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Fashion : From Concept to Consumer

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131173385

ISBN10:
0131173383
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/6/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $124.20

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Summary

Fashion: From Concept to Consumertells the entire story of how the fashion business works in sequential order from concept to consumer. It includes the processes involved with producing raw materials, apparel, and accessories, as well as the retail businesses that sell fashion merchandise to the public. Each chapter contains a career focus, chapter objectives, review questions, terminology, and projects to aid in reviewing the subject matter.Part One concentrates on fashion fundamentals; Part Two covers the development, production, and marketing of raw materials, including textiles, trimmings, leather, and fur; Part Three discusses international fashion centers and traces the fashion manufacturing process from design and merchandising development through production and marketing to retailers; Part Four covers retailing.A valuable tool for anyone who wants to know more about fashion and the fashion business, retail store buyers and merchandise managers, or merchandisers and designers working for apparel manufacturers.

Table of Contents

Foreword xix
Preface xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
PART ONE The Fundamentals of Fashion
3(84)
Fashion Development
5(26)
France, the Center of Fashion
6(1)
Fashion Dictated by Royalty
6(1)
Hand Sewing by Dressmakers and Tailors
6(1)
Growth of the Couture
7(1)
Effects of the Industrial Revolution on Fashion
7(2)
Growth of the Textile Industry
7(1)
Growth of the Middle Class
8(1)
Establishment of the Business Suit
8(1)
Mass Production of Clothing
9(2)
Invention of the Sewing Machine
9(1)
Women's Fashion Reflects Social Changes
9(1)
Mass Production of Women's Separates
10(1)
Children's Fashion
10(1)
Retailing During the Nineteenth Century
11(2)
The First Department Stores
11(1)
Early Mail-Order Merchandising
12(1)
Changes Caused by Communications, Leisure, and Industry
13(2)
The First Fashion Magazines
13(1)
Growth of Leisure Activities
13(1)
Conditions in the Garment Industry
14(1)
Effects of World War I on the Status of Women and Fashion
15(1)
Women in the Work Force
15(1)
Important Trendsetting Designers
15(1)
Retail Expansion in the Early Twentieth Century
16(1)
Specialty Stores for Quality Fashion
16(1)
The Expansion of Chain Stores
17(1)
The Advent of Suburban Retail Centers
17(1)
Effects of the Depression on Fashion
17(1)
Bursting of the Credit Bubble
17(1)
Hollywood's Influence on Fashion
17(1)
Paris's Influence on International Fashion
18(1)
Effect of World War II on Fashion
18(1)
America's Isolation from Paris Fashion
18(1)
Reactionary Postwar Fashion
19(1)
French Fashion Direction
19(1)
American Fashion Innovators
19(1)
The Youth-Directed 1960s
20(1)
London Emerges as a Leader in Youthful Fashion
20(1)
Revival of Men's Fashion
20(1)
Fashion Business Evolution
20(1)
Boutiques Set Retailing Trends
21(1)
Antifashion of the Late 1960s and 1970s
21(2)
The Ethnic Look
21(1)
Physical Fitness as Fashion
22(1)
The Women's Movement
23(1)
The Acquisitive 1980s
23(2)
Globalization
23(1)
Domestic Industry Trends
24(1)
The Value-Oriented 1990s
25(1)
Recession
25(1)
Fashion Direction
25(1)
The Twenty-First Century
26(1)
Summary
26(1)
Chapter Review
27(4)
Terms and Concepts
27(1)
Questions for Review
27(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
27(4)
Consumer Demand and Fashion Marketing
31(18)
Consumer Demand
32(1)
Consumer Groups
32(4)
Demographic Trends
33(1)
Psychographic or Life-Style Trends
34(1)
Target Marketing
35(1)
The Impact of Economics on Consumer Demand
36(3)
Consumer Spending
36(1)
Purchasing Power
37(2)
The Impact of Global Trade on Marketing
39(3)
Imports
39(1)
Balance of Trade
39(1)
World Trade Organization
40(1)
North American Free Trade Agreement
41(1)
Exports
42(1)
The Impact of Technology on Marketing
42(3)
Communications
42(2)
Textile and Apparel Production Technology
44(1)
The Marketing Chain
45(1)
Summary
46(1)
Chapter Review
47(2)
Terms and Concepts
47(1)
Questions for Review
47(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
47(2)
Fashion Change and Consumer Acceptance
49(22)
Fashion Terms
50(1)
Fashion
50(1)
Fashion Evolution
51(3)
Fashion Cycles
51(2)
Length of Cycles
53(1)
Consumer Identification with Fashion Cycles
54(2)
Consumer Groups
54(2)
Fashion Leadership in Manufacturing and Retailing
56(1)
Adoption of Fashion
56(2)
Traditional Fashion Adoption (Trickle-down Theory)
56(1)
Reverse Adoption (Trickle-up or Bottom-up Theories)
57(1)
Mass Dissemination (Trickle-across Theory)
57(1)
Motives for Consumer Buying
58(2)
Consumer Buying Patterns
59(1)
Fashion Selection
59(1)
Fashion Categories
60(8)
Women's Wear
61(1)
Size Ranges
62(2)
Men's Wear
64(2)
Children's Wear
66(2)
Summary
68(1)
Chapter Review
69(2)
Terms and Concepts
69(1)
Questions for Review
69(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
69(2)
Fashion Research and Resources
71(16)
Fashion Forecasting
72(3)
Market Research
73(1)
Trend Analysis
74(1)
Fashion Services and Resources
75(5)
Fashion Services
75(1)
Color Services
76(1)
Web Sites
76(2)
Video Services and Television
78(1)
Fashion Magazines and Newspapers
78(2)
Catalogs
80(1)
Design Sources
80(4)
Historic and Ethnic Costume
80(2)
The Arts
82(1)
Fabrics
82(1)
Travel and Nature
83(1)
Form Follows Function
83(1)
The Street Scene
83(1)
Awareness
84(1)
Summary
84(1)
Chapter Review
84(3)
Terms and Concepts
84(1)
Questions for Review
84(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
85(2)
PART TWO The Raw Materials of Fashion
87(58)
Textile Fiber and Fabric Production
89(24)
Fibers
90(1)
Natural Fiber Production
90(4)
Natural Fiber Sources
90(1)
Cotton
91(1)
Flax
92(1)
Ramie
92(1)
Wool
93(1)
Silk
93(1)
High-Tech Natural Fibers
94(1)
Man-Made Fibers
94(3)
Man-Made Fiber Producers
95(1)
Regenerated Cellulose Fibers
95(1)
Synthetic Fibers
96(1)
Nylon
96(1)
Polyester
96(1)
Acrylic
97(1)
Spandex
97(1)
Polypropylene
97(1)
High-Tech Fibers
97(1)
Generic and Brand Identification
98(1)
Man-Made Fiber Production
98(1)
Textile Yarn and Fiber Producers
98(2)
Textile Mills
99(1)
Converters
99(1)
Yarn Production
100(1)
Filament Yarn Processing
100(1)
Spinning Staple Fibers
100(1)
Fabric Production
100(5)
Weaving
101(1)
Knitting
102(2)
Nonwoven Fabrics
104(1)
Production Centers
105(1)
Dyeing
105(1)
Printing
106(2)
Wet Printing
106(1)
Dry Printing
106(1)
Digital Printing
107(1)
Finishing
108(1)
Physical Means of Finishing
108(1)
Chemical Means of Finishing
108(1)
Environmental Concerns
109(1)
Alternatives in Cotton Growing
109(1)
Recycled Polyester
109(1)
Alternatives in Fiber and Fabric Production and Finishing
109(1)
``Green'' Jeans
109(1)
Costs of Environmental Improvements
110(1)
Summary
110(1)
Chapter Review
110(3)
Terms and Concepts
110(1)
Questions for Review
111(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
111(2)
Textile Product Development and Marketing
113(16)
The Global Textile Market
114(1)
Imports
114(1)
Exports and Overseas Investment
114(1)
New Marketing Strategies
115(1)
Innovation
115(1)
Niche Marketing
116(1)
Garment Packages
116(1)
Shortening Lead Times
116(1)
Fiber Product Development and Marketing
116(4)
Fiber Distribution
120(1)
Fabric Product Development and Marketing
120(6)
Textile Design
120(3)
Marketing
123(1)
Fabric Markets
123(2)
Selling
125(1)
Summary
126(1)
Chapter Review
126(3)
Terms and Concepts
126(1)
Questions for Review
127(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
127(2)
Trims, Leather, and Fur
129(16)
Trims
130(8)
Threads
130(1)
Elastics
131(1)
Interfacings
132(1)
Narrow Fabrics
132(3)
Fasteners
135(2)
Belts
137(1)
Sundries
137(1)
Marketing
138(1)
The Leather Industry
138(3)
Leather Processing
139(1)
Environmental Concerns
140(1)
Leather Marketing
140(1)
The Fur Industry
141(2)
Fur Sources
141(1)
Fur Processing
142(1)
Marketing
142(1)
Summary
143(1)
Chapter Review
143(2)
Terms and Concepts
143(1)
Questions for Review
143(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
143(2)
PART THREE Fashion Manufacturing and Marketing
145(130)
International Fashion
147(20)
Global Nature of Fashion
148(1)
Promotion and Licensing
148(1)
Business Partners
149(1)
Company Ownership
149(1)
France
149(5)
The Couture
150(1)
Parisian Couturiers
151(2)
Pret-a-Porter
153(1)
Designers
153(1)
Italy
154(2)
Designers
154(2)
England, United Kingdom
156(2)
Savile Row
156(1)
Women's Apparel
157(1)
Germany
158(1)
Canada
158(2)
Montreal, Quebec
159(1)
Toronto, Ontario
159(1)
Other Canadian Fashion Centers
159(1)
The United States
160(5)
New York
161(2)
Regional Fashion Centers
163(1)
Other Regional Centers
164(1)
Summary
165(1)
Chapter Review
165(2)
Terms and Concepts
165(1)
Questions for Review
165(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
165(2)
Product and Design Development
167(24)
Product Development
168(4)
Appealing to a Target Market
168(1)
The Product Development Team
168(1)
Merchandising
169(3)
Design Development
172(11)
Groups
172(2)
Items
174(1)
Design Elements
174(6)
Design Principles
180(2)
Sketching Ideas
182(1)
Developing a Sample Garment
183(3)
The First Pattern
183(3)
Line Selection
186(2)
Editing
186(1)
Reassessment of the Merchandise Plan
186(1)
Line Presentation
187(1)
Duplicates
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Chapter Review
188(3)
Terms and Concepts
188(1)
Questions for Review
188(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
189(2)
Apparel Production and Global Sourcing
191(28)
Production Planning
192(1)
Cut-to-Order
192(1)
Cut-to-Stock
192(1)
Global Sourcing
192(5)
Strategic Sourcing
193(2)
Importing Procedures
195(1)
Industry Concerns
196(1)
Costing
197(1)
Cost Considerations
197(1)
Wholesale Pricing
198(1)
Purchasing of Piece Goods
198(3)
Ordering
200(1)
Patternmaking
201(3)
The Production Pattern
201(1)
Grading Sizes
202(1)
Making the Marker
203(1)
Production Scheduling
204(1)
Issue Plan
204(1)
Plant Capacity
204(1)
Inventory Control
204(1)
Spreading and Cutting Procedures
205(1)
Spreading the Fabric
205(1)
Cutting Techniques
205(1)
Environmental Concerns
206(1)
Bundling
206(1)
Garment Assembly
206(5)
Assembly Operations
206(3)
Computer Technology Used in Garment Assembly
209(1)
Power Sewing Machines
209(1)
Programmable Sewing Machines
210(1)
Finishing
210(1)
Production of Men's Suits
211(1)
Production Steps
211(1)
Mass Customization
211(1)
Production of Knitwear
212(1)
The Final Steps of Garment Production
213(2)
Dyeing and Washing
213(1)
Pressing
213(1)
Quality Control
213(1)
Labeling
214(1)
Floor-Ready Standards
214(1)
Shipping from Global Contractor to Manufacturer's Distribution Center
215(1)
Filling Orders and Shipping to Retailers
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Chapter Review
216(3)
Terms and Concepts
216(1)
Questions for Review
217(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
217(2)
Accessory and Fur Manufacturing
219(28)
Fashion Accessories
220(21)
Footwear
222(4)
Handbags
226(2)
Belts
228(1)
Production
228(2)
Gloves
230(1)
Hats
231(2)
Scarves
233(1)
Hosiery
234(2)
Jewelry
236(4)
Watches
240(1)
Fur Garment Manufacturing
241(3)
Product Development
241(1)
Industry Organization
241(1)
Production
242(1)
Marketing
243(1)
Summary
244(1)
Chapter Review
244(3)
Terms and Concepts
244(1)
Questions for Review
244(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
245(2)
Wholesale Marketing and Distribution
247(28)
International Markets
248(3)
European Collection Openings
248(3)
Canada
251(1)
Domestic Markets
251(7)
New York
251(5)
National Trade Shows
256(1)
Regional Market Centers
256(2)
Marketing
258(6)
Collection Shows and Market Weeks
258(1)
Publicity
258(1)
Advertising
259(3)
Associations That Promote Fashion
262(2)
Distribution
264(5)
Distribution Policy
264(1)
Brand Names
264(1)
Building a Brand
265(1)
Licensing
266(1)
Joint Ventures
266(1)
Exports
266(1)
Manufacturers as Retailers
267(1)
Other Forms of Distribution
268(1)
Selling to Retailers
269(3)
Corporate Selling
269(1)
Sales Representatives
269(1)
Selling Incentives
270(1)
Orders
271(1)
Manufacturer--Retailer Relationships
272(1)
Summary
272(1)
Chapter Review
272(3)
Terms and Concepts
272(1)
Questions for Review
273(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
273(2)
PART FOUR Fashion Retailing
275(72)
Retailers
277(22)
The Retailing Picture
278(4)
Retailing's Roots in the Cities
278(1)
Revitalization of Downtown and Main Street Retailing
278(1)
Shopping Centers
279(2)
Retail Bankruptcies and Consolidations
281(1)
Too Many Stores
282(1)
Retailing Strategies Today
282(2)
Unique Merchandising
282(1)
Value-Directed Retailing
282(1)
Service-Oriented Retailing
282(1)
Entertainment
283(1)
Global Expansion
283(1)
Store-Based Retailers
284(4)
Specialty Stores
284(2)
Department Stores
286(1)
Mass Merchants
287(1)
Consignment Stores
288(1)
Retail Organization
288(4)
Small Stores
289(1)
Large Stores
290(1)
Stores Within a Store
290(1)
Multiple-Unit Stores
291(1)
Types of Ownership
292(1)
Sole Proprietorships
292(1)
Partnerships
293(1)
Corporations
293(1)
Nonstore Retailing
293(3)
Mail-Order Merchants
294(1)
E-Commerce
295(1)
Television Shopping
295(1)
Summary
296(1)
Chapter Review
296(3)
Terms and Concepts
296(1)
Questions for Review
296(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
297(2)
Retail Fashion Merchandising
299(26)
Merchandising Organization
300(2)
Responsibilities of the Store Line
300(1)
Responsibilities of the Buying Line
301(1)
Fashion Merchandising Direction
302(1)
Buying Preparations
302(3)
The Merchandise Plan
302(2)
The Buying Plan
304(1)
The Buying Process
305(6)
Preparation
305(1)
Bottom-line Versus Creative Aspects of Buying
305(1)
Micro- Versus Macro-merchandizing
306(1)
The Buyer's Role in Marketing
306(1)
The Buying--Selling Cycle
307(1)
Shopping the Market
308(3)
National Brands Versus Private Label
311(1)
Private Label
311(1)
Buying Offices
312(2)
Retail Pricing
314(1)
Receiving
315(1)
Record Keeping
316(1)
Unit Control
316(1)
Inventory Control
316(1)
Physical Inventory
316(1)
Customer Service
317(1)
Retail Sales
318(2)
Sales Training
318(1)
The Department Manager
318(1)
Selling
318(2)
Merchandising Evaluation
320(2)
Summary
322(1)
Chapter Review
322(3)
Terms and Concepts
322(1)
Questions for Review
322(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
323(2)
Retail Fashion Marketing
325(22)
Marketing
326(2)
Market Research
326(1)
Retail Target Customers
326(1)
Fashion Leadership
327(1)
The Retailer's Image
327(1)
Planning and Direction
328(1)
Visual Merchandising
328(6)
Store Planning
329(1)
Seasonal Visual Merchandising
330(1)
Windows
330(1)
Interior Presentations
331(1)
Elements of Visual Merchandising
331(1)
Visual Merchandising in Multi-unit Stores
332(1)
Departments
333(1)
Fashion Advertising
334(7)
Kinds of Advertising
335(1)
Cooperative Advertising
335(1)
Scheduling and Planning
335(1)
Media
336(4)
The Advertising Department
340(1)
Publicity
341(1)
Special Events
341(2)
Marketing Evaluation
343(1)
Summary
344(1)
Chapter Review
344(3)
Terms and Concepts
344(1)
Questions for Review
344(1)
Projects for Additional Learning
345(2)
Appendix: Career Guidelines
347(8)
The Textile Industry
347(1)
Fiber and Fabric Development
347(1)
Marketing
347(1)
Training and Advancement
347(1)
Apparel Manufacturing
348(1)
Design and Merchandising
348(1)
Patternmaking
348(1)
Sourcing
348(1)
Marketing
348(1)
Training and Advancement
348(1)
Retailing
349(1)
Training
349(1)
Marketing
350(1)
Finding a Job
350(2)
Research
350(1)
Preparations for an Interview
351(1)
The Interview
351(1)
The First Job
352(1)
Preparations for a Job Interview
353(2)
Fashion Industry Terminology 355(10)
Index 365

Excerpts

The purpose of this book is to tell the whole story of how the fashion business works, in sequential order from concept to consumer. The fashion business is a series of buying supplies, creating and developing a new product, and marketing the product. The fashion business includes all the processes involved with producing raw materials, apparel, and accessories and the retail stores that sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is important for executives in the fashion industry to know how all of these processes interrelate.Fashion designers and merchandisers work with textile producers to develop fabrics that they need for their apparel and accessories. Manufacturers must know how to create garments and accessories that sell on the retail level. Retail fashion buyers should understand how garments and accessories are designed so that they can be creative merchandisers and make wise buying decisions. They may also have to develop products and source production themselves for private label merchandise. The entire marketing chain has become interconnected. PART ONEconcentrates on fashion fundamentals, information needed by everyone in the fashion business. Chapter 1 traces the development of fashion and the fashion industry as a background to understanding today's business. Chapter 2 shows how consumer demand affects fashion marketing. Chapter 3 explains fashion change and consumer acceptance. Chapter 4 covers market research, fashion analysis, and design resources. PART TWOcovers the development, production, and marketing of raw materials, including textiles, trimmings, leather, and fur--the supplies needed for fashion manufacturing. PART THREEdiscusses international fashion centers and traces the fashion manufacturing process from design and merchandising development through production and marketing to retailers. PART FOURcovers retailing: types of retail organizations, merchandising--the buying and selling process, and marketing.Each chapter contains a career focus, chapter objectives, review questions, terminology, and projects to aid in reviewing the subject matter. The appendix contains information on career guidelines and a glossary of fashion terminology.Just as the fashion industry has changed dramatically over the last 20 years, each edition ofFashion: From Concept to Consumerchanges with it. As the industry has become more marketing oriented, so has this book. As the industry has seen a tremendous growth in men's wear and accessories, this book has much more information on both. As computer technology has changed how fashion is produced and distributed, the book describes applications in every area. As production has moved offshore, this book has new information on global sourcing.Fashionexplains the changes in relationships between levels of the industry: how some textile companies are producing full-garment packages, how manufacturers have become retailers and retailers have become manufacturers.Fashion: From Concept to Consumerdescribes how these major changes have affected every aspect of the fashion business.This book tells the complete story of the fashion business and is a valuable tool for any introductory course in fashion, including Introduction to Fashion Design, Introduction to the Fashion Industry or Manufacturing, Introduction to Fashion Merchandising or Retailing, or Introduction to the Fashion Business. There is also important information for trend research, textile marketing, apparel manufacturing, accessory design, production and marketing, and advertising and promotion. This is a text for specialists as well as those who are taking only a single course in fashion. In fact, it will interest anyone who wants to know more about fashion and the fashion business'


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