of Operation
323(35)
Introduction
323(1)
Overview of GPS
324(2)
The GPS Signal
326(2)
Reference Coordinate Systems for GPS
328(9)
The Satellite Reference Coordinate System
329(1)
The Geocentric Coordinate System
329(2)
The Geodetic Coordinate System
331(6)
Fundamentals of GPS Positioning
337(2)
Code Ranging
337(2)
Carrier Phase-Shift Measurements
339(1)
Errors in GPS Observations
339(8)
Clock Bias
339(1)
Refraction
340(2)
Other Error Sources
342(2)
Geometry of Observed Satellites
344(2)
Selective Availability
346(1)
Differential GPS
347(2)
Real-Time Kinematic GPS Methods
349(1)
Relative Positioning
350(2)
Single Differencing
350(1)
Double Differencing
351(1)
Triple Differencing
352(1)
The GLONASS Constellation
352(1)
The Future
353(5)
Problems
354(2)
Bibliography
356(2)
The Global Positioning System--Field and Office Procedures
358(37)
Introduction
358(2)
Field Procedures in GPS Surveys
360(6)
Static Relative Positioning
360(2)
Rapid Static Relative Positioning
362(1)
Pseudokinematic Surveys
362(1)
Kinematic Relative Positioning
362(2)
Real-Time Kinematic GPS Surveys
364(2)
Planning GPS Surveys
366(13)
Preliminary Considerations
367(3)
Selecting the Appropriate Survey Method
370(2)
Field Reconnaissance
372(1)
Developing an Observation Scheme
373(4)
Availability of Reference Stations
377(2)
Performing Static GPS Surveys
379(1)
Data Processing and Analysis
379(9)
Specifications for GPS Surveys
382(1)
Analysis of Fixed Baseline Measurements
383(2)
Analysis of Repeat Baseline Measurements
385(1)
Analysis of Loop Closures
385(1)
Baseline Network Adjustment
386(1)
The Survey Report
387(1)
Sources of Errors in GPS Work
388(1)
Instrumental Errors
388(1)
Natural Errors
389(1)
Personal Errors
389(1)
Mistakes in GPS Work
389(1)
Future Outlook for GPS
390(5)
Problems
391(1)
Bibliography
392(3)
Adjustments by Least Squares
395(47)
Introduction
395(2)
Fundamental Condition of Least Squares
397(1)
Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method
398(4)
Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment
402(2)
Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities
404(2)
Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits
406(4)
Propagation of Errors
410(1)
Least-Squares Adjustment of GPS Baseline Vectors
411(6)
Least-Squares Adjustment of Traditional Horizontal Plane Surveys
417(8)
Linearizing Nonlinear Equations
417(2)
The Distance Observation Equation
419(2)
The Azimuth Observation Equation
421(1)
The Angle Observation Equation
422(3)
A Traverse Example Using Wolfpack
425(1)
Error Ellipses
425(6)
Adjustment Procedures
431(2)
Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations
433(1)
Conclusions
434(8)
Problems
435(6)
Bibliography
441(1)
Mapping Surveys
442(38)
Introduction
442(1)
Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys
443(1)
Map Scale
443(2)
Control for Mapping Surveys
445(1)
Contours
446(3)
Characteristics of Contours
449(1)
Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours
449(2)
Direct Method
450(1)
Indirect Method
450(1)
Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems
451(3)
Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details
454(12)
Radiation by Total Station
454(2)
Radiation by Stadia
456(5)
Coordinate Squares or ``Grid'' Method
461(1)
Offsets from a Reference Line
461(2)
Topographic Detailing with Portable GPS Units
463(1)
Laser-Scanning
464(2)
Three Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation
466(2)
Selection of Field Method
468(1)
Working with Data Collectors and Field-to-Finish Software
468(3)
Hydrographic Surveys
471(4)
Equipment for Making Soundings
471(2)
Locating Soundings
473(2)
Hydrographic Mapping
475(1)
Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys
475(1)
Mistakes in Mapping Surveys
476(4)
Problems
476(2)
Bibliography
478(2)
Mapping
480(27)
Introduction
480(1)
Availability of Maps and Related Information
481(1)
National Mapping Program
482(1)
Accuracy Standards for Mapping
482(2)
Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures
484(1)
Map Design
485(2)
Map Layout
487(2)
Basic Map Plotting Procedures
489(2)
Manually Plotting by Coordinates
489(1)
Plotting Using CADD
489(2)
Contour Interval
491(1)
Plotting Contours
491(1)
Lettering
492(1)
Cartographic Map Elements
493(3)
Drafting Materials
496(1)
Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems
496(6)
Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping
502(1)
Sources of Error in Mapping
503(1)
Mistakes in Mapping
503(4)
Problems
503(2)
Bibliography
505(2)
Astronomical Observations
507(35)
Introduction
507(2)
Simple Methods of Determining the Meridian
509(2)
Shadow Method
509(1)
Equal Altitudes of the Sun
510(1)
Overview of Usual Procedures for Astronomical Azimuth Determination
511(1)
Ephemerides
512(3)
Definitions
515(3)
Refraction and Parallax
518(1)
Time
519(2)
Timing Observations
521(1)
Star Positions
522(1)
Azimuth from Polaris Observations
523(1)
Computations for Azimuth from Polaris Observations by the Hour Angle Method
524(4)
Verification of Field Observations
528(1)
Locating Polaris in the Telescope
529(3)
Practical Suggestions for Polaris Observations
532(1)
Azimuth from Solar Observations
533(4)
Sources of Error in Astronomical Observations
537(1)
Mistakes
538(4)
Problems
538(3)
Bibliography
541(1)
Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions
542(54)
Introduction
542(1)
The Ellipsoid and Geoid
543(2)
The Conventional Terrestrial Pole
545(2)
Geodetic Position, and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature
547(2)
Geoid Undulation and Deviation of the Vertical
549(2)
U.S. Reference Datums
551(4)
North American Horizontal Datum of 1927 (NAD27)
551(1)
North American Horizontal Datum of 1983 (NAD83)
552(1)
Later Versions of NAD83
552(2)
National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD29)
554(1)
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88)
554(1)
Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys
555(3)
The National Spatial Reference System
558(1)
Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network
559(1)
Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network
559(1)
Control Point Descriptions
560(2)
Field Procedures for Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys
562(5)
Triangulation
563(1)
Precise Traverse
564(2)
Trilateration
566(1)
Combined Networks
567(1)
Field Procedures for Vertical Control Surveys
567(5)
Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values
572(13)
Reduction of Distance Observations Using Elevations
572(3)
Reduction of Distance Observations Using Vertical Angles
575(3)
Reduction of Directions and Angles
578(3)
Leveling and Orthometric Heights
581(4)
Geodetic Position Computations
585(2)
Direct Geodetic Problem
585(1)
Inverse Geodetic Problem
586(1)
The Local Geodetic Coordinate System
587(2)
Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations
589(2)
Conclusions
591(5)
Problems
591(3)
Bibliography
594(2)
State Plane Coordinates
596(38)
Introduction
596(1)
Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems
597(3)
Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
600(1)
Transverse Mercator Projection
601(1)
State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83
601(2)
Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System
603(5)
Zone Constants
603(1)
The Direct Problem
604(2)
The Inverse Problem
606(2)
Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System
608(6)
Zone Constants
608(1)
The Direct Problem
609(2)
The Inverse Problem
611(3)
Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids
614(10)
Grid Reduction of Distances
615(4)
Grid Reduction of Azimuths and Angles
619(5)
Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations
624(2)
Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another
626(1)
Conversions Between SPCS27 and SPCS83
627(1)
The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection
628(1)
Other Map Projections
628(6)
Problems
630(3)
Bibliography
633(1)
Boundary Surveys
634(27)
Introduction
634(1)
Categories of Land Surveys
635(1)
Historical Perspectives
636(1)
Property Description by Metes and Bounds
637(3)
Property Description by Block and Lot System
640(2)
Property Description by Coordinates
642(1)
Retracement Surveys
642(3)
Subdivision Surveys
645(2)
Partitioning Land
647(1)
Registration of Title
648(1)
Adverse Possession and Easements
649(1)
Condominium Surveys
649(7)
Geographic and Land Information Systems
656(1)
Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys
656(1)
Mistakes
656(5)
Problems
657(2)
Bibliography
659(2)
Surveys of the Public Lands
661(26)
Introduction
661(1)
Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands
662(4)
Initial Point
666(1)
Principal Meridian
666(1)
Baseline
667(1)
Standard Parallels (Correction Lines)
668(1)
Guide Meridians
668(1)
Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines
669(1)
Designation of Townships
670(1)
Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships
671(1)
Subdivision of a Township into Sections
672(2)
Subdivision of Sections
674(1)
Fractional Sections
674(1)
Notes
675(1)
Outline of Subdivision Steps
675(1)
Marking Corners
675(1)
Witness Corners
675(2)
Meander Corners
677(1)
Lost and Obliterated Corners
677(3)
Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys
680(1)
Descriptions by Township Section, and Smaller Subdivision
681(1)
BLM Land Information System
681(1)
Sources of Error
682(1)
Mistakes
683(4)
Problems
683(2)
Bibliography
685(2)
Construction Surveys
687(26)
Introduction
687(1)
Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys
688(2)
Visible Laser-Beam Instruments
688(2)
Pulsed Laser EDMs
690(1)
Horizontal and Vertical Control
690(2)
Staking Out a Pipeline
692(2)
Staking Pipeline Grades
694(1)
Staking Out a Building
695(4)
Staking Out Highways
699(5)
Other Construction Surveys
704(1)
Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments
705(3)
Construction Surveys Using GPS Equipment
708(1)
As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning
709(1)
Sources of Error in Construction Surveys
710(1)
Mistakes
710(3)
Problems
710(2)
Bibliography
712(1)
Horizontal Curves
713(41)
Introduction
713(1)
Degree of Circular Curve
714(2)
Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas
716(2)
Circular Curve Stationing
718(2)
General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles
720(1)
Computing Deflection Angles and Chords
721(2)
Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
723(2)
Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
725(1)
Setups on Curve
725(1)
Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords
726(2)
Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords
728(1)
Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve
729(2)
Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates
731(5)
Circular Curve Layout by Offsets
736(3)
Special Circular Curve Problems
739(2)
Passing a Circular Curve Through a Fixed Point
740(1)
Intersection of a Circular Curve and a Straight Line
740(1)
Intersection of Two Circular Curves
741(1)
Compound and Reverse Curves
741(1)
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
741(1)
Spirals
742(5)
Spiral Geometry
742(2)
Spiral Calculation and Layout
744(3)
Computation of ``As-Built'' Circular Alignments
747(3)
Sources of Error in Laying out Circular Curves
750(1)
Mistakes
750(4)
Problems
751(2)
Bibliography
753(1)
Vertical Curves
754(19)
Introduction
754(1)
General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve
755(1)
Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve
755(3)
Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation
758(3)
Example Computations Using the English System of Units
758(2)
Example Computations Using the Metric System
760(1)
Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola
761(1)
Curve Computations by Proportion
762(1)
Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve
763(1)
Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve
763(3)
High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
766(1)
Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point
767(1)
Sight Distance
768(2)
Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves
770(1)
Mistakes
770(3)
Problems
771(1)
Bibliography
772(1)
Volumes
773(20)
Introduction
773(1)
Methods of Volume Measurement
773(1)
The Cross-Section Method
774(1)
Types of Cross Sections
775(1)
Average End Area Formula
776(2)
Determining End Areas
778(2)
End Areas by Simple Figures
778(1)
End Areas by Coordinates
779(1)
Computing Slope Intercepts
780(1)
Prismoidal Formula
781(2)
Volume Computations
783(1)
Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method
784(2)
Contour-Area Method
786(1)
Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge
787(1)
Sources of Error in Determining Volumes
788(1)
Mistakes
788(5)
Problems
789(2)
Bibliography
791(2)
Photogrammetry
793(46)
Introduction
793(1)
Uses of Photogrammetry
794(1)
Aerial Cameras
795(2)
Types of Aerial Photographs
797(1)
Vertical Aerial Photographs
797(3)
Scale of a Vertical Photograph
800(4)
Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph
804(1)
Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph
805(2)
Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph
807(1)
Stereoscopic Parallax
808(3)
Stereoscopic Viewing
811(2)
Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax
813(1)
Analytical Photogrammetry
814(1)
Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments
815(8)
Direct Optical Projection Stereoplotters
816(2)
Mechanical Projection Stereoplotters
818(1)
Analytical Stereoplotters
819(2)
Softcopy Stereoplotters
821(2)
Orthophotos
823(1)
Ground Control for Photogrammetry
824(1)
Flight Planning
825(3)
Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems
828(1)
Remote Sensing
828(6)
Sources of Error in Photogrammetry
834(1)
Mistakes
834(5)
Problems
834(3)
Bibliography
837(2)
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
839(28)
Introduction
839(3)
Land Information Systems
842(1)
GIS Data Sources and Classifications
842(1)
Spatial Data
842(6)
Simple Spatial Objects
843(1)
Vector and Raster Formats
844(3)
Topology
847(1)
Nonspatial Data
848(1)
Data Format Conversions
849(2)
Vector-to-Raster Conversion
849(2)
Raster-to-Vector Conversion
851(1)
Creating GIS Databases
851(6)
Generating Digital Data from Field Surveys
852(1)
Digitizing from Aerial Photos with Stereoplotters
853(1)
Digitizing Existing Graphic Materials
853(2)
Scanning
855(1)
Keyboard Entry
856(1)
Existing Digital Data Sets
857(1)
Metadata
857(1)
GIS Analytical Functions
858(4)
Proximity Analysis
858(1)
Boundary Operations
859(1)
Spatial Joins
860(1)
Logical Operations
861(1)
Other GIS Functions
862(1)
GIS Applications
862(5)
Problems
863(2)
Bibliography
865(2)
APPENDIX A DUMPY LEVELS, TRANSITS, AND THEODOLITES
867(15)
A.1 Introduction
867(1)
A.2 The Dumpy Level
868(1)
A.3 Introduction to the Transit and Theodolite
869(3)
A.4 The Transit
872(5)
A.4.1 Parts of a Transit
872(1)
A.4.2 Circle Scales and Verniers
873(2)
A.4.3 Properties of the Transit
875(1)
A.4.4 Handling, Setting up, and Using a Transit
875(2)
A.5 The Theodolite
877(5)
A.5.1 Characteristics of Theodolites
878(1)
A.5.2 Repeating Theodolites
879(1)
A.5.3 Directional Theodolites
880(1)
A.5.4 Handling, Setting up, and Using a Thedolite
881(1)
APPENDIX B EXAMPLE NOTEFORMS
882(7)
APPENDIX C TARGET HEIGHT AND LATITUDE CORRECTIONS TO OBSERVED AZIMUTHS
889(3)
C.1 Introduction
889(1)
C.2 Target Height Reduction
889(1)
C.3 Correction for Target Station at Different Latitude
890(2)
APPENDIX D USING THE WORKSHEETS ON THE COMPANION DISK
892(6)
D.1 Introduction
892(1)
D.2 Using the Files
893(3)
D.3 Using the Worksheets as an Aid in Learning
896(2)
APPENDIX E ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS
898(5)
Index 903


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