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Hartmann's Plant Science : Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants,9780131140752
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Hartmann's Plant Science : Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131140752

ISBN10:
0131140752
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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    Hartmann's Plant Science : Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants
  • Plant Science Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants
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Summary

Written by some of the most respected innovators in the field, this comprehensive text takes an in-depth look at the environmental, cultural and social factors that influence how plants are grown and used worldwide. The newest edition cites the most recent statistics, production methods and issues concerning the production and utilization of plants. It offers several web-based resources including a free companion website with practice questions andonline crop fact sheets that give information at a local level. Along with information on climate and environment, it also explores plantsrs" tremendous economic impact in both developed and developing nations. Introduces the basics of plant science including the ecosystem; climate; managing soil, water and fertility; and pest management. Examines plant structure, chemistry, growth and development; genetics and biodiversity and their relationship to crop growing and utilization systems. Covers multiple crop types and growth settings including nursery, landscape and greenhouse. Also discusses how crops are preserved, transported and marketed.For anyone interested in how plants are cultivated and utilized.

Table of Contents

Environmental, Cultural, and Social Factors That Influence the Cultivation and Utilization of Plantsp. 1
History, Trends, Issues, and Challenges in Plant Sciencep. 3
Key Learning Conceptsp. 3
Historyp. 3
Trends and Issues Affecting Plant Sciencep. 4
Backgroundp. 4
Domestic Trends and Issuesp. 5
Global Trends and Issuesp. 6
Researchp. 8
Benefits from Cultivated Plantsp. 10
Wood and Wood Products from Timber Treesp. 10
Textiles from Fiber-Producing Cropsp. 11
Drugs and Medicinesp. 11
Plants for Ornamental and Recreational Purposesp. 11
Meeting the Challenges in Plant Sciencep. 11
Change Through Scientific Inquiryp. 13
Hypothesisp. 13
Experimentsp. 13
Data Interpretationp. 16
Summary and Reviewp. 17
Food for Thoughtp. 17
Supplementary Readingp. 17
Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 18
Key Learning Conceptsp. 18
Ecosystem Componentsp. 18
The Biomesp. 21
Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 25
Successionp. 26
Summary and Reviewp. 27
Food for Thoughtp. 27
Supplementary Readingp. 27
Human Impact on Ecosystemsp. 28
Key Learning Conceptsp. 28
Introductionp. 28
Human Footprintp. 29
Plants for Human Usep. 30
Nutritionp. 30
Forage, Fiber, and Fuelp. 33
Ornamental and Recreational Usesp. 34
Summary and Reviewp. 35
Food for Thoughtp. 36
Supplementary Readingp. 36
Climate-Solar Radiation and Moisture Availabilityp. 37
Key Learning Conceptsp. 37
Climatep. 37
Solar Radiationp. 38
Artificial Lightp. 40
Moisture Availabilityp. 40
Summary and Reviewp. 43
Food for Thoughtp. 44
Supplementary Readingp. 44
Climate-Temperature, Air Movement, and Compositionp. 45
Key Learning Conceptsp. 45
Temperaturep. 46
Air Movement and Compositionp. 49
Atmospheric Compositionp. 50
Summary and Reviewp. 52
Food for Thoughtp. 52
Supplementary Readingp. 52
Soil and Managing Soil, Soil Water, and Fertilityp. 53
Key Learning Conceptsp. 53
Definition of Soilp. 54
Kinds of Rocksp. 54
Factors Involved in Soil Formationp. 54
Parent Materialp. 54
Climatep. 56
Biologyp. 56
Topographyp. 57
Timep. 57
Physical Properties of Soilp. 57
Soil Texturep. 57
Soil Structurep. 60
Chemical Properties of Soilp. 63
Effect of Climatep. 63
Cation Exchange Capacityp. 64
Soil Acidity and Alkalinityp. 65
Saline and Sodic Soilsp. 66
Soil Organismsp. 66
Soil Organic Matterp. 67
Carbon: Nitrogen Ratiop. 67
Soil Degradationp. 68
Soil Improvementp. 69
Land Preparationp. 69
Plowingp. 70
Diskingp. 71
Harrowingp. 71
Listing and Ridgingp. 72
Cultivationp. 72
Deep Tillagep. 73
Conservation Tillage Systemsp. 73
Land Levelingp. 74
Soil Fumigationp. 74
Artificial Soilsp. 75
Soil Conservationp. 75
Extent of Erosionp. 76
Factors Affecting Erosionp. 77
Methods of Conservationp. 77
Wind Erosionp. 78
Water Managementp. 79
Water Qualityp. 79
Saline Water and Salinityp. 79
Permeabilityp. 79
Toxicityp. 80
Other Related Problemsp. 80
Irrigationp. 80
Methods of Applicationp. 80
Fertility Managementp. 84
Primary Nutrientsp. 86
Secondary Nutrientsp. 91
Micronutrientsp. 91
Chelating Agentsp. 93
Summary and Reviewp. 93
Food for Thoughtp. 94
Supplementary Readingp. 94
Integrated Management of Weeds, Insects, and Diseasesp. 95
Key Learning Conceptsp. 95
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)p. 96
Genetic Host Resistancep. 97
Cultural Practicesp. 97
Chemical Applicationsp. 98
Biological Controlp. 99
Government Regulatory Measuresp. 99
Weedsp. 100
Weed Biology and Ecologyp. 100
Classificationp. 101
Competitionp. 104
Reproductionp. 104
Geneticsp. 106
Ecologyp. 106
Weed Managementp. 106
Preventive Weed Controlp. 106
Mechanical Weed Controlp. 107
Cultural Weed Controlp. 107
Biological Weed Controlp. 108
Weed Control in Organic Crop Production Systemsp. 108
Chemical Weed Controlp. 109
Insects and Mitesp. 110
Insects and Their Relativesp. 112
Insect and Mite Pest Managementp. 113
Insecticides Classified by Chemistryp. 116
Important Insect Pests of Agricultural Crops and Plant Productsp. 117
Rodents and Vertebrate Wildlifep. 119
Plant Diseasesp. 120
Disease Signs and Symptomsp. 121
Classification of Infectious Plant Diseasesp. 122
Practical Tips for Diagnosing Plant Diseasesp. 132
The Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals-Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, Miticides, and Nematicidesp. 133
Pesticide Effects on the Environmentp. 134
Effects on Wildlifep. 135
Summary and Reviewp. 135
Food for Thoughtp. 136
Supplemental Readingp. 136
Plant Structure, Chemistry, Growth and Development, Genetics, and Biodiversityp. 137
Structure of Higher Plantsp. 139
Key Learning Conceptsp. 139
The Life Cycle of a Corn Plant (A Monocot)p. 140
The Life Cycle of a Bean Plant (A Dicot)p. 141
The Cellp. 142
Cell Structurep. 142
The Protoplastp. 142
The Cell Wallp. 143
Plant Tissuesp. 143
Meristematic Tissuesp. 144
Permanent Tissuesp. 146
The Plant Bodyp. 148
Rootsp. 149
The Procambium Layerp. 150
Stemsp. 152
Stem Formsp. 156
Leavesp. 157
Budsp. 160
Flowersp. 160
Fruitsp. 163
Seedsp. 165
Summary and Reviewp. 165
Food for Thoughtp. 166
Supplementary Readingp. 166
Stages of Growth and Developmentp. 167
Key Learning Conceptsp. 167
Vegetative Growth and Developmentp. 167
Shoot and Root Systemsp. 167
Definitions and Measurementsp. 168
Shoot Growth Patterns: Annuals, Biennials, and Perennialsp. 168
Root Growth Patternsp. 170
How the Plant Growsp. 171
Phase Change: Juvenility, Maturaition, Senescencep. 177
Reproductive Growth and Developmentp. 179
Flower Induction and Initiationp. 179
Flower Developmentp. 182
Pollinationp. 182
Fertilizationp. 184
Fruit Settingp. 184
Fruit Growth and Developmentp. 185
Plant Growth Regulatorsp. 186
Auxinsp. 186
Gibberellins (GAs)p. 188
Cytokininsp. 190
Ethylenep. 190
Abscisic Acid (ABA)p. 192
Additional Hormones or Hormone Classesp. 192
Synthetic Growth Retardantsp. 192
Summary and Reviewp. 193
Food for Thoughtp. 194
Supplementary Readingp. 194
Plant Chemistry and Metabolismp. 195
Key Learning Conceptsp. 195
Introductionp. 195
Carbohydratesp. 195
Lipidsp. 197
Proteinsp. 199
Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acidsp. 202
Secondary Productsp. 203
Alkaloidsp. 203
Phenolicsp. 204
Terpenoidsp. 204
Summary and Reviewp. 205
Food for Thoughtp. 206
Supplementary Readingp. 206
Photosynthesis and Respirationp. 207
Key Learning Conceptsp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Photosynthesis: Light Energy to Reducing Powerp. 208
Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide to Carbohydratep. 212
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis in Higher Plantsp. 214
Light Qualityp. 214
Light Intensityp. 214
Carbon Dioxidep. 215
Heatp. 215
Waterp. 216
Different Photosynthetic Mechanismsp. 216
Plant Development and the Source-Sink Relationshipp. 216
Respirationp. 217
Summary and Reviewp. 220
Food for Thoughtp. 221
Supplementary Readingp. 221
Soil and Plant Water Relationsp. 222
Key Learning Conceptsp. 222
Waterp. 222
Uses in Plantsp. 222
Characteristicsp. 222
Soil Waterp. 223
Availabilityp. 223
Water Movement and Retention in Soilp. 223
Plant Waterp. 227
Absorption and Conduction of Waterp. 227
Absorption and Transport of Mineral Nutrientsp. 228
Translocation of Sugarsp. 229
Summary and Reviewp. 230
Food for Thoughtp. 230
Supplementary Readingp. 230
Plant Nutrientsp. 231
Key Learning Conceptsp. 231
How Do Plants Absorb Nutrients from the Soil?p. 231
Elements That Plants Need for Growth and Reproductionp. 233
Nitrogenp. 234
Phosphorusp. 235
Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesiump. 237
Minor Elementsp. 238
Nutrient Deficienciesp. 239
Remobilizationp. 239
Summary and Reviewp. 240
Food for Thoughtp. 241
Supplementary Readingp. 241
Genetics and Propagationp. 242
Key Learning Conceptsp. 242
Basic Genetic Concepts in Plant Sciencep. 242
Chromosomesp. 242
Genesp. 243
Homologous Chromosomesp. 244
Mitosisp. 244
Meiosis and Fertilizationp. 245
Mutationsp. 245
Polyploidyp. 245
Cytoplasmic Inheritancep. 245
Genotype and Phenotypep. 245
Propagation of Plantsp. 248
Sexual Propagationp. 251
Seed Productionp. 251
Seed Formationp. 251
Seed Storage and Viability Testingp. 252
Seed Dormancyp. 253
Seed Germinationp. 254
Vegetative Propagationp. 257
Apomixisp. 260
Disease Problems in Clonesp. 261
Propagation by Cuttingsp. 262
Propagation by Grafting and Buddingp. 265
Effect of Rootstock on Growth and Development of the Scion Cultivarp. 270
Layeringp. 270
Other Plant Structures Providing Natural Propagation Methodsp. 272
Propagation Using Specialized Stems and Rootsp. 273
Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)p. 274
Biotechnologyp. 276
Summary and Reviewp. 276
Food for Thoughtp. 277
Supplementary Readingp. 277
Crop Biodiversity: Naming, Classifying, Origin, and Germplasm Preservationp. 279
Key Learning Conceptsp. 279
Climatic and Related Classificationsp. 280
Common and Botanical Namesp. 281
Development of Botanical Classificationsp. 281
Scientific Classificationp. 281
Plant Identification and Nomenclaturep. 282
Subspecific Categoriesp. 283
Botanical Varietyp. 283
Cultivarp. 283
Groupp. 283
Familyp. 284
Plant Identification Keyp. 284
Origin of Cultivated Plantsp. 288
Domestication of Plantsp. 289
Methods of Plant Domesticationp. 289
Vegetative or Asexual Propagation Methodsp. 289
Seed or Sexual Propagation Methodsp. 292
Examples of Improvement in Some Important Crop Plantsp. 292
Grains and Vegetable Cropsp. 292
Fruit Cropsp. 295
Plant Improvement Programsp. 296
Evolution and Darwinismp. 296
Searching for and Maintaining New Germplasmp. 298
International Conventions Relating to Plant Genetic Resources, Conservation, and Utilizationp. 298
Preservation of Desirable Germplasmp. 299
Broadening the Base of Agricultural Productionp. 302
Summary and Reviewp. 302
Food for Thoughtp. 303
Supplementary Readingp. 303
Crops: Their Production and Utilization Systemsp. 305
Field Crops Grown for Food, Fiber, Fuel, and Other Industrial Usesp. 307
Key Learning Conceptsp. 307
Introductionp. 307
Tillagep. 308
Cropping Sequencesp. 308
Variety Selectionp. 309
Planting and Crop Establishmentp. 310
Planting Datep. 311
Plant Population and Seeding Ratep. 311
Plant Spacing Configurationp. 312
Seeding Depthp. 312
Water Management: Irrigation and Drainagep. 313
Crop Nutritionp. 313
Pest Managementp. 314
Weed Controlp. 314
Insect Controlp. 314
Disease Controlp. 314
Harvest and Storagep. 316
Field Crops Grown for Food, Forage, Fiber, and Industrial Usesp. 316
Food Cropsp. 316
Oil Cropsp. 324
Fiber Cropsp. 328
Summary and Reviewp. 333
Food for Thoughtp. 333
Supplementary Readingp. 334
Forage Crops and Rangelandsp. 335
Key Learning Conceptsp. 335
Utilization of Forage Cropsp. 336
Forages in Confinement Systemsp. 336
Grazingp. 336
Conserved Foragep. 337
Integrated Systems (Crop Rotations with Cereals, Hay, or Livestock)p. 339
Forage Qualityp. 339
Establishmentp. 340
Plant Diversity in Grasslandsp. 340
Symbiosis with Microorganismsp. 341
Grassland Ecologyp. 344
Plant Dispersal and Propagationp. 344
Sward Growth Dynamicsp. 344
Balance Between Speciesp. 345
Nutrient Balancesp. 345
Other Uses of Grasslandsp. 345
Summary and Reviewp. 346
Food for Thoughtp. 347
Supplementary Readingp. 347
Vegetable Productionp. 348
Key Learning Conceptsp. 348
Principles of Vegetable Productionp. 348
The Importance of Vegetable Productionp. 348
Overview of Vegetable Farms and Industriesp. 350
Characteristics of Vegetable Farming and Gardening Systemsp. 350
Markets for Commercially Grown Vegetablesp. 354
Steps in Vegetable Productionp. 354
Site Selectionp. 355
Site Preparationp. 355
Variety Selectionp. 355
Plantingp. 355
Management During Crop Growth and Developmentp. 355
Harvestp. 355
Packaging and Post-Harvest Managementp. 355
Record Keeping and Maintenance and Repair of Facilities and Equipmentp. 355
Continuing Educationp. 355
Vegetable Crops Grown for Fruits and Seedsp. 356
Vegetable Crops Grown for Flowers, Leaves, or Stemsp. 358
Vegetable Crops Grown for Underground Partsp. 363
Summary and Reviewp. 366
Food for Thoughtp. 366
Supplementary Readingp. 367
Temperate Fruit and Nut Cropsp. 368
Key Learning Conceptsp. 368
Site Selectionp. 369
Climatep. 369
Land and Soil Characteristicsp. 370
Irrigation Water: Quality and Availabilityp. 371
Market Availability and Marketing Strategiesp. 371
Costs in Establishing and Maintaining a Fruit or Nut Plantingp. 377
Understanding the Flowering and Fruiting Processp. 378
Flower Initiationp. 378
Rest and Chilling Requirementsp. 379
Location of Fruit Buds and Fruiting Structuresp. 381
Pollination and Pollenizersp. 383
Insects and Pollinationp. 384
Choosing a Growing Systemp. 384
Selecting Fruiting Cultivars and Rootstocksp. 388
Activities Prior to Plantingp. 391
Planting and Culturep. 392
Laying Out the Plantingp. 392
Planting the Cropp. 392
An Introduction to the Care and Maintenance of a Fruit Plantingp. 394
Training and Pruningp. 394
Reasons for Training and Pruningp. 395
Physiological Responses to Pruningp. 395
Training and Pruning Deciduous Fruit Treesp. 397
Training and Pruning Grapevinesp. 399
Training and Pruning Cane Fruitsp. 402
Training and Pruning Bush Fruitsp. 404
Fruit Thinningp. 404
Thinning Requirementsp. 406
Chemical Thinningp. 406
Mechanical Thinningp. 406
Fruit Maturation, Ripening, and Senescencep. 407
Summary and Reviewp. 409
Food for Thoughtp. 410
Supplementary Readingp. 410
Tropical and Subtropical Crops and Crop Production Systemsp. 411
Key Learning Conceptsp. 411
Climates of the Tropics and Subtropicsp. 412
Rainfall and Humidityp. 413
Light and Temperaturep. 413
Climatic Regionsp. 414
Tropical Soilsp. 415
Important Soil Orders in the Tropicsp. 415
Cropping Systemsp. 416
Shifting Cultivationp. 416
Fallow Systemp. 418
Permanent Upland Cultivationp. 418
Arable Irrigation Farming-Upland Cropping Systemsp. 418
Examples of Tropical Crop Production Systemsp. 418
Flooded Systems-Tropical Wet Ricep. 418
Cereal-Based Systems of Semiarid West Africap. 419
Mixed Annual/Perennial Systemsp. 420
African Mixed Root Crop Systemsp. 420
Caribbean Mixed Root Crop Systemsp. 421
Comparisons Between Systemsp. 421
Perennial Cropsp. 422
Summary and Reviewp. 438
Food for Thoughtp. 439
Supplementary Readingp. 439
Nursery Productionp. 441
Key Learning Conceptsp. 441
Site Selection and Analysisp. 441
Nursery Field Productionp. 442
Nursery Container Productionp. 444
Pot-in-Pot Productionp. 445
Media Testing for Container-Grown Plantsp. 445
Electrical Conductivity (EC) and pHp. 446
Media Testingp. 447
Nitrate Nitrogen Testingp. 448
Fertilizersp. 448
Summary and Reviewp. 448
Food for Thoughtp. 449
Supplementary Readingp. 449
Landscape Plants: Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Deciduous Trees and Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plantsp. 450
Key Learning Conceptsp. 450
Introductionp. 450
Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Selectionp. 452
Temperaturep. 452
Lightp. 453
Moisturep. 454
Windp. 455
Soilp. 455
Trees and Shrubs in the Landscapep. 456
Choosing a Quality Tree or Shrubp. 459
Correct Planting of Woody Trees and Shrubsp. 459
Care of the Newly Purchased Treep. 459
The Native Soilp. 459
Preparing the Hole and Plantingp. 460
Mulching the Soil Surfacep. 461
Tree Staking and Trunk Protectionp. 462
Fertilizing Trees After Plantingp. 462
Irrigation After Plantingp. 462
Tree Care During the First Year-A Summaryp. 463
Pruning Treesp. 463
Pruning Methodsp. 465
Pruning Shrubsp. 466
Flowering on One-Year-Old Woodp. 468
Flowering on Current Year's Woodp. 468
Pruning Nonflowering Shrubsp. 468
Description of Commonly Utilized Speciesp. 468
Herbaceous Plantsp. 470
Preparing the Gardenp. 472
Perennial Maintenancep. 476
The Wonderful World of Perennialsp. 478
Specialty Perennialsp. 481
Summary and Reviewp. 483
Food for Thoughtp. 483
Supplementary Readingp. 483
Floriculturep. 484
Key Learning Conceptsp. 484
The Greenhouse Industryp. 484
Controlling the Greenhouse Environmentp. 487
Temperaturep. 487
Lightp. 489
Control of Plant Growth and Floweringp. 490
Growing Mediap. 490
Irrigation and Water Qualityp. 491
Mineral Nutritionp. 492
Diseases and Insectsp. 493
Propagationp. 494
Greenhouse Cropsp. 494
Cut Flowersp. 494
Flowering Pot Plantsp. 495
Foliage Plantsp. 496
Bedding Plantsp. 497
Bulb Cropsp. 497
Summary and Reviewp. 499
Food for Thoughtp. 500
Supplementary Readingp. 500
Turfgrassesp. 501
Key Learning Conceptsp. 501
Establishing a Turfp. 502
Turfgrass Structurep. 502
Choosing Turfgrassesp. 503
Soil Preparationp. 507
Seedingp. 508
Seeding Depthp. 510
Time to Sowp. 510
Seed Germination and Seedling Establishmentp. 510
Soddingp. 510
Points to Consider When Soddingp. 510
Steps to Follow When Soddingp. 511
Overseedingp. 511
Renovationp. 511
Maintenancep. 512
Principal Turf Management Practicesp. 512
Mowingp. 512
Cool-Season Turfgrass Growth Regulatorsp. 513
Fertilizationp. 514
Points to Consider When Conducting a Soil Testp. 514
Use of Sulfur to Decrease Soil pHp. 515
Micronutrientsp. 515
Points to Consider When Fertilizingp. 515
Determining Irrigation Requirementsp. 515
Points to Consider When Irrigatingp. 516
Methods of Reducing Irrigation Requirementsp. 516
Syringingp. 517
Irrigation Water Qualityp. 517
Secondary Management Practicesp. 517
Pest Controlp. 517
Secondary Cultural Practicesp. 519
Determining Secondary Cultural Practice Requirementsp. 519
Cultivationp. 519
Mechanical Thatch Removalp. 520
Top-Dressingp. 521
Localized Dry Spotp. 521
Miscellaneous Management Practicesp. 521
Seasonal Growthp. 521
Summary and Reviewp. 522
Food for Thoughtp. 522
Supplementary Readingp. 523
Residential and Public Landscapesp. 524
Key Learning Conceptsp. 524
The Residential Landscapep. 526
Planning the Landscapep. 528
Functions of Plants in the Landscapep. 528
Plant Selectionp. 533
Summary and Reviewp. 535
Food for Thoughtp. 535
Supplementary Readingp. 536
Harvest, Post-Harvest Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Marketingp. 537
Key Learning Conceptsp. 537
Harvestingp. 537
Functions of Harvesting Machinery and Equipmentp. 538
Mechanically Harvested Cropsp. 538
Post-Harvest Handling and Preservationp. 541
Post-Harvest Deteriorationp. 541
Qualityp. 543
Post-Harvest Handlingp. 544
Preservation by Dryingp. 546
Storagep. 547
Marketing of Agricultural Productsp. 548
The Process of Marketingp. 549
Governmental Marketing Servicesp. 551
Agricultural Cooperativesp. 551
Marketing Boardsp. 551
Transporting Commoditiesp. 552
Rail Transportp. 552
Truck Transportp. 552
Sea Transportp. 552
Air Transportp. 552
Summary and Reviewp. 553
Food for Thoughtp. 554
Supplementary Readingp. 554
Appendixp. 555
Glossaryp. 567
Indexp. 587
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