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Implementing Change : Patterns, Principles, and Potholes,9780205162222

Implementing Change : Patterns, Principles, and Potholes

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205162222

ISBN10:
0205162223
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $59.00
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Summary

This book focuses on the process of educational change and leadership using the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework.The change process in schools is made complex by the wide range of educational innovations. These require effective leadership that recognizes the role people play. If the focus of change is solely on technology and if the personal side is not addressed, the result is resistance and implementation failure. This book addresses those concerns using the CBAM Model in a useful and immediately applicable format.Each chapter in the book is organized to move from concept to application covering: research, a clear description of the change concept, case studies, examples, discussion questions, and activities.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART ONE The Context for Implementing Change 1(34)
Implementing Change: Patterns, Themes and Principles
2(18)
Principles of Change
4(14)
Change Is a Process, Not an Event
4(2)
There Are Significant Differences in What Is Entailed in Development and Implementation of an Innovation
6(1)
An Organization Does Not Change until the Individuals Within It Change
7(1)
Innovations Come in Different Sizes
8(1)
Interventions Are the Actions and Events That Are Key to the Success of the Change Process
9(1)
Although Both Top-Down and Bottom-Up Change Can Work, a Horizontal Perspective Is Best
10(3)
Administrator Leadership Is Essential to Long-Term Change Success
13(1)
Mandates Can Work
14(1)
The School Is the Primary Unit for Change
14(1)
Facilitating Change Is a Team Effort
15(1)
Appropriate Interventions Reduce the Challenges of Change
15(1)
The Context of the School Influences the Process of Change
15(3)
Summary
18(2)
Examining Initiatives and Innovations: A Historical Perspective
20(15)
How Changes for Schools Have Evolved
21(2)
The Behavioral Perspective
22(1)
The Cognitive Perspective
22(1)
The Socially Responsible Perspective
23(1)
The Escalating Scope of School Change
23(2)
Waves of Reform
23(1)
Policy Approaches to Change
24(1)
Much Ado about Changes
25(2)
Implementation Is the Issue
27(3)
Summary
30(5)
PART TWO Tools and Techniques for Change Facilitators 35(68)
Clarifying the Change: Innovation Configurations
36(20)
The Change: What It Is and Is Not
37(1)
Innovation Adaptation
38(1)
Innovation Configurations as a Concept
39(1)
Mapping Innovation Configurations
40(10)
Innovation Configuration Maps
41(9)
Innovation Configurations: Applications and Implications
50(1)
Using IC Maps to Facilitate Change
50(1)
Using IC Maps in Research, Evaluation, and Implementation Assessments
51(1)
The Fidelity Enigma
51(2)
Summary
53(3)
Understanding Feelings and Perceptions about Change: Stages of Concern
56(24)
The Personal Side of Change
57(1)
Stages of Concern about an Innovation
58(2)
Fuller's Unrelated, Self, Task, and Impact Concerns
58(1)
Connecting Concerns to Teacher Education
59(1)
Concerns and the Change Process
60(3)
Identifying the Stages of Concern
61(2)
Why Are They Called ``Stages'' of Concern?
63(1)
Can There Be Concerns at More Than One Stage?
64(1)
Are There Typical Concerns Profiles?
65(1)
Techniques for Assessing Stages of Concern
65(7)
The One-Legged Interview
66(1)
The Open-Ended Statement
67(1)
The Stages of Concern Questionnaire
68(1)
Characteristic Stages of Concern Profiles
69(3)
Implications of Resistance in Stages of Concern Profiles
72(5)
Summary
77(3)
Exploring the Use of Innovations: Levels of Use
80(23)
The Levels of Use Concept
81(5)
Nonusers
82(2)
Users
84(2)
Assessing an Individual's Level of Use
86(5)
The LoU Branching Interview
87(1)
The LoU Focused Interview
87(4)
Applying Levels of Use
91(4)
Facilitation of Change
91(3)
Motivation for Movement in LoU
94(1)
Evaluation of Change
94(1)
Sidelights about LoU
95(4)
Summary
99(4)
PART THREE The Imperative for Leadership in Change 103(66)
Describing What Change Facilitators Do: Interventions
104(22)
Intervention Definition
105(2)
Intervention Delivery
107(1)
Six Functions of Interventions
107(6)
Developing, Articulating, and Communicating a Shared Vision of the Intended Change
108(2)
Planning and Providing Resources
110(1)
Investing in Professional Learning
110(1)
Checking on Progress
111(1)
Providing Continuous Assistance
112(1)
Creating a Context Supportive of Change
112(1)
Additional Kinds of Interventions
113(2)
Communicating Externally
114(1)
Disseminating Information
114(1)
Sizes of Interventions
115(3)
Policies
115(1)
Game Plan Components
115(1)
Strategies
116(1)
Tactics
116(1)
Incidents
116(2)
The Anatomy of Interventions
118(3)
Source
118(1)
Target
119(1)
Function
119(2)
Summary
121(5)
Defining Change Facilitator Style: Different Approaches Produce Different Results
126(22)
The History of Research on Leaders and Leadership
128(2)
The Legacy of Research on Leadership
128(1)
Studies of Leaders during the Change Process
129(1)
The Concept of Change Facilitator Style
130(4)
Three Change Facilitator Styles
131(3)
Discussion and Implications of Change Facilitator Style
134(6)
A Continuum of Change Facilitator Styles
134(1)
Additional Research and Support for Change Facilitator Styles
135(1)
Research Relating Change Facilitator Style to Implementation Success
135(1)
Metaphors for Change Facilitator Styles
136(1)
Underlying Dimensions of Change Facilitator Styles
137(1)
Changing Change Facilitator Style
137(3)
Change Facilitator Style as a Significant Factor in Change
140(4)
Change Facilitator Style as a Heuristic
140(1)
Working with Different Change Facilitator Styles
140(1)
The Relationship of Change Facilitator Style to Other Factors
141(1)
Changes in Change Facilitator Style
141(1)
The Relationship of Change Facilitator Style to Organizational Variables
142(2)
Summary
144(4)
Expanding Views of Change Leadership: The Change Facilitator Team
148(21)
The Leader Doesn't Do It Alone: The Case for a Second Change Facilitator
149(4)
The Second Change Facilitator Role
150(1)
Formalized Examples of Second Change Facilitator Roles
151(2)
The Third Change Facilitator Role
153(1)
No School Is an Island: The External Change Facilitator Role
153(1)
Change Facilitator Role Functions
154(2)
Change Facilitator Teams
156(4)
Working as a Change Facilitator Team
156(1)
Change Facilitator Team Functions
156(4)
Change Facilitator Team Dynamics and Principal Change Faciliator Style
160(6)
Elements of Change Facilitator Team Dynamics
160(1)
Different Change Facilitator Styles Mean Different Change Facilitator Team Dynamics
161(2)
The Role of the External Change Facilitator in a Responder Change Facilitator Team
163(3)
Summary
166(3)
PART FOUR Constructing and Understanding the Different Realities of Change 169(60)
Constructing Understanding of Change: Intervention Mushrooms
170(20)
Introducing Mushrooms: A Unique Form of Intervention
172(2)
Two Ways of Knowing: Objectivist and Interpretivist
173(1)
Intervention Mushrooms Are Constructed
174(2)
Four Aspects of Intervention Mushrooms
175(1)
The Life Cycle of Intervention Mushrooms
176(2)
The Birth of a Mushroom
176(1)
The Growth of a Mushroom
176(2)
The Maturity of a Mushroom
178(1)
Keys to the Construction of Intervention Mushrooms
178(6)
Levels of Use as a Rubric for Developing Understanding of Mushrooms
178(2)
Stages of Concern as a Source of Mushrooms
180(2)
Change Facilitator Style and Mushrooms
182(2)
Dealing with a Growing Mushroom
184(1)
Evergreen Mushrooms
185(2)
Summary
187(3)
Considering a Set of Organizational Factors: Culture
190(16)
Emphasis on the Individual
192(2)
Context? Climate? Culture?
194(1)
Attention on the School Organization
195(2)
The Professional Learning Community Context
197(3)
Shared Values and Vision
198(1)
Collective Learning and Application
198(1)
Supportive and Shared Leadership
198(1)
Supportive Conditions
199(1)
Shared Personal Practice
199(1)
Leadership in a Professional Learning Community
200(2)
Summary
202(4)
A Systemic View: The Concerns-Based Perspective in Action
206(23)
Systemic Applications of Elements of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model
207(2)
Districtwide versus Site-Based Implementation Support
209(12)
Case One: Two Intervention Strategies, Districtwide Support versus Site-Based Coaching, and Stages of Concern
210(6)
Implications and Recommendations from the Two Models of Implementation Support
216(1)
Case Two: Districtwide Use of Master Teachers, Extent of Implementation, and Student Outcomes
217(4)
A Sampling of CBAM Research and Evaluation Activities from around the World
221(2)
Issues and Implications
223(4)
Summary
227(2)
The Caveat
227(1)
A Final Phase
227(2)
Appendix 1 Stages of Concern Questionnaire 229(4)
Appendix 2 SoCQ Quick Scoring Device 233(2)
Appendix 3 Levels of Use of the Innovation 235(4)
Appendix 4 Six Dimensions of Change Faciliator Style 239(4)
Index 243


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