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An Introduction to Theories of Personality

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780138955090

ISBN10:
0138955093
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This widely adopted introduction to theories of personality summarizes the major theories and assumes that the best understanding of personality derives from a variety of viewpoints. Thus, theories representing the psychoanalytic, sociocultural, trait, learning, sociobiological, and existential-humanistic paradigms are offered as different yet equally valid ways of approaching the study of personality.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
What Is Personality?
1(19)
Three Concerns of Personality Theory
1(1)
Proposed Determinants of Personality
2(4)
Questions Confronting the Personality Theorist
6(4)
How Do We Find the Answers?
10(2)
Science and Personality Theory
12(4)
Summary
16(1)
Experiential Exercises
17(1)
Discussion Questions
17(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
18(1)
Chapter Highlights
19(1)
2 Sigmund Freud
20(43)
Biographical Sketch
21(2)
Early Influences on Freud's Theory
23(6)
Instincts and Their Characteristics
29(1)
Divisions of the Mind
30(3)
The Id
30(1)
The Ego
31(1)
The Superego
31(2)
Cathexis and Anticathexis
33(1)
Anxiety
34(1)
Ego-Defense Mechanisms
35(4)
Psychosexual Stages of Development
39(4)
Summary of Freud's Views on Feminine Psychology
43(1)
Tapping the Unconscious Mind
44(3)
Freud's View of Religion
47(1)
Freud's View of Human Nature
48(2)
Modifications of the Freudian Legend
50(3)
Evaluation
53(2)
Empirical Research
53(1)
Criticisms
54(1)
Contributions
54(1)
Summary
55(2)
Experiential Exercises
57(1)
Discussion Questions
58(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
59(1)
Chapter Highlights
60(3)
3 Carl Jung
63(33)
Biographical Sketch
64(1)
Jung's Early Dreams, Visions, and Fantasies
65(2)
Jung's Early Professional Life
67(2)
Jung's Relationship with Freud
69(3)
Libido, Equivalence, Entropy, and Opposites
72(1)
Components of the Personality
73(3)
Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow, and Self
76(3)
Persona
76(1)
Anima
77(1)
Animus
77(1)
Shadow
78(1)
Self
78(1)
Psychological Types
79(3)
Stages of Development
82(1)
Life's Goal
83(2)
Causality, Teleology, and Synchronicity
85(2)
Research Techniques
87(2)
Jung's View of Human Nature
89(1)
Evaluation
89(2)
Empirical Research
89(1)
Criticisms
90(1)
Contributions
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Experiential Exercises
92(1)
Discussion Questions
93(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
94(1)
Chapter Highlights
94(2)
4 Alfred Adler
96(32)
Biographical Sketch
96(3)
Individual Psychology
99(1)
Organ Inferiority and Compensation
100(1)
Feelings of Inferiority
100(2)
Feelings of Inferiority as Motivational
101(1)
Striving for Superiority
102(1)
Vaihinger's Philosophy of "As If"
103(1)
Fictional Goals and Lifestyles
104(1)
Social Interest
105(3)
Mistaken Lifestyles
106(2)
Creative Self
108(1)
Safeguarding Strategies
109(3)
Excuses
109(1)
Aggression
110(1)
Distancing
111(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
112(2)
Adler's View of the Unconscious
113(1)
Methods of Research
114(3)
Summary of the Differences Between Adler and Freud
117(1)
Evaluation
117(5)
Empirical Research
117(3)
Criticisms
120(1)
Contributions
121(1)
Summary
122(2)
Experiential Exercises
124(1)
Discussion Questions
124(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
125(1)
Chapter Highlights
126(2)
5 Karen Horney
128(29)
Biographical Sketch
128(4)
Basic Evil, Hostility, and Anxiety
132(2)
Adjustments to Basic Anxiety
134(3)
Moving Toward, Against, or Away from People
136(1)
Real and Idealized Self
137(2)
Externalization
139(1)
Auxiliary Approaches to Artificial Harmony
140(3)
Blind Spots
141(1)
Compartmentalization
141(1)
Rationalization
141(1)
Excessive Self-Control
142(1)
Arbitrary Rightness
142(1)
Elusiveness
142(1)
Cynicism
142(1)
Feminine Psychology
143(2)
Psychotherapy
145(2)
Goal of Psychotherapy
146(1)
Self-Analysis
147(2)
Comparison of Horney and Freud
149(1)
Early Childhood Experience
149(1)
Unconscious Motivation
149(1)
Biological Motivation
149(1)
Psychotherapy
149(1)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
150(1)
Prognosis for Personality Change
150(1)
Evaluation
150(2)
Empirical Research
150(1)
Criticisms
150(1)
Contributions
151(1)
Summary
152(1)
Experiential Exercises
153(1)
Discussion Questions
154(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
154(1)
Chapter Highlights
155(2)
6 Erik H. Erikson
157(32)
Biographical Sketch
157(3)
Anatomy and Destiny
160(4)
Ego Psychology
164(1)
Epigenetic Principle, Crises, Ritualizations, and Ritualisms
164(3)
Epigenetic Principle
164(1)
Crises
165(1)
Ritualizations and Ritualisms
166(1)
Eight Stages of Personality Development
167(10)
1. Infancy: Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
167(1)
2. Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
168(2)
3. Preschool Age: Initiative versus Guilt
170(1)
4. School Age: Industry versus Inferiority
170(2)
5. Adolescence: Identity versus Role Confusion
172(2)
6. Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus Isolation
174(1)
7. Adulthood: Generativity versus Stagnation
175(1)
8. Old Age: Ego Integrity versus Despair
176(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
177(1)
Comparison of Erikson and Freud
178(2)
Development
178(1)
Anatomy as Destiny
178(1)
Ego Psychology
179(1)
Unconscious Mind
179(1)
Dream Analysis
179(1)
Psychotherapy
180(1)
Religion
180(1)
Evaluation
180(3)
Empirical Research
180(1)
Criticisms
181(2)
Contributions
183(1)
Summary
183(2)
Experiential Exercises
185(1)
Discussion Questions
186(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
186(1)
Chapter Highlights
187(2)
7 Gordon Allport
189(36)
Biographical Sketch
189(4)
What Is Personality?
193(2)
Dynamic Organization
194(1)
Psychophysical Systems
194(1)
Determine
194(1)
Characteristic Behavior and Thought
194(1)
Character, Temperament, and Type
195(1)
Character
195(1)
Temperament
195(1)
Type
195(1)
Criteria for an Adequate Theory of Personality
195(1)
Allport's Concept of Trait
196(3)
Traits Are Not Habits
199(1)
Traits Are Not Attitudes
199(1)
Types of Traits
199(2)
Cardinal Dispositions
201(1)
Central Dispositions
201(1)
Secondary Dispositions
201(1)
The Proprium
201(3)
Conscience
204(1)
Functional Autonomy
204(3)
The Healthy, Mature Adult Personality
207(2)
The Nature of Prejudice
209(3)
Religion
212(1)
Extrinsic Religion
212(1)
Intrinsic Religion
212(1)
Letters from Jenny
213(2)
Study of Expressive Behavior and Values
215(1)
Evaluation
216(3)
Empirical Research
216(1)
Criticisms
217(1)
Contributions
218(1)
Summary
219(2)
Experiential Exercises
221(1)
Discussion Questions
221(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
222(1)
Chapter Highlights
222(3)
8 Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J. Eysenck
225(46)
Biographical Sketches
226(5)
Raymond B. Cattell
226(2)
Hans J. Eysenck
228(3)
Factor Analysis
231(5)
Nomothetic versus Idiographic Techniques
235(1)
Taxonomy of Traits
236(13)
Cattell's Analysis of Traits
236(8)
Eysenck's Analysis of Traits
244(1)
Historical Roots of Eysenck's Theory
245(2)
Biological Bases of Personality
247(2)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
249(3)
Personality Development
252(2)
Cattell's Multiple Influence Approach
252(1)
Eysenck and Heritable Traits
253(1)
Psychopathology
254(1)
Psychotherapy
255(1)
Contemporary Developments: The Big Five
256(2)
Have the Big Five Displaced Cattell and Eysenck?
257(1)
Evaluation
258(6)
Cattell: Empirical Reserach
259(1)
Eysenck: Empirical Research
259(2)
Criticisms
261(1)
Contributions
262(2)
Summary
264(2)
Experiential Exercises
266(1)
Discussion Questions
267(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
267(1)
Chapter Highlights
268(3)
9 B.F. Skinner
271(35)
Biographical Sketch
271(4)
Behaviorism
275(2)
Respondent and Operant Behavior
277(1)
Operant Conditioning
278(6)
Acquisition
279(1)
Shaping
280(1)
Extinction
281(1)
Discriminative Operants
282(1)
Secondary Reinforcement
283(1)
Chaining
284(1)
Verbal Behavior
285(1)
Reinforcement Schedules
286(1)
Superstitious Behavior
287(1)
Reinforcement Contingencies
288(3)
Positive Reinforcement
288(1)
Negative Reinforcement
288(1)
Avoidance
289(1)
Punishment
289(2)
Our Biggest Problem
291(1)
Behavior Disorders and Behavior Therapy
292(2)
Behavior Disorders
292(1)
Token Economies
292(2)
Walden Two
294(2)
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
296(1)
Evaluation
297(2)
Empirical Research
297(1)
Criticisms
297(1)
Contributions
298(1)
Summary
299(2)
Experiential Exercises
301(1)
Discussion Questions
301(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
302(1)
Chapter Highlights
303(3)
10 John Dollard and Neal Miller
306(37)
Biographical Sketches
306(5)
John Dollard
306(2)
Neal Miller
308(3)
Hull's Theory of Learning
311(1)
Drive, Cue, Response, and Reinforcement
312(2)
Drive
312(1)
Cue
313(1)
Response
313(1)
Reinforcment
314(1)
Response Hierarchies
314(2)
The Gradient of Reinforcment
316(1)
Fear as an Acquired Drive
316(1)
Stimulus Generalization
317(1)
Conflict
318(3)
Approach-Approach Conflict
318(1)
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
319(1)
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
319(2)
Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict
321(1)
Displacement
321(3)
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
324(1)
Impottance of Language
325(2)
Unconscious Mind
327(2)
Experiences That Were Never Verbalized
327(1)
Repressed Experiences
328(1)
Neurosis and Symptom Formation
329(2)
Neurosis
329(1)
Symptom Formation
330(1)
Psychotherapy
331(1)
Four Critical Training Situations of Childhood
332(2)
Evaluation
334(2)
Empirical Research
334(1)
Criticisms
334(1)
Contributions
335(1)
Summary
336(3)
Experiential Exercises
339(1)
Discussion Questions
339(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
340(1)
Chapter Highlights
341(2)
11 Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel
343(36)
Biographical Sketches
344(3)
Albert Bandura
344(1)
Welter Mischel
345(2)
Consistency of Human Behavior
347(3)
Reciprocal Determinism
349(1)
Cognitive Social Person Variables
350(2)
Observational Learning
352(5)
Attentional Processes
356(1)
Retentional Processes
356(1)
Motor Reproduction Processes
356(1)
Motivational Processes
357(1)
Self-Regulated Behavior
357(7)
Self-Efficacy
358(2)
Moral Conduct
360(2)
Delay of Gratification
362(2)
Dysfunctional Expectancies and Psychotherapy
364(3)
Social Cognitive Theory View of Human Nature
367(3)
Freedom versus Determinism
367(2)
Mind-Body Relationship
369(1)
Evaluation
370(3)
Empirical Research
370(1)
Criticisms
371(1)
Contributions
372(1)
Summary
373(2)
Experiential Exercises
375(1)
Discussion Questions
375(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
376(1)
Chapter Highlights
377(2)
12 Edward O. Wilson and David P. Barash
379(51)
Biographical Sketches
380(2)
Edward O. Wilson
380(1)
David P. Barash
381(1)
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
382(2)
Inclusive Fitness
383(1)
Basic Assumptions of Sociobiology
384(1)
Perpetuation of the Genes
384(1)
Natural Selection Shapes Social Behavior
384(1)
Nature of Human Nature
385(4)
Empirical Theory
385(1)
Sociobiological Theory
386(1)
Proximate versus Ultimate Causation
387(1)
Why Are Some Behaviors "Sweeter" Than Others?
388(1)
What Is Inherited?
389(1)
Relationship Between Biology and Culture
389(3)
Innate Tendency to Create Culture
389(1)
Limitations of Culture as a Modifier of Human Behavior
389(2)
Mind-Body Relationship
391(1)
Altruism
392(2)
Kin Altruism
393(1)
Reciprocal Altruism
393(1)
Male and Female Criteria for Mate Selection
394(5)
Double Standard
396(2)
Biology of Mating Arrangements
398(1)
Biology of Parenting
399(3)
Involvement of Men in Parenting
400(1)
Stepparenting
401(1)
Adoption
401(1)
Intentional Childlessness
402(1)
Aggression, Territoriality, and Warfare
402(2)
Are Humans Innately Aggressive?
402(1)
Territoriality and Warfare
403(1)
Rape, Incest, and Suicide
404(5)
Rape
404(1)
Incest
405(2)
Suicide
407(1)
Other Forms of Self-Destructive Behavior
408(1)
Religion
409(3)
Need for Rules and Regulations
410(1)
Biology of Ethics
410(2)
Importance of Myth
412(1)
Sociobiology and Freudian Theory
412(3)
Id, Ego, and Superego
412(2)
Aggression
414(1)
Unconscious
414(1)
Irrationality and Rationality
414(1)
Sociobiology and Jungian Theory
415(1)
Science and Politics
415(1)
Evaluation
416(5)
Empirical Research
416(1)
Criticisms
417(3)
Contributions
420(1)
Summary
421(3)
Experiential Exercises
424(1)
Discussion Questions
425(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
426(1)
Chapter Highlights
427(3)
13 George Kelly
430(37)
Biographical Sketch
430(4)
Categorization of Kelly's Theory
434(2)
Basic Postulate-People as Scientists
436(2)
Kelly, Vaihinger, and Adler
437(1)
The 11 Corollaries
438(5)
CPC Cycle
443(1)
Circumspection Phase
443(1)
Preemption Phase
443(1)
Control Phase
443(1)
Creativity Cycle
444(1)
Loosened Construction Phase
444(1)
Tightened Construction Phase
444(1)
Test Phase
445(1)
Kelly's Interpretation of Traditional Psychological Concepts
445(5)
Motivation
445(1)
Anxiety
445(1)
Hostility
446(1)
Aggression
447(1)
Guilt
447(1)
Threat
448(1)
Fear
448(1)
Unconscious
449(1)
Learning
450(1)
Reinforcement
450(1)
Psychotherapy
450(5)
Role Construct Repertory Test
450(4)
Fixed-Role Therapy
454(1)
Being Oneself
455(1)
Construct Systems and Paradigms
455(1)
Evaluation
456(4)
Current Status
456(1)
Empirical Research
456(2)
Criticisms
458(12)
Contributions
459(1)
Summary
460(2)
Experiential Exercises
462(1)
Discussion Questions
463(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
464(1)
Chapter Highlights
465(2)
Carl Rogers
467(34)
Biographical Sketch
467(4)
Actualizing Tendency
471(3)
Organismic Valuing Process
473(1)
Phenomenological Field
474(1)
Emergence of the Self
474(1)
Need for Positive Regard
475(1)
Incongruent Person
476(1)
Psychotherapy
477(3)
Fully Functioning Person
480(1)
Q-Sort Technique
481(3)
Rogers-Skinner Debate
484(2)
Freedom to Learn
486(1)
Modern Marriage
487(2)
Person of Tomorrow
489(1)
Evaluation
490(4)
Empirical Research
490(2)
Criticisms
492(1)
Contributions
493(1)
Summary
494(3)
Experiential Exercises
497(1)
Discussion Questions
498(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
498(1)
Chapter Highlights
499(2)
15 Abraham Maslow
501(34)
Biographical Sketch
501(7)
Third Force Psychology
508(2)
Hierarchy of Needs
510(4)
Physiological Needs
510(1)
Safety Needs
511(1)
Belongingness and Love Needs
511(1)
Esteem Needs
511(1)
Self-Actualization
512(1)
Desire to Know and Understand
513(1)
The Aesthetic Needs
514(1)
Being Motivation
514(1)
Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People
515(6)
Negative Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People
520(1)
Why Self-Actualization Is Not Universal
521(1)
Conditions Necessary for Self-Actualization
522(1)
Eupsychia
522(1)
Ashrams-Places for Personal Growth
523(1)
Transpersonal Psychology
524(1)
Evaluation
525(5)
Empirical Research
525(2)
Criticisms
527(2)
Contributions
529(1)
Summary
530(1)
Experiential Exercises
531(1)
Discussion Questions
532(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
532(1)
Chapter Highlights
533(2)
16 Rollo Reese May
535(30)
Biographical Sketch
535(4)
Existentialism
539(3)
Dasein
539(1)
Three Modes of Existence
540(1)
Alienation
540(1)
Freedom
540(1)
Responsibility
540(1)
Ontology
541(1)
Phenomenology
541(1)
Authenticity
541(1)
Death
541(1)
Thrownness
542(1)
Human Dilemma
542(2)
Intentionality
544(1)
Anxiety and Guilt
544(3)
Normal Anxiety
545(1)
Neurotic Anxiety
546(1)
Normal and Neurotic Guilt
546(1)
Importance of Values
547(2)
Nature of Love
549(2)
Sex
549(1)
Eros
549(1)
Philia
550(1)
Agape
551(1)
Psychotherapy
551(2)
Importance of Myth
553(2)
New Science of Humans
555(1)
Evaluation
555(3)
Empirical Research
555(2)
Criticisms
557(1)
Contributions
557(1)
Summary
558(2)
Experiential Exercises
560(1)
Discussion Questions
561(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
561(1)
Chapter Highlights
562(3)
17 A Final Word
565(6)
Personality Theories Often Reflect the Biographies of Their Authors
565(2)
Much About Personality Remains Unknown
567(1)
Composite of All Major Theories Best Explains Personality
567(2)
You Are The Final Judge
569(1)
Summary
569(1)
Experiential Exercises
570(1)
References 571(28)
Name Index 599(6)
Subject Index 605


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