Preface 

x  

Statistics, Data, and Statistical Thinking 


1  (18) 

The Science of Statistics 


2  (1) 

Types of Statistical Applications 


2  (2) 

Fundamental Elements of Statistics 


4  (4) 


8  (2) 


10  (2) 

The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking 


12  (7) 


13  (1) 

Statistics in Action: A ``20/20'' View of Survey Results: Fact or Fiction? 


14  (5) 

Methods for Describing Sets of Data 


19  (80) 

Describing Qualitative Data 


20  (7) 

Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


27  (12) 


39  (1) 

Numerical Measures of Central Tendency 


40  (10) 

Numerical Measures of Variability 


50  (6) 

Interpreting the Standard Deviation 


56  (8) 

Numerical Measures of Relative Standing 


64  (4) 

Methods for Detecting Outliers (Optional) 


68  (10) 

Graphing Bivariate Relationships (Optional) 


78  (5) 

Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Techniques 


83  (16) 


88  

Statistics in Action: The ``Eye Cue'' Test: Does Experience Improve Performance? 


87  (12) 


99  (52) 

Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 


100  (11) 


111  (4) 


115  (1) 

The Additive Rule and Mutually Exclusive Events 


116  (5) 


121  (6) 

The Multiplicative Rule and Independent Events 


127  (11) 


138  (13) 


143  (1) 

Statistics in Action: Game Show Strategy: To Switch or Not to Switch? 


144  (7) 

Random Variables and Probability Distributions 


151  (74) 

Two Types of Random Variables 


152  (3) 

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


155  (10) 

The Binomial Distribution 


165  (13) 

Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 


178  (1) 


179  (13) 

Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 


192  (6) 

Approximating a Binomial Distribution with a Normal Distribution (Optional) 


198  (7) 


205  (6) 

The Central Limit Theorem 


211  (14) 


219  (1) 

Statistics in Action: The Insomnia Pill 


219  (6) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Estimation with Confidence Intervals 


225  (42) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


226  (8) 

SmallSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


234  (11) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


245  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


252  (15) 


259  

Statistics in Action: Scallops, Sampling, and the Law 


256  (11) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Tests of Hypothesis 


267  (46) 

The Elements of a Test of Hypothesis 


268  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


274  (6) 

Observed Significance Levels: pValues 


280  (7) 

SmallSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


287  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Proportion 


293  (6) 

A Nonparametric Test About a Population Median (Optional) 


299  (14) 


306  

Statistics in Action: March Madness: Handicapping the NCAA Basketball Tourney 


305  (8) 

Comparing Population Means 


313  (70) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Sampling 


314  (15) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Paired Difference Experiments 


329  (11) 

Determining the Sample Size 


340  (4) 

A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Independent Sampling (Optional) 


344  (7) 

A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Paired Difference Experiments (Optional) 


351  (7) 

Comparing Three or More Population Means: Analysis of Variance (Optional) 


358  (25) 


373  (1) 

Statistics in Action: On the Trail of the Cockroach 


374  (9) 

Comparing Population Proportions 


383  (40) 

Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Sampling 


384  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


391  (2) 

Comparing Population Proportions: Multinomial Experiment 


393  (7) 

Contingency Table Analysis 


400  (23) 


414  (1) 

Statistics in Action: The Level of Agreement Among Movie Reviewers: Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down? 


415  (8) 


423  (78) 


424  (4) 

Fitting the Model: The Least Squares Approach 


428  (13) 


441  (1) 


442  (4) 

Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope β1 


446  (9) 

The Coefficient of Correlation 


455  (3) 

The Coefficient of Determination 


458  (7) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


465  (10) 

Simple Linear Regression: A Complete Example 


475  (4) 

A Nonparametric Test for Correlation (Optional) 


479  (22) 


489  

Statistics in Action: Can ``Dowsers'' Really Detect Water? 


487  (14) 
Appendix A: Tables 

501  (23) 
Appendix B: Data Sets 

524  (6) 
Appendix C: Calculation Formulas for Analysis of Variance: Independent Sampling 

530  (1) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

531  (6) 
Index 

537  