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Elements of Ecology

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780321068781

ISBN10:
0321068785
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $105.33
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Summary

This book provides readers with a popular modular organization and an easy-to-read writing style that explains the basics of ecology. The authors have updated the Fifth Edition to reflect the current emphasis on the physical environment, global environmental change, and adaptation/evolution. As a result, there are new chapters, a new structure, and new topics found in the table of contents. These changes provide readers with an understanding of the principles governing the relationships between plants, animals, and other living organisms within their environment, and give them skills to critically evaluating public issues related to ecology. Abundant real-life examples illustrate and clarify the book's emphasis on understanding ecological patterns within an evolutionary framework. For instructors and students, or anyone interested in ecology.

Table of Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgments vii
Introduction
1(12)
What Is Ecology?
1(3)
Science in the Real World
4(1)
Formal Study and Employment
4(4)
Some Career Profiles
8(3)
Career and Job Opportunities Reference List
11(2)
A Crowded Planet
13(6)
Exponential Population Growth
13(1)
Human Manipulation of Population Size
14(1)
Maintaining and Increasing Resources
15(2)
Developing an Ecocentric Viewpoint
17(1)
References and Resources on Population Limits
18(1)
Wrenches in the Ecosystem Machinery
19(13)
What Is Pollution?
19(1)
Energy Flow, Habitats, and Impacts
20(1)
Solutions
21(2)
Checklist for Reducing Consumption of Resources
23(2)
Checklist for Reducing Output of Wastes and Pollutants
25(2)
Addresses for Environmentally Friendly Products
27(2)
Addresses for Information on Environmentally Friendly Products
29(1)
Addresses for Information on Saving Energy and Avoiding Pollution
29(2)
General Guides to Being Environmentally Responsible
31(1)
Selected References for Combating Pollution and Waste
31(1)
Habitat Diversity for a Quality Life
32(9)
Biodiversity
32(2)
Keys and Identification Aids
34(1)
Biomes and Habitat Protection
34(2)
Organizations for Preserving Biodiversity
36(2)
References for Preserving Biodiversity
38(3)
Involvement Groups
41(6)
Starting or Joining an Involvement Group
41(1)
Useful Addresses for Involvement Groups
42(1)
Compromise and Points of Leverage
43(1)
Influencing Legislators
44(1)
Sample Letter to a Legislator
45(1)
References for Involvement Groups
46(1)
References, Directories, Organizations, and Other Resources
47(12)
General Ecological References
47(1)
Periodicals
48(3)
Media
51(1)
Directories and Agencies
51(2)
Ecologically Concerned Organizations
53(4)
General Field Equipment and Laboratory Supplies
57(2)
Future Study
59(6)
Ecology Field and Laboratory Exercises and Tools
59(1)
Researching the Literature
60(1)
Textbooks in Ecology and Environmental Science
61(4)
Index of Organizations 65(562)
Preface xiii
PART I Introduction 1(34)
The Nature of Ecology
3(8)
Ecology is a science
4(1)
The major unit of ecology is the ecosystem
4(1)
Ecosystem components form a hierarchy
5(1)
Ecology has strong ties to other disciplines
5(3)
Focus on Ecology 1.1 A Brief History of Ecology
6(2)
Ecologists use scientific methods
8(1)
Experiments can lead to predictions
9(1)
Uncertainty and debate are key features of science
9(1)
We begin with the individual
10(1)
Chapter Review
10(1)
Adaptation and Evolution
11(24)
Natural selection requires two conditions
12(1)
Heritability is an essential feature of natural selection
13(4)
Genes are the units of inheritance
17(2)
Genetic variation is the essential ingredient for natural selection
19(1)
The concept of species is based on genetic isolation
20(3)
Focus on Ecology 2.1 Classifying Organisms
21(2)
The process of speciation involves the development of reproductive isolation
23(1)
Evolution is a change in gene frequency
24(1)
Adaptations reflect tradeoffs and constraints
25(10)
Focus on Ecology 2.2 Geographic Variation Within Species
26(2)
Focus on Ecology 2.3 The Niche
28(1)
Chapter Review
29(2)
Ecological Application I Taking the Uncertainty out of Sex
31(4)
PART II The Physical Environment 35(64)
Climate
37(18)
Earth intercepts solar radiation
38(1)
Intercepted solar radiation varies over Earth's surface
39(2)
Air temperature decreases with altitude
41(3)
Air masses circulate globally
44(2)
Solar energy, wind, and Earth's rotation create ocean currents
46(1)
Temperature influences the amount of moisture air can hold
46(1)
Precipitation has a global pattern
47(2)
Inversions occur when surface air loses more energy than it receives
49(2)
Focus on Ecology 3.1 Urban Microclimates
51(1)
Most organisms live in microclimates
51(4)
Chapter Review
53(2)
The Abiotic Environment
55(24)
Solar radiation includes visible light
56(1)
Plant cover intercepts light
57(2)
Daily and seasonal patterns of light govern life's activities
59(2)
Quantifying Ecology 4.1 Beer's Law and the Attenuation of Light
60(1)
The structure of water is based on hydrogen bonds
61(1)
Water has important physical properties
62(2)
Transfer of water between the environment and organisms involves osmosis
64(1)
Water cycles between Earth and the atmosphere
64(1)
Water movements shape freshwater and marine environments
65(2)
Tides dominate the marine environment
67(1)
All organisms live in a thermal environment
67(1)
Aquatic environments experience seasonal shifts in temperature
68(1)
Temperatures of the marine environment can be variable
69(1)
Living organisms exchange energy with the environment
70(1)
Essential nutrients are either macronutrients or micronutrients
71(1)
Oxygen can be limiting in aquatic environments
71(2)
Acidity has a pervasive influence on terrestrial and aquatic environments
73(1)
Salinity dominates marine and arid environments
74(5)
Chapter Review
75(4)
Soil
79(20)
Soil is not easily defined
80(1)
Soil formation involves five interdependent factors
80(1)
Formation of soil begins with mechanical and chemical weathering
81(1)
Living organisms influence soil formation
82(1)
The soil body has horizontal layers or horizons
82(1)
Soils have certain distinguishing physical characteristics
83(1)
Moisture-holding capacity is an essential feature of soils
84(2)
Cation exchange capacity is important to soil fertility
86(1)
Climate and vegetation produce different soils
87(3)
Soil supports diverse and abundant life
90(2)
Soils have been severely disturbed
92(7)
Focus on Ecology 5.1 Fighting Soil Erosion
94(1)
Chapter Review
94(2)
Ecological Application II Blowin' in the Wind
96(3)
PART III The Organism and Its Environment 99(70)
Plant Adaptations to the Environment
101(22)
Photosynthesis is the conversion of carbon dioxide into simple sugars
102(1)
The light a plant receives affects its photosynthetic activity
103(1)
Photosynthesis involves exchanges between the plant and atmosphere
103(2)
Plant temperatures reflect their energy balance with the surrounding environment
105(1)
Carbon gained in photosynthesis is allocated to the production of plant tissues
106(1)
Constraints imposed by the physical environment have resulted in a wide array of plant adaptations
107(1)
Species of plants are adapted to either high or low light
108(3)
Focus on Ecology 6.1 Shaded by Water
109(1)
Focus on Ecology 6.2 Leaf Morphology and Light
110(1)
The link between water demand and temperature influences plant adaptations
111(6)
Focus on Ecology 6.3 When Wet Can Be Dry: Saline Habitats
112(2)
Focus on Ecology 6.4 Too Much of a Good Thing: Plants' Adaptations to Flooding
114(3)
Plants acclimate to the prevailing temperatures of their environment
117(1)
Focus on Ecology 6.5 Degree-Days: An Index for Integrating Temperature over Time
118(1)
Plants exhibit adaptations to variation in nutrient availability
118(5)
Chapter Review
120(3)
Decomposers and Decomposition
123(14)
Decomposition involves a variety of processes
124(1)
A range of organisms is involved in decomposition
124(2)
The types of carbon compounds in plant tissues influence their food quality
126(1)
Litter quality influences the rate of decomposition
127(1)
Decomposition of animal matter is more direct
128(1)
Decomposition is also influenced by physical environment
129(1)
Decomposers transform nutrients into a usable form
130(2)
Focus on Ecology 7.1 Litterbag Studies
132(1)
Decomposition in aquatic environments
132(5)
Chapter Review
134(3)
Animal Adaptations to the Environment
137(32)
Animal have various ways of acquiring nutrients
138(3)
Animals have various nutritional needs
141(2)
Mineral availability affects animals' growth and reproduction
143(1)
Animals require oxygen to release energy contained in food
144(1)
Regulation of internal conditions involves homeostasis and feedback
144(2)
Animals exchange energy with their surrounding environment
146(1)
Animals fall into three groups relative to temperature regulation
147(1)
Poikilotherms depend on environmental temperatures
148(1)
Homeotherms escape the thermal restraints of the environment
149(1)
Endothermy and ectothermy involve tradeoffs
149(2)
Focus on Ecology 8.1 Body Size and Metabolism
150(1)
Heterotherms take on characteristics of ectotherms and endotherms
151(1)
Torpor helps some animals conserve energy
151(1)
Poikilotherms exploit microclimates to regulate temperature
152(1)
Insulation reduces heat exchange
153(1)
Evaporative cooling in animals is important
153(1)
Some animals use unique physiological means for thermal balance
154(1)
Countercurrent circulation conserves or reduces body heat
154(1)
Animals have ways of maintaining water balance
155(1)
Animals of arid environments conserve water
156(1)
Animals of saline environments have special problems
157(1)
Daily seasonal light and dark cycles influence animal activity
157(1)
Circadian rhythms have adaptive value
157(2)
Focus on Ecology 8.2 How Biological Clocks Measure Time
158(1)
Critical daylengths trigger seasonal responses
159(2)
Focus on Ecology 8.3 Deer Antlers
160(1)
Activity rhythms of intertidal organisms follow tidal cycles
161(1)
Buoyancy aids aquatic organisms to stay afloat
162(7)
Chapter Review
163(3)
Ecological Application III St. Patrick and the Absence of Snakes of Ireland
166(3)
PART IV Populations 169(70)
Properties of Populations
171(14)
Populations may be unitary or modular
172(1)
The distribution of organisms reflects environmental variation
173(2)
Density affects individuals in a population
175(1)
Density is difficult to define
176(1)
Dispersion of individuals influences population density
177(1)
Dispersal of individuals influences local abundance
177(2)
Determining density requires sampling
179(1)
Populations have age structures
180(1)
Determining age structure requires finding individual ages
180(2)
Focus on Ecology 9.1 Capture-Recapture Sampling
181(1)
Age pyramids portray age structure
182(1)
Sex ratios in populations may shift with age
183(2)
Chapter Review
183(2)
Population Growth
185(18)
Probability of surviving is age-specific
186(1)
A life table gives a systematic picture of age-specific mortality and survival
186(2)
Quantifying Ecology 10.1 Constructing a Life Table
188(1)
Plant life tables are more complex
188(1)
Life tables provide data for mortality and survivorship curves
189(2)
Natality is age-specific
191(1)
Natality and survivorship determine reproductive rates
192(1)
Age-specific mortality and birthrates can project population growth
192(2)
Exponential growth is like compound interest
194(1)
Rate of increase is used in population studies
195(1)
Population growth is limited by the environment
195(2)
Populations fluctuate around upper and lower limits
197(1)
Populations can decline toward extinction
198(1)
Past extinctions have been clustered in time
198(1)
Extinction of species begins locally
199(4)
Chapter Review
200(3)
Intraspecific Population Regulation
203(16)
Population regulation involves density dependence
204(1)
When resources are limited, competition results
204(1)
Intraspecific competition affects growth and development
205(4)
Focus on Ecology 11.1 The African Buffalo
206(3)
Intraspecific competition can reduce reproduction
209(1)
High density is stressful to individuals
209(1)
Dispersal may or may not be density-dependent
210(1)
Social behavior may limit populations
211(1)
Social dominance can affect reproduction and survival
211(1)
Social interactions influence activities and home ranges
212(1)
Territoriality may regulate populations
213(1)
Plants capture and ``defend'' space
214(1)
Focus on Ecology 11.2 Thinning the Ranks
215(1)
Density-independent influences can be strong
215(4)
Chapter Review
216(3)
Life History Patterns
219(20)
Reproduction may be sexual or asexual
220(1)
Sexual reproduction takes a variety of forms
221(2)
Mating Strategies take several forms
223(1)
Acquisition of a mate involves sexual selection
224(1)
Females may acquire mates based on resources
225(1)
Mating in a small population can result in inbreeding
226(1)
Organisms budget time and energy to reproduction
226(1)
Parental investment depends upon the number and size of young
227(1)
Environmental conditions influence life history characteristics
228(1)
Food supply affects the production of young
229(1)
Fecundity depends on age and size
230(1)
Reproductive effort may vary with latitude
230(1)
Habitat selection influences reproductive success
231(2)
Life history characteristics drive population dynamics
233(6)
Chapter Review
234(2)
Ecological Application IV Cheating Nature
236(3)
PART V Communities 239(154)
Community Structure
241(28)
Species within the community have positive, negative, or zero effects on each other
242(1)
Quantifying Ecology 13.1 Some Measures of Dominance
243(1)
Communities vary in biological structure
243(1)
Number and relative abundance define species diversity
243(2)
Quantifying Ecology 13.2 Indexes of Diversity
245(1)
Food webs describe species interactions
245(2)
Communities have defining physical structure
247(1)
Communities have a characteristic vertical stratification
247(3)
Focus on Ecology 13.1 Plant Life Form Classification
248(2)
Spatial change in community structure is zonation
250(3)
Defining boundaries between communities is often difficult
253(1)
Quantifying Ecology 13.3 Community Similarity
254(1)
Classification of communities is scale-dependent
254(2)
Temporal change in community structure is succession
256(1)
Succession is common to all environments
256(2)
Succession is either primary or secondary
258(2)
Succession involves heterotrophic species
260(1)
Community structure changes over geological time
261(1)
Two contrasting views of the community
262(3)
Understanding community structure requires understanding species interactions
265(4)
Chapter Review
266(3)
Interspecific Competition
269(20)
Interspecific competition involves two or more species
270(1)
There are four possible outcomes of interspecific competition
270(3)
Focus on Ecology 14.1 A Chemical Solution to Competition in Plants
271(2)
Laboratory experments support the Lotka-Volterra equations
273(1)
Studies suggest the competitive exclusion principle
274(1)
Competition is influenced by nonresource factors
275(1)
Temporal variation in environment influences competitive interactions
275(1)
Competition occurs for multiple resources
276(2)
Relative competitive abilities change along environmental gradients
278(2)
Species coexistence involves partitioning available resources
280(2)
Focus on Ecology 14.2 Ghosts of Competition Past
282(1)
Interspecific competition influences the realized niche
282(3)
The importance of competition is difficult to demonstrate in the field
285(4)
Focus on Ecology 14.3 Invasion of the Aliens
286(1)
Chapter Review
287(2)
Predation
289(20)
Predation takes a variety of forms
290(1)
Mathematical models describe the basics of predation
290(2)
Model suggests mutual population regulation
292(1)
Functional responses relate prey taken to prey density
292(1)
Predators develop a search image for prey
293(1)
Predators may turn to alternate, more abundant prey
294(1)
Predators respond numerically to changing prey density
294(2)
Coevolution can occur between predator and prey
296(1)
Prey have evolved defenses against predators
296(2)
Predators have evolved efficient hunting tactics
298(1)
Animals use a foraging strategy
299(1)
Foragers seek productive food patches
300(1)
Herbivores prey on plants
301(2)
Focus on Ecology 15.1 Carnivorous Plants
302(1)
Plants defend themselves from herbivores
303(2)
Focus on Ecology 15.2 Grazing the West
305(1)
Plants, herbivores, and carnivores interact
305(1)
Does predation influence community structure?
306(3)
Chapter Review
307(2)
Parasitism and Mutualism
309(20)
Parasites draw resources from host organisms
310(1)
Hosts provide diverse habitats for parasites
310(1)
Direct transmission can occur between host organisms
311(1)
Transmission between hosts can involve an intermediate vector
311(1)
Transmission can involve multiple hosts and stages
312(2)
Hosts respond to parasitic invasions
314(1)
Parasites can impact host survival and reproduction
315(1)
Parasites and hosts may evolve an uneasy truce
315(1)
Parasites may regulate host populations
316(2)
Focus on Ecology 16.1 Plagues upon Us
317(1)
Parasitism can evolve into a positive relationship
318(1)
Symbiotic mutualisms are involved in the transfer of nutrients
318(3)
Focus on Ecology 16.2 Permanent House Guests
320(1)
Some symbiotic mutualisms are defensive
321(1)
Mutualisms may be nonsymbiotic
322(1)
Mutualisms are often necessary for pollination
322(1)
Mutualisms are involved in seed dispersal
323(2)
Facilitation is a form of mutualism
325(1)
Mutualism can influence community structure
326(3)
Chapter Review
327(2)
Processes Shaping Communities
329(20)
The fundamental niche constrains community structure
330(1)
Species interactions are diffuse
331(1)
Food webs illustrate indirect interactions
331(3)
Focus on Ecology 17.1 The Politics of Nature
333(1)
Food webs suggest controls of community structure
334(3)
Focus on Ecology 17.2 Rivets or Redundancy?
335(2)
Species interactions along environmental gradients involve both stress tolerance and competition
337(3)
Community structure changes along a temporal, autogenic gradient
340(3)
Focus on Ecology 17.3 A Succession of Ideas
341(2)
Species diversity changes during succession
343(2)
Habitat links the structure of plant and animal components of the community
345(4)
Chapter Review
346(3)
Human Interactions Within Communities
349(18)
Exploitation of natural populations led to management
350(1)
Continued exploitation depends on sustained yield
350(3)
Achieving sustainable yield is often difficult
353(1)
Sustained yield is also applied to forestry
354(2)
Human activities have benefited some species at the expense of others
356(1)
Human-introduced invasive species significantly alter natural communities
357(1)
Many species clash with human interests
358(1)
A variety of means are deployed to control weed and pest species
359(4)
Focus on Ecology 18.1 Insect Wars
360(2)
Focus on Ecology 18.2 Endangered Species---Endangered Legislation
362(1)
Restoration efforts attempt to undo damage to communities
363(4)
Chapter Review
364(3)
Landscape Ecology
367(26)
Environmental processes create a variety of patches in the landscape
368(1)
Transition zones offer diverse conditions and habitats
369(1)
Patch size and shape are critical to species diversity
370(5)
The theory of island biogeography applies to landscape patches
375(1)
In fragmented landscapes, corridors permit movement between isolated patches
376(1)
Metapopulations decrease vulnerability to local extinctions
377(1)
The impact of disturbance is determined by frequency, intensity, and scale
378(3)
Focus on Ecology 19.1 Genetic Drift and Effective Population Size
379(2)
Various natural processes function as disturbances
381(4)
Focus on Ecology 19.2 One Man's Meat
382(1)
Focus on Ecology 19.3 Fire Ecology
383(2)
Human disturbance creates some of the most long-lasting effects
385(1)
The landscape represents a shifting mosaic of changing components
385(8)
Chapter Review
387(2)
Ecological Application V Asteroids, Bulldozers, and Biodiversity
389(4)
PART VI Ecosystems 393(72)
Ecosystem Productivity
395(22)
The ecosystem consists of the biotic and abiotic
396(1)
All ecosystems have three basic components
396(1)
The laws of thermodynamics govern energy flow
397(1)
Primary production fixes energy
398(1)
Energy allocation varies among primary producers
398(2)
Environmental controls on primary production
400(4)
Focus on Ecology 20.1 Productivity of a Corn Field
403(1)
Primary production varies with time
404(1)
Primary Productivity limits secondary production
404(2)
Consumers vary in efficiency of production
406(1)
Ecosystems have two major food chains
407(1)
Energy flows through trophic levels
408(2)
Energy decreases in each successive trophic level
410(2)
Quantifying Ecology 20.1 Ecological Efficiencies
411(1)
Patterns of energy flow through food chain vary among ecosystems
412(1)
Ecological pyramids characterize distribution of energy
413(4)
Chapter Review
414(3)
Nutrient Cycling
417(16)
All nutrients follow biogeochemical cycles
418(1)
Nutrients enter the ecosystem via inputs
418(1)
Focus on Ecology 21.1 The Gaia Hypothesis
419(1)
Nutrients are recycled within the ecosystem
419(1)
Key ecosystem processes influence the rate of nutrient cycling
420(2)
Focus on Ecology 21.2 Hot Ecology
421(1)
Both climate and plant characteristics influence the rate of nutrient cycling
422(1)
Outputs represent a loss of nutrients from the ecosystem
423(2)
Nutrient cycling differs between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
425(2)
Water flow influences nutrient cycling in streams and rivers
427(2)
Land and marine environments influence nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems
429(2)
Surface ocean currents bring about vertical transport of nutrients
431(2)
Chapter Review
431(2)
Biogeochemical Cycles
433(16)
The carbon cycle is closely tied to energy flow
434(1)
The cycling of carbon varies daily and seasonally
434(2)
The global carbon cycle involves exchanges among the atmosphere, oceans, and land
436(2)
The nitrogen cycle begins with fixing atmospheric nitrogen
438(3)
The phosphorus cycle has no atmospheric reservoir
441(1)
The sulfur cycle is both sedimentary and gaseous
442(1)
The global sulfur cycle is poorly understood
443(1)
The oxygen cycle is largely under biological control
444(1)
The various biogeochemical cycles are linked
445(4)
Chapter Review
446(3)
Human Intrusions into Biogeochemical Cycles
449(16)
Human activities are altering the global carbon cycle
450(1)
Human-produced emissions of nitrogen act as pollutants
450(1)
Human-produced sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant
451(2)
The sulfur and nitrogen cycles produce acid deposition
453(1)
Acid deposition impacts soils and aquatic systems
454(2)
Focus on Ecology 23.1 Air Pollution and Forest Decline
455(1)
Pollutants influence the dynamics of ozone
456(1)
Human intrusion in the phosphorus cycle involves its redistribution
457(1)
Heavy metals also cycle through ecosystems
457(1)
Chlorinated hydrocarbons establish cycles
458(7)
Chapter Review
460(1)
Ecological Application VI Time to Rethink the Lawn
461(4)
PART VII Biogeography and Biodiversity 465(162)
Biogeography and Biodiversity
467(26)
The classification of ecosystems and climate have a linked history
469(2)
Terrestrial ecosystems reflect adaptations of the dominant plant life forms
471(8)
Focus on Ecology 24.1 Animal Distribution: The Biogeographical Realm
476(3)
Aquatic ecosystems are classified on the basis of physical features
479(1)
Regional and global patterns of species diversity vary geographically
480(1)
Species richness in terrestrial ecosystems correlates with climate and productivity
481(3)
In marine environments, there is an inverse relationship between productivity and diversity
484(1)
Species diversity is a function of processes operating at many scales
485(1)
Charles Darwin was a student of geography: Adaptation revisited
486(7)
Focus on Ecology 24.2 Ecoregions: Classifying and Mapping Ecosystems for Resource Management
488(2)
Focus on Ecology 24.3 Predicting Climate from Pollen
490(1)
Chapter Review
491(2)
Terrestrial Ecosystems 1: Forests, Woodlands, and Savannas
493(24)
The structure and function of forest ecosystems vary with climate
494(2)
The seasonality of rainfall influences the nature of tropical forest ecosystems
496(2)
Tropical rain forests have a complex biological and physical structure
498(1)
The mature tropical forest is a mosaic of continually changing vegetation
499(1)
Stratification of vegetation supports a diversity of animal life
500(1)
Deciduous forests characterize the wetter environments of the warm temperate regions
500(1)
Four distinct layers characterize the vertical structure of a temperate deciduous forest
501(1)
Vertical structure in the temperate forest influences the diversity and distribution of life
502(1)
Subtropical areas support temperate evergreen forests
502(1)
Temperate coniferous forests inhabit a variety of different environments
503(1)
Coniterous forests have a simple vertical structure that varies with the dominant species
504(1)
Animal life in coniferous forests is varied
505(2)
Boreal forests are the dominant forests of the northern latitudes
507(1)
The seasonal freezing and thawing of soil influences the structure and dynamics of boreal ecosystems
507(1)
The boreal forest has a relatively simple structure
508(1)
The boreal forest has a unique animal community
508(1)
At high elevations, the forest is reduced to stunted trees
509(1)
Reduced soil moisture gives rise to woodlands
510(1)
Savannas form the transition from forest to grassland in the tropics
511(2)
Savannas have a distinct physical structure
513(1)
Savannas support a diversity of herbivores
513(1)
The seasonality of rainfall drives productivity and nutrient cycling in savanna ecosystems
514(3)
Chapter Review
514(3)
Terrestrial Ecosystems 11: Grassland, Shrubland, Desert, and Tundra
517(26)
Increasing aridity marks the transition from forest to grassland in the temperate zone
518(1)
The character of grassland ecosystems varies with climate and geography
518(4)
The vertical structure of a grassland changes with the season
522(1)
Grasslands support a diversity of animal life
523(1)
Productivity and nutrient cycling in grasslands is governed by moisture
524(1)
Grasslands evolved under grazing pressure
524(1)
Shrubland ecosystems occupy the arid and semiarid regions of the tropics
525(1)
Shrubs are difficult to characterize
526(1)
Winter rainfall characterizes the mediterranean shrublands of the world
526(3)
Heathlands are a taxonomically distinct form of shrublands
529(1)
Heterogeneity is a characteristic of shrubland structure
530(1)
Shrub ecosystems support a unique animal community
530(1)
Deserts represent a diverse group of ecosystems
531(2)
Desert ecosystems have a simple physical structure
533(1)
Moisture limits productivity and nutrient cycling in desert ecosystems
534(1)
Adapted to aridity, desert animal life is diverse
534(1)
Low precipitation and cold temperatures characterize the tundra
535(2)
Simple structure and low diversity characterize the vegetation of the tundra
537(1)
Low temperatures and extreme seasonality control tundra productivity and nutrient cycling
538(2)
Low in diversity, tundra animals are well adapted to the cold
540(3)
Chapter Review
541(2)
Freshwater and Estuarine Ecosystems
543(18)
Lakes have many origins
544(1)
Lakes have well-defined physical characteristics
544(2)
The littoral zone supports the richest diversity of life
546(1)
Planktonic organisms dominate life in the limnetic zone
546(2)
Life in the profundal zone is restricted
548(1)
The benthic zone is the site of decomposition
548(1)
The character of a lake reflects its surrounding landscape
549(2)
Velocity influences the characteristics of flowing-water communities
551(1)
Flowing-water ecosystems vary in structure and types of habitats
551(1)
Life is highly adapted to flowing water
552(2)
The flowing-water ecosystem is a continuum of changing environments
554(2)
By regulating flows, dams interfere with the river continuum
556(1)
Rivers flow into the sea, forming estuaries
557(1)
Estuarine organisms encounter both flowing water and salinity
558(3)
Chapter Review
559(2)
Marine Ecosystems
561(18)
Oceans exhibit zonation and stratification
562(1)
Pelagic communities are hidden beneath the surface
563(1)
Phytoplankton dominates oceanic surface waters
564(1)
Dominant herbivores are zooplankton
564(2)
Nekton comprise swimming organisms
566(1)
Benthos is a world of its own
566(1)
Hydrothermal vents are unique benthic ecosystems
567(1)
Life on the seashore is complex
567(1)
Tides and waves influence life on rocky shores
568(3)
Sandy and muddy shores are harsh environments
571(1)
Life on sandy shores is largely hidden
572(1)
Organic matter is the basis of life on sandy shores
572(2)
Coral reefs are oases in tropical seas
574(1)
Built by colonies of coral animals, coral reefs are complex ecosystems
575(1)
Zonation of coral reefs results from biotic and abiotic interactions
575(1)
Pollution endangers open sea and coastal ecosystems
576(3)
Chapter Review
577(2)
Wetlands
579(18)
What defines a wetland?
580(1)
Wetlands come in many types
581(5)
Hydrology defines the structure of freshwater wetlands
586(1)
Tides and salinity dictate the structure of salt marshes
587(3)
Range and duration of tidal flooding dictate the formation of mangrove swamps
590(1)
Freshwater wetlands support a rich diversity of life
591(1)
Animal life in the salt marsh is adapted to tidal rhythms
591(1)
Mangroves are rich in animal life
592(1)
Wetlands have long been considered wastelands
592(2)
Wetlands are important ecologically and economically
594(3)
Chapter Review
595(2)
Global Environmental Change
597(30)
Atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is rising
598(2)
Focus on Ecology 30.1 Monitoring Vegetation Change from Space
600(1)
Tracking the fate of CO2 emissions
600(2)
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations affect CO2 uptake by oceans
602(1)
Plants respond to increased atmospheric CO2
603(2)
Focus on Ecology 30.2 Raising CO2 in a Forest: What Happens?
605(1)
Greenhouse gases are changing the global climate
605(6)
Focus on Ecology 30.3 Modeling Earth's Climate
606(4)
Focus on Ecology 30.4 Who Turned Up the Heat?
610(1)
Changes in climate will affect ecosystems at many levels
611(4)
Changing climate will shift the global distribution of ecosystems
615(1)
Global warming would raise sea level and affect coastal environments
616(2)
Climate change will affect agricultural production
618(1)
Climate change will both directly and indirectly affect human health
619(2)
Understanding global change requires the study of ecology at a global scale
621(6)
Chapter Review
622(2)
Ecological Application VII How a Lack of Mushrooms Helped Power the Industrial Revolution
624(3)
References 627(18)
Glossary 645(16)
Credits 661(4)
Index 665


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