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Juvenile Delinquency : A Sociological Approach,9780205276127
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Juvenile Delinquency : A Sociological Approach

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205276127

ISBN10:
0205276121
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

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Summary

This book is guided by the basic premise that juvenile delinquency is inherently social in nature. Thus, any meaningful discussion of delinquency must be expressed in a sociological framework. More specifically, this book approaches delinquency as it relates to and emerges from the youth's family, neighborhood, school, peer group, social class, and overall culture and environment. This edition includes current and controversial topics such as community policing, gun control, hate crimes, the impact of TV violence, boot camps, and capital punishment for juveniles.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
PART I Conformity, Deviance, and Juvenile Delinquency 1(90)
Introduction: The Sociological Perspective and Focus on Juvenile Delinquency 1(4)
Chapter 1 Juvenile Delinquency: The Act, Actor, and the Audience
5(21)
Reading Objectives
5(1)
Introduction
5(1)
What Is Juvenile Delinquency?
6(9)
What Is a Juvenile?
6(2)
What Is Delinquency?
8(2)
The Legal Definition
10(2)
Status Offenses
12(1)
Problems with the Legal Definition
12(2)
The Role Definition
14(1)
Box 1-1 Controversial Issue: "Child or Adult?"
15(5)
Problems with the Role Definition
18(1)
The Societal Response Definition
18(1)
Problems with the Societal Response Definition
19(1)
A Synthesized Definition of Delinquency
20(1)
Box 1-2 Cross-Cultural Focus: The Cultural and Legal Definitions of "Child" and "Juvenile Offender" in Other Nations
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
23(1)
References
24(2)
Chapter 2 A Sociological Overview: Society, Norms, Conformity and Deviant Behavior
26(26)
Reading Objectives
26(1)
Introduction
26(1)
The Sociological Perspective
27(1)
The Social Nature of Humans
28(4)
The Social Imperative
28(2)
Social Interaction
30(1)
Social Interdependence
31(1)
Social Organization
32(1)
Norms
32(1)
Sources of Norms
32(2)
Social Consensus
33(1)
Social Conflict
33(1)
Folkways and Mores
34(2)
Folkways
34(1)
Mores
35(1)
Normative Behavior: Conformity
36(2)
Deviant Behavior: Nonconformity
38(2)
Negative Aspects of Deviance
40(1)
Box 2-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: Conformity, Deviance, and Delinquency among Native Americans
41(2)
Positive Aspects of Deviance
43(3)
Juvenile Delinquency
46(2)
Summary
48(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
49(1)
Box 2-2 Concept Application: "Deviance or Conformity?"
49(1)
References
50(2)
Chapter 3 The Dimensions of the Delinquency Problem
52(39)
Reading Objectives
52(1)
Introduction
52(1)
Juvenile Delinquency Data
53(2)
Validity and Reliability
54(1)
Validity
54(1)
Reliability
54(1)
Official Sources of Delinquency Information
55(14)
FBI Uniform Crime Reports
55(1)
Juvenile Arrests for Specific Offenses
56(2)
Status Offenses
58(2)
Male and Female Involvement in Juvenile Delinquency
60(1)
The Racial and Ethnic Factor in Juvenile Delinquency
61(2)
Place of Residence and Arrest Statistics
63(2)
Juvenile Court Statistics
65(1)
Methodology
65(1)
Findings
66(3)
The Composite Delinquent Profile: Typical or Stereotypical?
69(4)
Limitations of Official Delinquency Data
70(1)
Arrest Statistics
70(1)
Juvenile Court Statistics
71(2)
Box 3-1 Concept Application: "Undetected and Unreported Delinquency: The Missing Statistics"
73(1)
Unofficial Sources of Delinquency Information
74(6)
Self-Report Studies
74(3)
Victimization Surveys
77(3)
Box 3-2 Controversial Issue: Juvenile Violence: Guns and the U.S. Constitution
80(2)
The Magnitude and Trends of Juvenile Delinquency: A Demographic Analysis
82(3)
Box 3-3 Cross-Cultural Focus: Is There Any Juvenile Delinquency in Russia?
85(2)
Summary
87(1)
Concept Integration: Question and Topics for Study and Discussion
87(1)
References
88(3)
PART II Causes of Juvenile Delinquency 91(134)
Introduction: Theory and the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquency 91(4)
Chapter 4 Biological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
95(27)
Reading Objectives
95(1)
Introduction
95(1)
The Link between Biology and Behavior: Myths and Folklore
96(1)
The Classical School of Criminological Thought
97(1)
Deterrence Theory
98(1)
The Positive School of Criminology
98(1)
Twentieth-Century Constitutional Typologies
99(2)
The Continuing Search for the Biological Connection
101(1)
Gender
101(1)
Box 4-1 Concept Application: "An Ugly Girl"
102(8)
Race and Ethnicity
105(1)
Age
106(1)
Maturation Theory
107(1)
Genetic Crime Causation: The XYY Hypothesis
108(1)
Diet and Deviant Behavior
109(1)
Box 4-2 Cross-Cultural Focus: The Study of Twins and Adopted Children in Scandinavia
110(4)
Brain Malfunctions
112(2)
Sociobiological Explanations
114(2)
Box 4-3 Controversial Issue: Heredity Versus Environment in Deviant and Delinquent Behavior
116(1)
Summary and Conclusion
117(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
118(1)
References
118(4)
Chapter 5 Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
122(33)
Reading Objectives
122(1)
Introduction
122(2)
The Psychogenic Approach
124(1)
The Discovery of the Unconscious
125(1)
The Formation of Personality
125(1)
Freudian Theory as an Explanation of Crime and Delinquency
126(1)
Psychoanalysis
127(1)
Projective Tests
127(3)
The Rorschach Ink-blot Test
128(1)
Projective Tests and Homicidal Children
128(2)
Delinquent Acts as Symptoms
130(2)
Conduct Disorders
131(1)
Box 5-1 Controversial Issue: The Debate Over Television Violence, Childhood Personality Development, and Criminal Behavior
132(1)
Other Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
133(9)
Early Theories of Feeblemindedness
133(2)
Neurological Abnormalities
135(1)
The Flawed Personality
136(1)
The Psychopath/Sociopath
137(1)
Distinctive Patterns of Criminal Thinking
138(1)
Adolescent Identity Crisis
139(2)
Insufficient Moral Development
141(1)
A Psychological Typology of Delinquency
142(5)
I. Impulsive Delinquency
143(1)
1. The Unsocialized Aggressive Child
144(1)
2. The Self-Centered Indulgent Delinquent
144(1)
3. The Psychopath
144(1)
4. The Sexual Pervert
144(1)
II. Neurotic Delinquency
145(1)
1. The Inadequate Delinquent
145(1)
2. The Crystallized Delinquent
145(1)
III. Symptomatic Delinquency
145(1)
1. The Kleptomaniac
146(1)
2. The Pyromaniac
146(1)
3. The Sexual Delinquent
146(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of the Psychogenic Approach
147(1)
Critique of Theoretical Assumptions and Concepts
147(1)
Critique of Research Methodology
147(1)
Box 5-2 Concept Application: The Psychological and Social Impacts on Victims of Crime and Delinquency
148(3)
Critique of Psychogenic Applications to Crime and Delinquency
149(2)
Summary
151(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
151(1)
References
152(3)
Chapter 6 Sociological Explanations of Delinquency: Social Strain and Cultural Transmission Theories
155(24)
Reading Objectives
155(1)
Introduction
155(1)
Theory
156(1)
Social Strain Theories
157(9)
Durkheim's Concept of Anomie
158(1)
Merton's Theory of Anomie
158(2)
Cohen's "Delinquent Boys"
160(1)
Cloward and Ohlin's "Delinquency and Opportunity"
161(2)
Contributions of Social Strain Theories
163(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Strain Theories
164(2)
Cultural Transmission Theories
166(9)
Sellin's Theory of Culture Conflict
167(1)
Burgess' Concentric Zone Theory
167(2)
Shaw and McKay's "High Delinquency Areas"
169(1)
Miller's Focus on Lower Class Culture
170(1)
Contributions of Cultural Transmission Theories
171(2)
Criticisms and Limitations of Cultural Transmission Theories
173(2)
Box 6-1 Controversial Issue: Social Structure as a Proposed Cause of Urban Crime and Delinquency
175(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
177(1)
References
178(1)
Chapter 7 Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Learning and Social Control Theories
179(22)
Reading Objectives
179(1)
Introduction
179(2)
Social Learning Theories
181(5)
Sutherland and Cressey's Theory of Differential Association
181(1)
Glaser's Concept of Differential Identification
182(1)
Akers' Theory of Differential Reinforcement
183(1)
Contributions of Social Learning Theories
184(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Learning Theories
185(1)
Box 7-1 Concept Application: "Going into the Automobile Business"
186(3)
Social Control Theories
189(8)
Reckless' Containment Theory
190(1)
Sykes and Matza's Techniques of Neutralization
190(3)
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
193(1)
Contributions of Social Control Theories
194(2)
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Control Theories
196(1)
Box 7-2 Cross-Cultural Focus: Criminality Among the Children of Immigrants in Western Europe
197(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
198(1)
References
199(2)
Chapter 8 Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Labeling and Radical Theories
201(24)
Reading Objectives
201(1)
Introduction
201(1)
Labeling Theories
202(7)
Early Contributions to Labeling Theory
203(1)
Tannenbaum's Concept of "Tagging"
204(1)
Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviance
204(1)
Becker's Developmental Career Model
205(2)
Contributions of Labeling Theory
207(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Labeling Theory
208(1)
Radical Theories
209(1)
Box 8-1 Concept Application: Juvenile Delinquency as Short-Term Hedonism: "Crime Is Fun!"
210(8)
The Marxian Heritage
211(1)
Quinney's Social Reality of Crime and Delinquency
212(2)
Greenberg's Focus on Adolescent Frustration
214(1)
Schwendingers' Instrumental Theory
215(1)
Contributions of Radical Theories
216(1)
Criticisms and Limitations of Radical Theories
217(1)
An Overview of the Sociological Explanations
218(2)
Box 8-2 Controversial Issue: The Quest for a General Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
220(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
222(1)
References
222(3)
PART III Juvenile Delinquency in a Social Context 225(124)
Introduction: Collective Behavior and Social Groupings 225(4)
Chapter 9 The Family and Juvenile Delinquency
229(26)
Reading Objectives
229(1)
Introduction
229(1)
The Changing Role of the Family
229(2)
Increasing Importance of the Nuclear Family and the Creation of "Adolescence"
231(1)
The Family as an Agent of Socialization
232(1)
Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquency
233(2)
Box 9-1 Controversial Issue: Latchkey Children: Independence or Neglect
235(2)
Other Family Variables and Juvenile Delinquency
237(7)
Social Class
237(1)
Family Size and Birth Order
238(2)
Family Interaction
240(1)
Parental Discipline
241(3)
Broken Homes and Delinquency
244(3)
The Family and Delinquency Prevention
247(1)
Box 9-2 Concept Application: The Role of the Family in Preventing Delinquency
248(1)
Summary
249(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
250(1)
References
250(5)
Chapter 10 Schools and Delinquency
255(24)
Reading Objectives
255(1)
Introduction
255(1)
The School as an Arena
256(1)
Schools and the Socialization Process
256(1)
Juvenile Delinquency and the School Experience
257(2)
Schools as a "Screening Device"
259(2)
Box 10-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: Self-Concept and Delinquency Among Chinese School Children
261(4)
Box 10-2 Controversial Issue: Dealing with the Problem of Truancy
265(2)
Schools as a "Combat Zone"
267(4)
School as Bureaucracy
271(1)
Schools and Delinquency Prevention
272(2)
Summary
274(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
275(1)
References
275(4)
Chapter 11 The Youth Subculture
279(30)
Reading Objectives
279(1)
Introduction
279(1)
Culture, Subcultures, and Countercultures
280(1)
The Creation of a Youth Subculture
280(2)
Box 11-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: A Canadian Youth Subculture
282(1)
Role of the Youth Subculture
282(3)
Distinctive Elements of the Youth Subculture
285(6)
Youth Values
285(3)
Dress, Grooming, and Fads
288(1)
Mass Media
289(1)
Language
290(1)
Box 11-2 Controversial Issue: Censoring Rock Music
291(1)
The Youth Subculture and Juvenile Delinquency
292(8)
Juvenile Runaways
293(1)
Juvenile Prostitution
294(2)
Juveniles and Drugs
296(2)
Juveniles and Sex
298(2)
Youth Countercultures and Delinquency
300(2)
Teenage Satanic Groups
300(2)
Youth Hate Groups
302(1)
The Youth Subculture and Delinquency Prevention
302(1)
Summary
303(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
304(1)
References
305(4)
Chapter 12 Juvenile Gangs and Delinquent Behavior
309(40)
Reading Objectives
309(1)
Introduction
309(2)
Predatory Youths: A National Alarm
310(1)
The Solitary Delinquent
311(1)
Group Delinquency
312(1)
The Play Group
313(1)
The Juvenile Gang
314(3)
What Is a Gang?
314(2)
History of Youth Gangs
316(1)
Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States
317(4)
Locale
317(2)
Number of Gangs and Members
319(2)
The Motives for Gang Membership
321(1)
Box 12-1 Concept Application: Group Shoplifting and "The Swarm"
322(2)
Initiation Rituals
323(1)
Gang Organization
324(4)
The Near Group
325(1)
Gang Graffiti, Slanguage and Symbols
326(2)
Composition of Gang Membership
328(6)
Social Class
329(1)
Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs
330(2)
Female Participation in Delinquent Gangs
332(2)
Gang Violence
334(3)
Drug Franchises and Gang Warfare
336(1)
Box 12-2 Concept Application: "The Weapon of Choice: The Dogs of War"
337(2)
Gang Rape
338(1)
Dyads and Triads
339(1)
Explanatory Theories of Gang Formation and Behavior: A Summary and Synthesis
339(3)
Box 12-3 Cross-Cultural Focus: Urban Street Gangs in Russia
342(2)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
344(1)
References
345(4)
PART IV Social Control: The Juvenile Justice System 349(80)
Introduction: Elements of Social Control 349(2)
Chapter 13 Juveniles and the Police
351(23)
Reading Objectives
351(1)
Introduction
351(1)
Juvenile Encounters with Police
352(1)
Policing Juveniles
353(3)
Law Enforcement Role
355(1)
Crime Prevention Role
355(1)
Police Discretion in Handling Juveniles
356(1)
Box 13-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: Policing Juveniles in Great Britain
357(8)
Legal Factors
359(1)
Seriousness of the Offense
359(1)
Prior Police Contacts
359(1)
Evidence
360(1)
Complainant
360(1)
Extralegal Factors
361(1)
Age
361(1)
Sex
362(1)
Race and Ethnicity
362(1)
Socioeconomic Status
363(1)
Appearance, Attitude, and Demeanor of the Juvenile
363(1)
Willingness of Parents to Cooperate
364(1)
Characteristics of the Police Officer
364(1)
Police and Due Process
365(2)
Police, Community Policing, and Delinquency Prevention
367(2)
Box 13-2 Controversial Issue: Targeting Serious Habitual Offenders: Delinquency Prevention or Police Harassment?
369(1)
Summary
370(1)
Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
371(1)
References
371(3)
Chapter 14 Juvenile Courts
374(25)
Reading Objectives
374(1)
Introduction
374(1)
Historical Background of the Juvenile Court
375(1)
The Child Savers' Movement
376(1)
Box 14-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: Development of the Juvenile Court in Canada
377(1)
The Juvenile Court
378(2)
The Juvenile Court and Due Process
380(3)
Juvenile Court Procedures
383(4)
Intake
383(2)
Adjudication
385(1)
Disposition
386(1)
The Role of Attorneys in Juvenile Court
387(2)
The District Attorney
388(1)
The Defense Attorney
388(1)
Box 14-2 Controversial Issue: The Use of Attorneys in the Juvenile Court
389(1)
Criticisms of the Juvenile Court
390(2)
The Multifaceted Juvenile Court
392(3)
The Future of the Juvenile Court
395(1)
Summary
396(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
396(1)
References
396(3)
Chapter 15 Juvenile Corrections
399(30)
Reading Objectives
399(1)
Introduction
399(1)
Social Control and Deterrence Theory
400(1)
Voluntary Social Control
400(1)
Box 15-1 Cross-Cultural Focus: The Caning of an American Youth in Singapore: Justice or Abuse?
401(2)
Informal Social Control
403(2)
Formal Social Control
405(5)
Juvenile Probation
405(1)
Restitution and "Restorative" Justice
406(1)
Juvenile Incarceration
407(3)
Box 15-2 Controversial Issue: Institutionalization Versus Community Treatment
410(4)
Juvenile Aftercare
411(1)
Remanding Juveniles to Adult Courts
411(1)
Juveniles in Adult Jails and Prisons
412(1)
Capital Punishment for Juveniles
413(1)
Box 15-3 Controversial Issue: Should Juveniles Be Executed?
414(3)
Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
417(7)
House Arrest
419(1)
Youth Service Bureaus
419(1)
Scared Straight!
420(1)
S.H.A.P.E.U.P.
421(1)
PLACE
422(1)
VisionQuest
422(1)
Juvenile Boot Camps
422(1)
Other Diversion Programs
423(1)
Evaluation of Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
424(1)
Summary
425(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
426(1)
References
426(3)
PART V Strategies for Dealing with Juvenile Delinquency 429(60)
Introduction: Approaching Treatment and Prevention in a Social Context 429(2)
Chapter 16 Treatment and Prevention Strategies
431(27)
Reading Objectives
431(1)
Introduction
431(1)
Treatment Ideology and Delinquency Treatment Programs
432(1)
Behavior Modification
432(1)
Box 16-1 Controversial Issue: Applying the Medical Model in the Treatment of Delinquency
433(5)
Transactional Analysis
435(1)
Reality Therapy
436(1)
Group and Individual Counseling
437(1)
Prevention Ideology and Delinquency Prevention Programs
438(2)
Early Identification
438(1)
"Pre-Delinquents" and Early Intervention
438(2)
Box 16-2 Cross-Cultural Focus: Delinquency Prevention in Japan
440(1)
Sociological Approaches to Delinquency Treatment and Prevention
441(8)
The Chicago Area Project
442(1)
The Mid-City Project
443(1)
Mobilization for Youth
443(1)
Minnesota Youth Advocate Program
444(1)
Neighborhood Youth Corps
444(1)
The Highfields Project
445(1)
The Provo Experiment
445(1)
Millcreek Youth Correctional Facility
446(1)
The Paint Creek Youth Center
446(1)
Project New Pride
447(1)
Mentoring Programs
447(1)
Other Programs
448(1)
Mobilizing the Community to Prevent Delinquency
449(4)
Crimestoppers and Hotlines
450(1)
Neighborhood Watch
450(1)
Guardian Angels
451(1)
S.H.O.D.I.
452(1)
Gang Intervention Programs
452(1)
Evaluation of Delinquency Treatment and Prevention Strategies
453(1)
Summary
454(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
455(1)
References
455(3)
Chapter 17 Rethinking the Delinquency Problem
458(31)
Reading Objectives
458(1)
Introduction
458(1)
The Social Nature of Juvenile Delinquency
459(2)
Eliminating the Marginal Status of Juveniles
461(6)
Rites of Passage
462(3)
Meaningful Social Participation
465(2)
Box 17-1 Concept Application: Meaningful Social Participation for Youths
467(1)
Standardization or Elimination of Juvenile Codes
468(1)
Decriminalization of Status Offenses
469(1)
Revision of the Juvenile Court
470(4)
Limited Jurisdiction
471(1)
Due Process
472(1)
Professional Judges and Court Personnel
472(1)
Dispositional Alternatives
473(1)
Other Revisions
473(1)
Modification of Juvenile Corrections
474(1)
Box 17-2 Controversial Issue: Should Juvenile Courts Be Abolished?
475(3)
Strengthening the Family
478(1)
Changing the Educational System
479(2)
Redefining Juvenile Delinquency
481(3)
Summary
484(1)
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
485(1)
References
485(4)
Glossary 489(18)
Name Index 507(7)
Subject Index 514


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