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Hartmann's Plant Science : Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants,9780139554773
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Hartmann's Plant Science : Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780139554773

ISBN10:
0139554777
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $121.40
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Summary

For introductory courses in Plant Science, and Horticulture found in departments of agriculture or biology. This comprehensive introduction to plant science offers a scientific and substantive approach in a format that addresses the learning styles of today's students. (Formerly Hartmann, Plant Science: Growth, Development and Utilization of Cultivated Plants, 2/E, 1988.)

Table of Contents

Preface xv
UNIT I Plants: Structure, Classification, Growth, Reproduction, and Utilization 1(248)
The Role of Cultivated Plants in the Living World
3(7)
Key Learning Concepts
3(1)
Cultivated Plants
4(2)
Food Sources
4(2)
Other Benefits from Cultivated Plants
6(2)
Wood and Wood Products from Timber Trees
6(1)
Textiles from Fiber-Producing Crops
6(1)
Drugs and Medicines
7(1)
Latex, Pitch, Waxes, Essential Oils, Perfumes, and Spices
7(1)
Plants for Aesthetic Purposes
8(1)
Challenges
8(1)
Summary and Review
9(1)
Exercises for Understanding
9(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
9(1)
Structure of Higher Plants
10(28)
Key Learning Concepts
10(1)
The Life Cycle of a Corn Plant (A Monocot)
11(1)
The Life Cycle of a Bean Plant (A Dicot)
12(1)
The Cell
13(1)
Cell Structure
13(2)
The Protoplast
13(1)
The Cell Wall
14(1)
Plant Tissues
15(4)
Meristematic Tissues
15(2)
Permanent Tissues
17(2)
The Plant Body
19(17)
Roots
20(3)
Stems
23(3)
Stem Forms
26(2)
Leaves
28(3)
Buds
31(1)
Flowers
31(3)
Fruits
34(2)
Seeds
36(1)
Summary and Review
36(1)
Exercises for Understanding
37(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
37(1)
Naming and Classifying Plants
38(10)
Key Learning Concepts
38(1)
Climatic and Related Classifications
39(1)
Common and Botanical Names
39(1)
Development of Botanical Classifications
40(1)
Scientific Classification
40(1)
Plant Identification and Nomenclature
40(3)
Subspecific Categories
42(1)
Botanical Variety
42(1)
Cultivar
42(1)
Group
42(1)
Family
42(1)
Plant Identification Key
43(4)
Summary and Review
47(1)
Exercises for Understanding
47(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
47(1)
Origin, Domestication, and Improvement of Cultivated Plants
48(20)
Key Learning Concepts
48(1)
Origin of Cultivated Plants
48(1)
Domestication of Plants
49(4)
Methods of Plant Domestication
52(1)
Examples of Improvement in Some Important Crop Plants
53(4)
Grains and Vegetable Crops
53(3)
Fruit Crops
56(1)
Plant Improvement Programs
57(1)
Evolution and Darwinism
57(1)
Searching for and Maintaining New Germplasm
58(1)
Preservation of Desirable Germplasm
59(1)
Broadening the Base of Agricultural Production
59(1)
Some Basic Genetic Concepts in Plant Improvement
60(5)
Chromosomes
60(1)
Genes
61(1)
Homologous Chromosomes
61(1)
Mitosis
62(1)
Meiosis and Fertilization
62(1)
Mutations
62(1)
Polyploidy
62(3)
Cytoplasmic Inheritance
65(1)
Genotype and Phenotype
65(1)
Biotechnology
65(1)
Micropropagation
66(1)
Genetic Engineering
66(1)
Summary and Review
66(1)
Exercises for Understanding
67(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
67(1)
Propagation of Plants
68(28)
Key Learning Concepts
68(1)
Choice of Propagation Methods
68(1)
Sexual Propagation
69(7)
Seed Production
69(2)
Seed Formation
71(1)
Seed Storage and Viability Testing
72(1)
Seed Dormancy
72(2)
Seed Germination
74(2)
Vegetative Propagation
76(17)
Propagation by Cuttings
80(4)
Propagation by Grafting and Budding
84(5)
Effect of Rootstock on Growth and Development of the Scion Cultivar
89(1)
Layering
89(2)
Other Plant Structures Providing Natural Propagation Methods
91(1)
Propagation Using Specialized Stems and Roots
92(1)
Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)
93(2)
Summary and Review
95(1)
Exercises for Understanding
95(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
95(1)
Vegetative and Reproductive Growth and Development
96(25)
Key Learning Concepts
96(1)
Vegetative Growth and Development
96(10)
Shoot and Root Systems
96(1)
Definitions and Measurements
97(1)
Shoot Growth Patterns: Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials
97(2)
Root Growth Patterns
99(1)
How the Plant Grows
99(4)
Phase Change: Juvenility, Maturation, Senescence
103(3)
Reproductive Growth and Development
106(6)
Flower Induction and Initiation
106(2)
Flower Development
108(1)
Pollination
108(2)
Fertilization
110(1)
Fruit Setting
110(1)
Fruit Growth and Development
111(1)
Plant Growth Regulators
112(7)
Auxins
112(2)
Gibberellins (GA)
114(2)
Cytokinins
116(1)
Ethylene
116(1)
Inhibitors
117(2)
Summary and Review
119(1)
Exercises for Understanding
120(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
120(1)
Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Translocation
121(19)
Key Learning Concepts
121(1)
Photosynthesis
121(11)
Properties of Photosynthesis in the Leaves of Higher Plants
122(1)
Energy Requirements for Photosynthesis: The Photolysis of Water
122(4)
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
126(2)
The Plant as a Metabolic Machine
128(1)
The Photolysis of H2O and Photosynthetic Electron Transport
129(1)
The Calvin Cycle
129(1)
C3, C4, and CAM Type Plants
130(1)
Photosynthetic Intermediate Flow: Chloroplast to Cytoplasm and Sucrose Synthesis
131(1)
Plant Respiration
132(3)
Factors Affecting Rates of Respiration
132(1)
Respiration Pathways
133(2)
Fermentation
135(1)
Electron Transport System
135(1)
Photorespiration
136(1)
Absorption, Translocation, and Assimilation
136(2)
Absorption and Conduction of Water
136(1)
Absorption and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
137(1)
Translocation of Sugars
138(1)
Summary and Review
138(1)
Exercises for Understanding
139(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
139(1)
Soil and Soil Water
140(23)
Key Learning Concepts
140(1)
Definition of Soil
141(1)
Factors Involved in Soil Formation
141(4)
Parent Material
141(2)
Climate
143(1)
Organic Fraction
143(1)
Topography
143(1)
Time
144(1)
Physical Properties of Soil
145(3)
Soil Texture
145(1)
Soil Structure
145(3)
Chemical Properties of Soil
148(5)
Effect of Climate
148(2)
Cation Exchange Capacity
150(2)
Soil Acidity and Alkalinity
152(1)
Saline and Sodic Soils
153(1)
Soil Organisms
153(1)
Soil Organic Matter
153(1)
Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio
154(1)
Soil Water
154(5)
Characteristics of Water
154(1)
Uses of Water in the Plant
155(1)
Soil Water
155(4)
Water Quality
159(3)
Saline Water and Salinity
159(1)
Permeability
159(1)
Toxicity
159(1)
Other Related Problems
159(3)
Summary and Review
162(1)
Exercises for Understanding
162(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
162(1)
Soil and Water Management and Mineral Nutrition
163(25)
Key Learning Concepts
163(1)
Land Preparation
164(5)
Plowing
164(1)
Disking
165(1)
Harrowing
166(1)
Listing
166(1)
Cultivation
166(1)
Deep Tillage
167(1)
Minimum Tillage
168(1)
Land Leveling
168(1)
Soil Fumigation
169(1)
Irrigation
169(5)
Methods of Application
169(5)
Mineral Nutrition
174(8)
Primary Nutrients
175(5)
Secondary Nutrients
180(1)
Micronutrients
181(1)
Chelating Agents
182(1)
Soil Conservation
182(4)
Extent of Erosion
183(1)
Methods of Conservation
184(1)
Wind Erosion
185(1)
Summary and Review
186(1)
Exercises for Understanding
187(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
187(1)
Climatic Influences on Crop Production
188(16)
Key Learning Concepts
188(1)
Weather and Climate
189(1)
Climatic Factors Affecting Plant Growth
190(8)
Temperature
190(7)
Rainfall
197(1)
Light
197(1)
Length of Growing Season
198(1)
Air Movement
198(1)
Climatic Requirements of Some Crop Plants
198(3)
Fruit and Nut Crops
198(1)
Grain Crops
199(1)
Sugar Crops
199(1)
Forage Crops
199(1)
Fiber Crops
200(1)
Vegetable Crops
201(1)
Climatic Influences on Plant Diseases
201(1)
Climatic Influences on Insect Pests
201(1)
Summary and Review
202(1)
Exercises for Understanding
203(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
203(1)
Biological Competitors of Useful Plants
204(27)
Key Learning Concepts
204(1)
Weeds
205(4)
Modern Weed Control Methods
206(2)
Types of Weeds
208(1)
Herbicidal Control of Different Weed Types
209(1)
Plant Diseases and Insect Pests
209(2)
Biological Control
209(1)
Control by Cultural Practices
210(1)
Government Agricultural Quarantine and Pest Eradication Programs
210(1)
Application of Pesticides
210(1)
Plant Diseases
211(9)
Disease Symptoms
211(1)
Classification of Infectious Plant Diseases
212(8)
Insects and Mites
220(7)
Classification of Insects
221(1)
Action of Pesticides Used to Control Insects and Mites
222(2)
Insecticides
224(1)
Important Insect Pests of Agricultural Crops and Plant Products
225(2)
Insects Attacking Dried Fruits
227(1)
Insects Attacking Stored Grains
227(1)
Rodents and Vertebrate Wildlife
227(1)
The Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals---Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, Miticides, and Nematicides
227(1)
Pesticide Impacts on the Environment
228(2)
Effects on Wildlife
229(1)
Summary and Review
230(1)
Exercise for Understanding
230(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
230(1)
Harvest, Preservation, Transportation, Storage, and Marketing
231(18)
Key Learning Concepts
231(1)
Harvesting
231(4)
Functions of Harvesting Machinery and Equipment
232(1)
Mechanically Harvested Crops
232(3)
Postharvest Preservation
235(5)
Preservation by Cooling
235(3)
Preservation by Drying
238(1)
Preservation by Modified and Controlled Atmospheres
239(1)
Preservation by Processing
239(1)
Storage of Harvested Products
240(1)
Fruits and Vegetables
240(1)
Seeds
241(1)
Hay
241(1)
Silage
241(1)
Marketing of Agricultural Products
241(3)
The Process of Marketing
242(1)
Commodity Markets and Exchanges
243(1)
Governmental Marketing Services
243(1)
Agricultural Cooperatives
244(1)
Marketing Boards
244(1)
Transporting Commodities
244(2)
Rail Transport
244(1)
Truck Transport
245(1)
Sea Transport
245(1)
Air Transport
245(1)
Summary and Review
246(1)
Exercises for Understanding
247(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
247(2)
UNIT II An Overview of the Fruit Crops and Ornamental Plants 249(130)
Cultural Practices in Orchards and Vineyards
251(24)
Key Learning Concepts
251(1)
Site Selection
252(2)
Climate
252(1)
Location and Soil Characteristics
252(1)
Irrigation Water---Quality and Availability
253(1)
Availability of Markets for the Crop
253(1)
Availability of Labor
254(1)
Costs in Establishing a Fruit Planting
254(1)
Selecting Fruiting Cultivars and Rootstocks
254(1)
Planting and Culture
255(4)
Laying out an Orchard Planting
258(1)
Planting the Trees
258(1)
Pruning and Training
259(1)
The Developing Fruit Planting
260(13)
Pruning Bearing Deciduous Fruit Trees
266(4)
Pruning and Training Young Broad-Leaved Evergreen Fruit Trees
270(1)
Pruning Bearing Broad-Leaved Evergreen Fruit Trees
271(1)
Pruning and Training Grapevines
271(2)
Weed Control in Fruit Plantings
273(1)
Fertilization
273(1)
Summary and Review
274(1)
Exercises for Understanding
274(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
274(1)
Flowering and Fruiting in Fruit Crops
275(13)
Key Learning Concepts
275(1)
Initiation of Flower Buds
276(3)
Temperate Zone Fruit Species
276(2)
Subtropical Fruit Species
278(1)
Tropical Fruit Species
279(1)
Pollination
279(2)
Flower Types
280(1)
Insects and Pollination
281(1)
Fertilization and Fruit Setting
281(1)
Fruit Thinning
281(2)
Amount of Thinning
282(1)
Chemical Thinning
282(1)
Mechanical Thinning
283(1)
Fruit Growth
283(1)
Fruit Maturation, Ripening, and Senescence
283(4)
Summary and Review
287(1)
Exercises for Understanding
287(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
287(1)
Nursery Production: Field, Above-Ground Container, and Pot-In-Pot Cultures
288(14)
Key Learning Concepts
288(1)
Field Production
288(3)
Adjusting pH
288(1)
The Preplant Fertilizer Program
289(1)
Planting Time
289(2)
Irrigation
291(1)
Above-Ground Container Culture
291(7)
Potential
292(1)
Growing Media
292(1)
Media Testing
293(3)
Fertilizers
296(2)
Pot-In-Pot Culture
298(2)
Impact on Drought Stress
298(1)
Impact on Heat Stress
298(1)
Impact on Soil Mining
299(1)
Impact on Soil Compaction
299(1)
Overcoming Rooting Out
299(1)
Summary and Review
300(1)
Exercise for Understanding
300(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
300(2)
Landscape Trees: Deciduous, Broad-and Narrow-Leaved Evergreens
302(22)
Key Learning Concepts
302(1)
Tree Selection
302(8)
Environmental Factors to be Considered in Selecting Suitable Tree Species
310(1)
Temperature
310(1)
Light
310(1)
Moisture
311(1)
Wind
311(1)
Categories of Nursery Trees Available for Planting
311(1)
Bare-Root Trees
311(1)
Balled and Burlapped Trees (B&B)
311(1)
Container-Grown Trees
311(1)
What to Look for When Purchasing Container-Grown Trees
312(2)
Planting the Tree
314(4)
Care of the Newly Purchased Tree
314(1)
The Native Soil
314(1)
Preparing the Hole and Planting
315(1)
Mulching the Soil Surface
316(1)
Tree Staking and Trunk Protection
316(2)
Fertilizing Trees after Planting
318(1)
Irrigation after Planting
318(1)
Tree Care During the First Year---A Summary
318(1)
The Care of Established Trees
318(1)
Pruning
318(4)
Pruning Methods
320(2)
Container Growing of Evergreens
322(1)
Summary and Review
322(1)
Exercise for Understanding
323(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
323(1)
Ornamental Shrubs: Deciduous, Broad-and Narrow-Leaved Evergreens
324(13)
Key Learning Concepts
324(1)
Shrub Selection
324(7)
The Availability of Shrubs
331(1)
Pruning Shrubs
331(3)
Flowering on One-Year-Old Wood
332(1)
Flowering on Current Year's Wood
332(1)
Pruning Nonflowering Shrubs
333(1)
Pruning Rose Plants
334(2)
Hybrid Tea Roses
334(1)
Floribunda and Polyantha Roses
335(1)
Climbing Roses
335(1)
Summary and Review
336(1)
Exercises for Understanding
336(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
336(1)
Floriculture
337(13)
Key Learning Concepts
337(1)
The Greenhouse Industry
337(3)
Controlling the Greenhouse Environment
340(5)
Temperature
340(1)
Light
341(1)
Control of Plant Height
342(1)
Growing Media
342(1)
Irrigation and Water Quality
343(1)
Mineral Nutrition
344(1)
Diseases and Insects
344(1)
Greenhouse Crops
345(3)
Cut Flowers
345(1)
Flowering Pot Plants
345(2)
Foliage Plants
347(1)
Bedding Plants
347(1)
Bulb Crops
348(1)
Summary and Review
348(1)
Exercises for Understanding
349(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
349(1)
Lawns and Turfgrasses
350(16)
Key Learning Concepts
350(1)
Establishing a Turf
351(1)
Turfgrass Structure
351(1)
Choosing Turfgrasses
352(5)
Soil Preparation
357(1)
Seeding
358(1)
Seeding Depth
358(1)
Time to Sow
358(1)
Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment
359(1)
Sodding
359(1)
Maintenance
359(1)
Principal Turf Management Practices
359(3)
Mowing
360(1)
Fertilizer
360(1)
Irrigation
361(1)
Secondary Management Practices
362(3)
Pest Control
362(3)
Summary and Review
365(1)
Exercises for Understanding
365(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
365(1)
Residential and Public Landscapes
366(13)
Key Learning Concepts
366(2)
The Residential Landscape
368(9)
Planning the Landscape
370(1)
Functions of Plants in the Landscape
370(5)
Plant Selection
375(2)
Summary and Review
377(1)
Exercises for Understanding
377(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
377(2)
UNIT III Major Agronomic, Vegetable, and Fruit Crops 379(156)
Agronomic Crops Grown for Food, Feed, or Oil
381(21)
Food and Feed Crops
381(13)
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
382(1)
Beans (Phaseolus spp., Vigna spp., Vicia spp.)
382(1)
Corn (Zea mays)
383(2)
Oats (Avena sativa)
385(1)
Rice (Oryza sativa)
385(3)
Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)
388(1)
Rye (Secale cereale)
388(1)
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
388(2)
Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris)
390(1)
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
391(1)
Wheat (Triticum spp.)
392(2)
Oil Crops
394(7)
Castor Bean (Ricinus communis)
395(1)
Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
395(1)
Corn (Zea mays)
395(1)
Cotton (Gossypium spp.)
395(1)
Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
395(1)
Olive (Olea europaea)
395(1)
Rape (Brassica spp.)
396(1)
Sesame (Sesamum indicum)
396(1)
Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis)
396(1)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
396(2)
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)
398(1)
Soybean (Glycine max)
398(2)
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
400(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
401(1)
Forage and Fiber Crops
402(18)
Forage Crops
402(5)
Forage Grasses
403(1)
Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis)
403(1)
Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata)
403(3)
Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea)
406(1)
Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
406(1)
Timothy (Phelum pratense)
406(1)
Bluegrass (Poa spp.)
406(1)
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)
406(1)
Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum)
406(1)
Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)
407(1)
Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum)
407(1)
Intermediate Wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium)
407(1)
Corn (Zea mays)
407(1)
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
407(1)
Sudan Grass (Sorghum sudanese)
407(1)
Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)
407(1)
Forage Legumes
407(3)
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
408(1)
White Clover (Trifolium repens)
408(1)
Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)
408(1)
Alsike Clover (Trifolium hybridum)
409(1)
Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)
409(1)
Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum)
409(1)
Lespedeza (Lespedeza spp.)
409(1)
Utilization of Forage Crops
410(2)
Fiber Crops
412(7)
Plants Producing Surface-Fibers in Association with Floral Parts
413(1)
Cotton (Gossypium spp.)
413(3)
Kapok (Ceiba pentandra)
416(1)
Plants Producing Soft Stem-Fibers
417(1)
Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
417(1)
Hemp (Cannabis sativa)
417(1)
Jute (Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius)
418(1)
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)
418(1)
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)
418(1)
Plants Producing Hard Leaf-Fibers
419(1)
Agave (Agave sisalana)
419(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
419(1)
Vegetable Crops Grown for Fruits or Seeds
420(19)
Statistical Overview of World Production
421(17)
Beans, Snap or Green (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Lima Beans (Phaseolus limensis)
422(2)
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
424(1)
Eggplant (Solanum melongena)
425(1)
Muskmelon (Cucumis melo, Reticulatus Group)
426(1)
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) [Hibiscus esculentus]
427(1)
Peas (Pisum sativum)
428(2)
Peppers (Capsicum annum)
430(1)
Pumpkins and Squashes (Cucurbita spp.)
431(2)
Sweet Corn (Zea mays, var. rugosa)
433(1)
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
434(2)
Watermelon (Citrullis lanatus) C. vulgaris
436(2)
References and Supplementary Reading
438(1)
Vegetable Crops Grown for Flowers, Leaves, or Stems
439(23)
Statistical Overview of World Production
439(22)
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
440(2)
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)
442(2)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea, Italica Group)
444(1)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleraceae, Gemmifera Group)
445(1)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Capitata Group)
446(1)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, Botrytis Group)
447(1)
Celery (Apium graveolens, var. dulce)
448(2)
Chive (Allium schoenoprasum)
450(1)
Collards and Kale (Brassica oleracea, Acephala Group)
450(1)
Endive (Cichorium endivia)
451(1)
Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
451(1)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, Gongylodes Group)
452(1)
Leek (Allium ampeloprasum, Porrum Group)
452(1)
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
453(3)
Mustard (Brassica juncea, B. hirta, B. nigra, B. carinata)
456(1)
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
457(1)
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum)
458(1)
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)
459(1)
Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris, Cicla Group)
460(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
461(1)
Vegetable Crops Grown for Underground Parts
462(16)
Statistical Overview of World Production
463(14)
Beets (Beta vulgaris, Crassa Group)
463(1)
Carrots (Daucus carota)
464(1)
Celeriac (Apium graveolens, var. rapaceum)
465(1)
Garlic (Allium sativum)
466(1)
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
467(1)
Onions (Allium cepa)
467(3)
Parsnips (Pastinaca sativa)
470(1)
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)
470(3)
Radish (Raphanus sativus)
473(1)
Rutabaga (Brassica napus, Napobrassica Group)
474(1)
Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius)
475(1)
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)
475(1)
Turnip (Brassica rapa, Rapifera Group)
476(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
477(1)
Temperate Zone Fruit and Nut Crops
478(25)
Almond (Prunus dulcis) [Prunus amygdalus]
478(1)
Apple (Malus X domestica)
479(2)
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)
481(1)
Blackberry (Rubus spp.)
482(1)
Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
483(1)
Cherry (Prunus avium and P. cerasus)
484(1)
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon)
485(1)
Currant (Ribes spp.)
486(1)
Gooseberry (Ribes spp.)
486(1)
Grape (Vitis spp.)
487(3)
Hazelnut Filbert (Corylus avellana)
490(1)
Peach and Nectarine (Prunus persica)
491(2)
Pear (Pyrus spp.)
493(1)
Pecan (Carya illinoensis)
494(1)
Plum and Prune (Prunus spp.)
495(2)
Quince (Cydonia oblong)
497(1)
Raspberry (Rubus spp.)
497(1)
Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
498(2)
Walnuts (Juglans spp.)
500(2)
References and Supplementary Reading
502(1)
Subtropical Fruit and Nut Crops
503(13)
Avocado (Persea americana)
503(2)
Citrus (Citrus spp.)
505(2)
Date (Phoenix dactylifera)
507(2)
Fig (Ficus carica)
509(1)
Kiwifruit (Chinese Gooseberry) (Actinidia deliciosa)
510(1)
Olive (Olea europaea)
511(2)
Persimmon (Diospyros spp.)
513(1)
Pistachio (Pistacia vera)
513(1)
Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
514(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
515(1)
Tropical Fruit and Nut Crops
516(19)
Banana (Musa acuminata)
516(2)
Cacao (Theobroma cacao)
518(2)
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)
520(1)
Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
521(3)
Coffee (Coffea)
524(1)
Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia)
525(1)
Mango (Mangifera indica)
526(2)
Papaya (Cariaca papaya)
528(1)
Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
529(2)
Some Minor Tropical Fruits and Nuts
531(2)
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
531(1)
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola)
532(1)
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola)
532(1)
Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana)
532(1)
Guava (Psidium guajava)
533(1)
Litchi (Litchi chinensis)
533(1)
Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis)
533(1)
References and Supplementary Reading
533(2)
Appendix 535(12)
Useful Web Sites
535(1)
Nutritive Values of the Edible Part of Foods
536(8)
Metric Conversion Chart
544(1)
Temperature Conversion Table
545(1)
Light Conversion Table
546(1)
Glossary 547(18)
Index 565

Excerpts

Enter the wonderful world of plant science. Discover why we depend on plants and the people who understand them for our survival. Find out how plants keep us alive and allow us to enjoy our lives. Learn about growing, maintaining, and utilizing plants for the benefit of ourselves and the environment in which we live. No matter if your interests range from the family farm to a tournament golf course to the boardroom of an international business, rewarding, challenging, and fulfilling careers are open to anyone skilled in plant science. Human survival absolutely depends on the ability of plants to capture solar energy and convert that energy to a form that can be used as food. The captured energy stored in plant tissues also provides fiber and oil for fuel, clothing, and shelter. The production of plants that meet our needs for survival is an important application of the knowledge of plant science. However, the essentials for nutrition and shelter can be provided by relatively few plant species. Life would be very boring if those few were the only species produced for our needs. Fortunately, for those who dislike boredom, thousands of species of plants are grown that add enjoyment to life by providing a variety of flavors and textures in food and fiber. Other plants brighten our lives when used in landscaping and interior decoration. Recently, the importance of turfgrass in athletic and outdoor recreation sites has risen dramatically around the world. Animal feeds are another important use of plants. Animals provide nutrition and variation in our diets and materials for clothing and shelter, reduce labor in some areas of the world, and add pleasure in our lives through recreation or as pets. As a result of our need for plants to survive and enjoy our lives, plants have a tremendous economic impact in developed and developing nations. The career opportunities created by the need for people with an understanding of plant growth are unlimited. Plant Scienceis written for anyone with an interest in how plants are grown and utilized for maintaining and adding enjoyment to human life. The beginning sections of the text are designed to provide the fundamentals of botany, plant physiology, and environmental factors affecting plant growth in a way intended to be easily comprehended by students familiar or unfamiliar with plant science. The later sections are the integration of the aforementioned topics into strategies of producing plants for human use as food, fiber, and recreation. The third edition ofPlant Sciencehas been updated to include the most recent statistics, production methods, and issues concerning the production and utilization of plants. To aid the student and instructor, key learning concepts and summaries of those key learning concepts have been added to the chapters in the first two sections. An appendix listing Web sites that provide useful crop production information has been added. A chapter on nursery production has also been added. The chapters concerning herbaceous ornamental production have been consolidated into one chapter.


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