CART

(0) items

Essential Cell Biology : An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell,9780815320456
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Essential Cell Biology : An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the Cell

by ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
ISBN13:

9780815320456

ISBN10:
0815320450
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Routledge
List Price: $99.95
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.01
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • Essential Cell Biology
    Essential Cell Biology
  • Essential Cell Biology
    Essential Cell Biology




Summary

A new entry-level survey of cell biology that makes teaching and learning easier than ever before

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Cells
1(36)
Cells Under the Microscope
1(8)
The Invention of the Light Microscope Led to the Discovery of Cells
2(1)
Cells, Organelles, and Even Molecules Can Be Seen Under the Microscope
3(6)
The Eucaryotic Cell
9(8)
The Nucleus Is the Information Store of the Cell
9(1)
Mitochondria Generate Energy from Food to Power the Cell
10(2)
Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight
12(1)
Internal Membranes Create Intracellular Compartments with Different Functions
13(2)
The Cytosol Is a Concentrated Aqueous Gel of Large and Small Molecules
15(1)
The Cytoskeleton Is Responsible for Cell Movements
16(1)
Unity and Diversity of Cells
17(17)
Cells Vary Enormously in Appearance and Function
19(2)
Living Cells All Have a Similar Basic Chemistry
21(1)
All Present-Day Cells Have Apparently Evolved from the Same Ancestor
21(1)
Bacteria Are the Smallest and Simplest Cells
22(3)
Molecular Biologists Have Focused on E. coli
25(1)
Giardia May Represent an Intermediate Stage in the Evolution of Eucaryotic Cells
25(1)
Brewer's Yeast Is a Simple Eucaryotic Cell
26(1)
Single-celled Organisms Can Be Large, Complex, and Fierce: The Protozoans
27(1)
Arabidopsis Has Been Chosen Out of 300,000 Species as a Model Plant
28(1)
The World of Animals Is Represented by a Fly, a Worm, a Mouse, and Homo Sapiens
29(2)
Cells in the Same Multicellular Organism Can Be Spectacularly Different
31(3)
Essential Concepts
34(1)
Questions
35(2)
Chapter 2 Chemical Components of Cells
37(42)
Chemical Bonds
37(15)
Cells Are Made of Relatively Few Types of Atoms
38(1)
The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact
39(3)
Ionic Bonds Form by the Gain and Loss of Electrons
42(1)
Covalent Bonds Form by the Sharing of Electrons
43(2)
There Are Different Types of Covalent Bonds
45(3)
Water Is the Most Abundant Substance in Cells
48(1)
Some Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water
49(3)
Molecules in Cells
52(21)
A Cell Is Formed from Carbon Compounds
52(1)
Cells Contain Four Major Families of Small Organic Molecules
52(1)
Sugars Are Energy Sources for Cells and Subunits of Polysaccharides
53(2)
Fatty Acids Are Components of Cell Membranes
55(5)
Amino Acids Are the Subunits of Proteins
60(1)
Nucleotides Are the Subunits of DNA and RNA
61(4)
Macromolecules Contain a Specific Sequence of Subunits
65(4)
Noncovalent Bonds Specify the Precise Shape of a Macromolecule
69(3)
Noncovalent Bonds Allow a Macromolecule to Bind Other Selected Molecules
72(1)
Essential Concepts
73(1)
Questions
74(5)
Chapter 3 Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis
79(29)
Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells
79(15)
Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells
79(3)
Photosynthetic Organisms Use Sunlight to Synthesize Organic Molecules
82(1)
Cells Obtain Energy by the Oxidation of Biological Molecules
83(1)
Oxidation and Reduction Involve Electron Transfers
84(1)
Enzymes Lower the Barriers That Block Chemical Reactions
85(1)
How Enzymes Find Their Substrates: The Importance of Rapid Diffusion
86(3)
The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction Determines Whether It Can Occur
89(1)
The Concentration of Reactants Influences XXXG
89(4)
For Sequential Reactions, XXXG(0) Values Are Additive
93(1)
Activated Carrier Molecules and Biosynthesis
94(11)
The Formation of an Activated Carrier Is Coupled to an Energetically Favorable Reaction
95(1)
ATP Is the Most Widely Used Activated Carrier Molecule
96(1)
Energy Stored in ATP Is Often Harnessed to Join Two Molecules Together
97(1)
NADH and NADPH Are Important Electron Carriers
98(2)
There Are Many Other Activated Carrier Molecules in Cells
100(3)
The Synthesis of Biological Polymers Requires an Energy Input
103(2)
Essential Concepts
105(1)
Questions
106(2)
Chapter 4 How Cells Obtain Energy from Food
108(26)
The Breakdown of Sugars and Fats
108(17)
Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages to Produce ATP
108(2)
Glycolysis Is a Central ATP-producing Pathway
110(4)
Fermentations Allow ATP to Be Produced in the Absence of Oxygen
114(1)
Glycolysis Illustrates How Enzymes Couple Oxidation to Energy Storage
114(4)
Sugars and Fats Are Both Degraded to Acetyl CoA in Mitochondria
118(1)
The Citric Acid Cycle Generates NADH by Oxidizing Acetyl Groups to CO(2)
119(5)
Electron Transport Drives the Synthesis of the Majority of the ATP in Most Cells
124(1)
Storing and Utilizing Food
125(4)
Organisms Store Food Molecules in Special Reservoirs
125(2)
Many Biosynthetic Pathways Begin with Glycolysis or the Citric Acid Cycle
127(1)
Metabolism Is Organized and Regulated
128(1)
Essential Concepts
129(1)
Questions
130(4)
Chapter 5 Protein Structure and Function
134(50)
The Shape and Structure of Proteins
134(20)
The Shape of a Protein Is Specified by Its Amino Acid Sequence
134(5)
Proteins Fold into a Conformation of Lowest Energy
139(1)
Proteins Come in a Wide Variety of Complicated Shapes
140(1)
The XXX Helix and the XXX Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns
141(4)
Proteins Have Several Levels of Organization
145(2)
Few of the Many Possible Polypeptide Chains Will Be Useful
147(1)
Proteins Can Be Classified into Families
147(1)
Larger Protein Molecules Often Contain More Than One Polypeptide Chain
148(1)
Proteins Can Assemble into Filaments, Sheets, or Spheres
149(3)
A Helix Is a Common Structural Motif in Biological Structures
152(1)
Some Types of Proteins Have Elongated Fibrous Shapes
152(2)
Extracellular Proteins Are Often Stabilized by Covalent Cross-Linkages
154(1)
How Proteins Work
154(25)
Proteins Bind to Other Molecules
155(1)
The Binding Sites of Antibodies Are Especially Versatile
156(1)
Binding Strength Is Measured by the Equilibrium Constant
157(10)
Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts
167(1)
Lysozyme Illustrates How an Enzyme Works
167(2)
V(max) and K(M) Measure Enzyme Performance
169(2)
Tightly Bound Small Molecules Add Extra Functions to Proteins
171(1)
The Catalytic Activities of Enzymes Are Regulated
172(1)
Allosteric Enzymes Have Two Binding Sites That Interact
173(1)
A Conformational Change Can Be Driven by Protein Phosphorylation
174(2)
GTP-binding Proteins Can Undergo Dramatic Conformational Changes
176(1)
Motor Proteins Produce Large Movements in Cells
176(2)
Proteins Often Form Large Complexes That Function as Protein Machines
178(1)
Essential Concepts
179(1)
Questions
180(4)
Chapter 6 DNA
184(28)
The Structure and Function of DNA
184(5)
Genes Are Made of DNA
185(1)
A DNA Molecule Consists of Two Complementary Chains of Nucleotides
185(3)
The Structure of DNA Provides a Mechanism for Heredity
188(1)
DNA Replication
189(9)
DNA Synthesis Begins at Replication Origins
190(1)
New DNA Synthesis Occurs at Replication Forks
191(2)
The Replication Fork Is Asymmetrical
193(1)
DNA Polymerase Is Self-correcting
194(1)
Short Lengths of RNA Act as Primers for DNA Synthesis
194(2)
Proteins at a Replication Fork Cooperate to Form a Replication Machine
196(2)
DNA Repair
198(8)
Changes in DNA Are the Cause of Mutations
198(2)
A DNA Mismatch Repair System Removes Replication Errors That Escape from the Replication Machine
200(1)
DNA Is Continually Suffering Damage in Cells
201(1)
The Stability of Genes Depends on DNA Repair
202(3)
The High Fidelity with Which DNA Is Maintained Means That Closely Related Species Have Proteins with Very Similar Sequences
205(1)
Essential Concepts
206(1)
Questions
207(5)
Chapter 7 From DNA to Protein
212(34)
From DNA to RNA
212(12)
Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA
212(1)
Transcription Produces RNA Complementary to One Strand of DNA
213(2)
Several Types of RNA Are Produced in Cells
215(1)
Signals in DNA Tell RNA Polymerase Where to Start and Finish
216(2)
Eucaryotic RNAs Undergo Processing in the Nucleus
218(1)
Eucaryotic Genes Are Interrupted by Noncoding Sequences
219(1)
Introns Are Removed by RNA Splicing
220(2)
mRNA Molecules Are Eventually Degraded by the Cell
222(1)
The Earliest Cells May Have Had Introns in Their Genes
223(1)
From RNA to Protein
224(10)
An mRNA Sequence Is Decoded in Sets of Three Nucleotides
224(1)
tRNA Molecules Match Amino Acids to Codons in mRNA
225(2)
Specific Enzymes Couple tRNAs to the Correct Amino Acid
227(1)
The RNA Message Is Decoded on Ribosomes
227(3)
Codons in mRNA Signal Where to Start and to Stop Protein Synthesis
230(2)
Proteins Are Made on Polyribosomes
232(1)
Carefully Controlled Protein Breakdown Helps Regulate the Amount of Each Protein in a Cell
232(2)
There Are Many Steps Between DNA and Protein
234(1)
RNA and the Origins of Life
234(6)
Simple Biological Molecules Can Form Under Prebiotic Conditions
235(2)
RNA Can Both Store Information and Catalyze Chemical Reactions
237(2)
RNA Is Thought to Predate DNA in Evolution
239(1)
Essential Concepts
240(1)
Questions
241(5)
Chapter 8 Chromosomes and Gene Regulation
246(32)
The Structure of Eucaryotic Chromosomes
246(11)
Eucaryotic DNA Is Packaged into Chromosomes
246(1)
Chromosomes Exist in Different States Throughout the Life of a Cell
247(2)
Specialized DNA Sequences Ensure That Chromosomes Replicate Efficiently
249(1)
Nucleosomes Are the Basic Units of Chromatin Structure
250(2)
Chromosomes Have Several Levels of DNA Packing
252(1)
Interphase Chromosomes Contain Both Condensed and More Extended Forms of Chromatin
253(3)
Position Effects on Gene Expression Reveal Differences in Interphase Chromosome Packing
256(1)
Interphase Chromosomes Are Organized Within the Nucleus
256(1)
Gene Regulation
257(17)
Cells Regulate the Expression of Their Genes
258(1)
Transcription Is Controlled by Proteins Binding to Regulatory DNA Sequences
259(2)
Repressors Turn Genes Off and Activators Turn Them On
261(2)
Initiation of Eucaryotic Gene Transcription Is a Complex Process
263(1)
Eucaryotic RNA Polymerase Requires General Transcription Factors
264(1)
Eucaryotic Gene Regulatory Proteins Control Gene Expression from a Distance
265(1)
Packing of Promoter DNA into Nucleosomes Can Affect Initiation of Transcription
266(1)
Eucaryotic Genes Are Regulated by Combinations of Proteins
267(1)
The Expression of Different Genes Can Be Coordinated by a Single Protein
268(1)
Combinatorial Control Can Create Different Cell Types
269(2)
Stable Patterns of Gene Expression Can Be Transmitted to Daughter Cells
271(2)
The Formation of an Entire Organ Can Be Triggered by a Single Gene Regulatory Protein
273(1)
Essential Concepts
274(1)
Questions
275(3)
Chapter 9 Genetic Variation
278(37)
Genetic Variation in Bacteria
278(13)
The Rapid Rate of Bacterial Division Means That Mutation Will Occur Over a Short Time Period
279(1)
Mutation in Bacteria Can Be Selected by a Change in Environmental Conditions
280(1)
Bacterial Cells Can Acquire Genes from Other Bacteria
281(1)
Bacterial Genes Can Be Transferred by a Process Called Bacterial Mating
282(2)
Some Bacteria Can Take Up DNA from Their Surroundings
284(1)
Gene Exchange Occurs by Homologous Recombination Between Two DNA Molecules of Similar Nucleotide Sequence
285(3)
Genes Can Be Transferred Between Bacteria by Bacterial Viruses
288(1)
Transposable Elements Create Genetic Diversity
289(2)
Sources of Genetic Change in Eucaryotic Genomes
291(13)
Random DNA Duplications Create Families of Related Genes
292(1)
Genes Encoding New Proteins Can Be Created by the Recombination of Exons
293(1)
A Large Part of the DNA of Multicellular Eucaryotes Consists of Repeated, Noncoding Sequences
294(1)
About 10% of the Human Genome Consists of Two Families of Transposable Sequences
295(1)
The Evolution of Genomes Has Been Accelerated by Transposable Elements
296(1)
Viruses Are Fully Mobile Genetic Elements That Can Escape from Cells
297(3)
Retroviruses Reverse the Normal Flow of Genetic Information
300(2)
Retroviruses That Have Picked Up Host Genes Can Make Cells Cancerous
302(2)
Sexual Reproduction and the Reassortment of Genes
304(5)
Sexual Reproduction Gives a Competitive Advantage to Organisms in an Unpredictably Variable Environment
304(1)
Sexual Reproduction Involves Both Diploid and Haploid Cells
305(1)
Meiosis Generates Haploid Cells from Diploid Cells
306(1)
Meiosis Generates Enormous Genetic Variation
307(2)
Essential Concepts
309(1)
Questions
310(5)
Chapter 10 DNA Technology
315(33)
How DNA Molecules Are Analyzed
315(5)
Restriction Nucleases Cut DNA Molecules at Specific Sites
315(2)
Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments of Different Sizes
317(3)
The Nucleotide Sequence of DNA Fragments Can Be Determined
320(1)
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
320(4)
DNA Hybridization Facilitates the Prenatal Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases
321(2)
In Situ Hybridization Locates Nucleic Acid Sequences in Cells or on Chromosomes
323(1)
DNA Cloning
324(11)
DNA Ligase Joins DNA Fragments Together to Produce a Recombinant DNA Molecule
325(1)
Bacterial Plasmids Can Be Used to Clone DNA
326(1)
Human Genes Are Isolated by DNA Cloning
327(2)
cDNA Libraries Represent the mRNA Produced by a Particular Tissue
329(2)
Hybridization Allows Even Distantly Related Genes to Be Identified
331(1)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies Selected DNA Sequences
332(3)
DNA Engineering
335(7)
Completely Novel DNA Molecules Can Be Constructed
335(2)
Rare Cellular Proteins Can Be Made in Large Amounts Using Cloned DNA
337(1)
RNAs Can Be Produced by Transcription in Vitro
338(1)
Mutant Organisms Best Reveal the Function of a Gene
339(1)
Transgenic Animals Carry Engineered Genes
340(2)
Essential Concepts
342(1)
Questions
343(5)
Chapter 11 Membrane Structure
348(24)
The Lipid Bilayer
348(9)
Membrane Lipids Form Bilayers in Water
349(3)
The Lipid Bilayer Is a Two-dimensional Fluid
352(1)
The Fluidity of a Lipid Bilayer Depends on Its Composition
353(1)
The Lipid Bilayer Is Asymmetrical
354(1)
Lipid Asymmetry Is Generated Inside the Cell
355(1)
Lipid Bilayers Are Impermeable to Solutes and Ions
356(1)
Membrane Proteins
357(11)
Membrane Proteins Associate with the Lipid Bilayers in Various Ways
358(1)
A Polypeptide Chain Usually Crosses the Bilayer as an XXX Helix
358(2)
Membrane Proteins Can Be Solubilized in Detergents and Purified
360(1)
The Complete Structure Is Known for Very Few Membrane Proteins
361(2)
The Plasma Membrane Is Reinforced by the Cell Cortex
363(1)
The Cell Surface Is Coated with Carbohydrate
364(2)
Cells Can Restrict the Movement of Membrane Proteins
366(2)
Essential Concepts
368(1)
Questions
368(5)
Chapter 12 Membrane Transport
372(37)
The Ion Concentrations Inside a Cell Are Very Different from Those Outside
372(1)
Carrier Proteins and Their Functions
373(12)
Solutes Cross Membranes by Passive or Active Transport
375(1)
Electrical Forces as Well as Concentration Gradients Can Drive Passive Transport
375(2)
Active Transport Moves Solutes Against Their Electrochemical Gradients
377(1)
Animal Cells Use the Energy of ATP Hydrolysis to Pump Out Na+
378(1)
The Na(+)-K(+) Pump Is Driven by the Transient Addition of a Phosphate Group
379(1)
Animal Cells Use the Na(+) Gradient to Take Up Nutrients Actively
380(1)
The Na(+)-K(+) Pump Helps Maintain the Osmotic Balance of Animal Cells
381(2)
Intracellular Ca(2+) Concentrations Are Kept Low by Ca(2+) Pumps
383(1)
H(+) Gradients Are Used to Drive Membrane Transport in Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria
384(1)
Ion Channels and the Membrane Potential
385(9)
Ion Channels Are Ion Selective and Gated
386(2)
Ion Channels Randomly Snap Between Open and Closed States
388(2)
Voltage-gated Ion Channels Respond to the Membrane Potential
390(1)
The Membrane Potential Is Governed by Membrane Permeability to Specific Ions
391(3)
Ion Channels and Signaling in Nerve Cells
394(10)
Action Potentials Provide for Rapid Long-Distance Communication
395(1)
Action Potentials Are Usually Mediated by Voltage-gated Na(+) Channels
395(2)
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) Channels Convert Electrical Signals into Chemical Signals at Nerve Terminals
397(2)
Transmitter-gated Channels in Target Cells Convert Chemical Signals Back into Electrical Signals
399(1)
Neurons Receive Both Excitatory and Inhibitory Inputs
400(1)
Synaptic Connections Enable You to Think, Act, and Remember
401(3)
Essential Concepts
404(1)
Questions
405(4)
Chapter 13 Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
409(39)
Cells Obtain Most of Their Energy by a Membrane-based Mechanism
409(1)
Mitochondria and Oxidative Phosphorylation
410(11)
A Mitochondrion Contains Two Membrane-bounded Compartments
411(2)
High-Energy Electrons Are Generated via the Citric Acid Cycle
413(1)
Electrons Are Transferred Along a Chain of Proteins in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
414(1)
Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane
415(2)
The Proton Gradient Drives ATP Synthesis
417(2)
Coupled Transport Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Is Driven by the Electrochemical Proton Gradient
419(1)
Proton Gradients Produce Most of the Cell's ATP
419(2)
The Rapid Conversion of ADP to ATP in Mitochondria Maintains a High ATP:ADP Ratio in Cells
421(1)
Electron-Transport Chains and Proton Pumping
421(9)
Protons Are Readily Moved by the Transfer of Electrons
422(1)
The Redox Potential Is a Measure of Electron Affinities
422(1)
Electron Transfers Release Large Amounts of Energy
423(2)
Metals Tightly Bound to Proteins Form Versatile Electron Carriers
425(2)
Protons Are Pumped Across the Membrane by the Three Respiratory Enzyme Complexes
427(2)
Respiration Is Amazingly Efficient
429(1)
Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis
430(9)
Chloroplasts Resemble Mitochondria but Have an Extra Compartment
430(2)
Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight and Use It to Fix Carbon
432(1)
Excited Chlorophyll Molecules Funnel Energy into a Reaction Center
433(1)
Light Energy Drives the Synthesis of ATP and NADPH
434(2)
Carbon Fixation Is Catalyzed by Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase
436(2)
Carbon Fixation in Chloroplasts Generates Sucrose and Starch
438(1)
The Genetic Systems of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Reflect Their Procaryotic Origin
438(1)
Our Single-celled Ancestors
439(4)
RNA Sequences Reveal Evolutionary History
439(1)
Ancient Cells Probably Arose in Hot Environments
440(1)
Methanococcus Lives in the Dark, Using Only Inorganic Materials as Food
441(2)
Essential Concepts
443(1)
Questions
444(4)
Chapter 14 Intracellular Compartments and Transport
448(34)
Membrane-bounded Organelles
448(4)
Eucaryotic Cells Contain a Basic Set of Membrane-bounded Organelles
449(1)
Membrane-bounded Organelles Evolved in Different Ways
450(2)
Protein Sorting
452(10)
Proteins Are Imported into Organelles by Three Mechanisms
453(1)
Signal Sequences Direct Proteins to the Correct Compartment
453(2)
Proteins Enter the Nucleus Through Nuclear Pores
455(2)
Proteins Unfold to Enter Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
457(1)
Proteins Enter the Endoplasmic Reticulum While Being Synthesized
458(1)
Soluble Proteins Are Released into the ER Lumen
459(2)
Start and Stop Signals Determine the Arrangement of a Transmembrane Protein in the Lipid Bilayer
461(1)
Vesicular Transport
462(5)
Transport Vesicles Carry Soluble Proteins and Membrane Between Compartments
463(1)
Vesicle Budding Is Driven by the Assembly of a Protein Coat
463(2)
The Specificity of Vesicle Docking Depends on SNAREs
465(2)
Secretory Pathways
467(5)
Most Proteins Are Covalently Modified in the ER
467(1)
Exit from the ER Is Controlled to Ensure Protein Quality
468(1)
Proteins Are Further Modified and Sorted in the Golgi Apparatus
469(1)
Secretory Proteins Are Released from the Cell by Exocytosis
470(2)
Endocytic Pathways
472(6)
Specialized Phagocytic Cells Ingest Large Particles
472(1)
Fluid and Macromolecules Are Taken Up by Pinocytosis
473(1)
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis Provides a Specific Route into Animal Cells
474(1)
Endocytosed Macromolecules Are Sorted in Endosomes
475(1)
Lysosomes Are the Principal Sites of Intracellular Digestion
476(2)
Essential Concepts
478(1)
Questions
479(3)
Chapter 15 Cell Communication
482(32)
General Principles of Cell Signaling
482(11)
Signals Can Act over Long or Short Range
482(2)
Each Cell Responds to a Limited Set of Signals
484(2)
Receptors Relay Signals via Intracellular Signaling Pathways
486(2)
Some Signal Molecules Can Cross the Plasma Membrane
488(1)
Nitric Oxide Can Enter Cells to Activate Enzymes Directly
489(1)
There Are Three Main Classes of Cell-Surface Receptors
490(1)
Ion-Channel-linked Receptors Convert Chemical Signals into Electrical Ones
491(1)
Intracellular Signaling Cascades Act as a Series of Molecular Switches
492(1)
G-Protein-linked Receptors
493(11)
Stimulation of G-Protein-linked Receptors Activates G-Protein Subunits
493(2)
Some G Proteins Regulate Ion Channels
495(1)
Some G Proteins Activate Membrane-bound Enzymes
496(1)
The Cyclic AMP Pathway Can Activate Enzymes and Turn On Genes
497(2)
The Pathway Through Phospholipase C Results in a Rise in Intracellular Ca(2+)
499(2)
A Ca(2+) Signal Triggers Many Biological Processes
501(1)
Intracellular Signaling Cascades Can Achieve Astonishing Speed, Sensitivity, and Adaptability: Photoreceptors in the Eye
502(2)
Enzyme-linked Receptors
504(6)
Activated Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Assemble a Complex of Intracellular Signaling Proteins
505(1)
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Activate the GTP-binding Protein Ras
506(2)
Protein Kinase Networks Integrate Information to Control Complex Cell Behaviors
508(2)
Essential Concepts
510(1)
Questions
511(3)
Chapter 16 Cytoskeleton
514(35)
Intermediate Filaments
514(4)
Intermediate Filaments Are Strong and Durable
515(1)
Intermediate Filaments Strengthen Cells Against Mechanical Stress
516(2)
Microtubules
518(11)
Microtubules Are Hollow Tubes with Structurally Distinct Ends
519(1)
Microtubules Are Maintained by a Balance of Assembly and Disassembly
519(2)
The Centrosome Is the Major Microtubule-organizing Center in Animal Cells
521(1)
Growing Microtubules Show Dynamic Instability
522(1)
Microtubules Organize the Interior of the Cell
523(2)
Motor Proteins Drive Intracellular Transport
525(1)
Organelles Move Along Microtubules
526(1)
Cilia and Flagella Contain Stable Microtubules Moved by Dynein
527(2)
Actin Filaments
529(14)
Actin Filaments Are Thin and Flexible
530(1)
Actin and Tubulin Polymerize by Similar Mechanisms
531(1)
Many Proteins Bind to Actin and Modify Its Properties
532(1)
Actin-rich Cortex Underlines the Plasma Membrane of Most Eucaryotic Cells
533(1)
Cell Crawling Depends on Actin
533(3)
Actin Associates with Myosin to Form Contractile Structures
536(2)
During Muscle Contraction Actin Filaments Slide Against Myosin Filaments
538(1)
Muscle Contraction Is Triggered by a Sudden Rise in Ca(2+)
539(4)
Essential Concepts
543(1)
Questions
544(5)
Chapter 17 Cell Division
549(23)
Overview of the Cell Cycle
549(3)
The Eucaryotic Cell Cycle Is Divided into Four Phases
549(2)
The Cytoskeleton Carries Out Both Mitosis and Cytokinesis
551(1)
Some Organelles Fragment at Mitosis
551(1)
Mitosis
552(8)
The Mitotic Spindle Starts to Assemble in Prophase
552(1)
Chromosomes Attach to the Mitotic Spindle at Prometaphase
553(4)
Chromosomes Line Up at the Spindle Equator at Metaphase
557(1)
Daughter Chromosomes Segregate at Anaphase
557(2)
The Nuclear Envelope Re-forms at Telophase
559(1)
Cytokinesis
560(3)
The Mitotic Spindle Determines the Plane of Cytoplasmic Cleavage
560(1)
The Contractile Ring of Animal Cells Is Made of Actin and Myosin
561(1)
Cytokinesis in Plant Cells Involves New Cell-Wall Formation
562(1)
Meiosis
563(4)
Homologous Chromosomes Pair Off During Meiosis
563(1)
Meiosis Involves Two Cell Divisions Rather Than One
564(3)
Essential Concepts
567(1)
Questions
568(4)
Chapter 18 Cell-Cycle Control and Cell Death
572(22)
The Cell-Cycle Control System
572(10)
A Central Control System Triggers the Major Processes of the Cell Cycle
572(2)
The Cell-Cycle Control System Is Based on Cyclically Activated Protein Kinases
574(1)
MPF Is the Cyclin-Cdk Complex That Controls Entry into M Phase
575(1)
Cyclin-dependent Protein Kinases Are Regulated by the Accumulation and Destruction of Cyclin
576(2)
The Activity of Cdks Is Further Regulated by Their Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation
578(1)
Different Cyclin-Cdk Complexes Trigger Different Steps in the Cell Cycle
578(2)
The Cell Cycle Can Be Halted in G(1) by Cdk Inhibitor Proteins
580(1)
Cells Can Dismantle Their Control System and Withdraw from the Cell Cycle
581(1)
Control of Cell Numbers in Multicellular Organisms
582(7)
Cell Proliferation Depends on Signals from Other Cells
582(2)
Animal Cells Have a Built-in Limitation on the Number of Times They Will Divide
584(1)
Animal Cells Require Signals from Other Cells to Avoid Programmed Cell Death
584(1)
Programmed Cell Death Is Mediated by an Intracellular Proteolytic Cascade
585(2)
Cancer Cells Disobey the Social Controls on Cell Proliferation and Survival
587(2)
Essential Concepts
589(1)
Questions
590(4)
Chapter 19 Tissues
594
Extracellular Matrix and Connective Tissues
594(11)
Plant Cells Have Tough External Walls
594(2)
Cellulose Fibers Give the Plant Cell Wall Its Tensile Strength
596(4)
Animal Connective Tissues Consist Largely of Extracellular Matrix
600(1)
Collagen Provides Tensile Strength in Animal Connective Tissues
600(2)
Cells Organize the Collagen That They Secrete
602(1)
Integrins Couple the Matrix Outside a Cell to the Cytoskeleton Inside It
603(1)
Gels of Polysaccharide and Protein Fill Spaces and Resist Compression
604(1)
Epithelial Sheets and Cell-Cell Junctions
605(8)
Epithelial Sheets Are Polarized and Rest on a Basal Lamina
606(1)
Tight Junctions Make an Epithelium Leak-proof and Separate Its Apical and Basal Surfaces
607(2)
Cytoskeleton-linked Junctions Bind Epithelial Cells Robustly to One Another and to the Basal Lamina
609(3)
Gap Junctions Allow Ions and Small Molecules to Pass from Cell to Cell
612(1)
Tissue Maintenance and Renewal, and Its Disruption by Cancer
613(8)
Different Tissues Are Renewed at Different Rates
615(1)
Stem Cells Generate a Continuous Supply of Terminally Differentiated Cells
615(3)
Mutations in a Single Dividing Cell Can Cause It and Its Progeny to Violate the Normal Controls
618(1)
Cancer Is a Consequence of Mutation and Natural Selection Within the Population of Cells That Form the Body
619(1)
Cancer Requires an Accumulation of Mutations
620(1)
Development
621(7)
Programmed Cell Movements Create the Animal Body Plan
622(1)
Cells Switch On Different Sets of Genes According to Their Position and Their History
622(2)
Diffusible Signals Can Provide Cells with Positional Information
624(2)
Studies in Drosophila Have Given a Key to Vertebrate Development
626(1)
Similar Genes Are Used Throughout the Animal Kingdom to Give Cells an Internal Record of Their Position
627(1)
Essential Concepts
628(1)
Questions
629


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...