Language Disorders : A Functional Approach to Assessment and Intervention

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-01-07
  • Publisher: Pearson
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The new fifth edition ofLanguage Disordersoffers a comprehensive discussion of language disorders and clinical practice that emphasizes classroom application and evidence-based practice. The text builds a foundation of information about models and disorders and then asks students to apply that information to learning assessment and intervention skills. This text takes a functional, environmental, and conversational approach to assessment and intervention by using the child's natural environment and conversational partners. Unlike other language disorders texts that have a disorder-specific focus, this text takes a logical traverse from assessment through intervention across disorders. The revised fifth edition is completely updated with current trends and developments in the field and offers an array of practical ideas and useful suggestions for students and speech-language pathologists. The text provides concrete guidelines and procedures for the assessment and training of children as well as training for speech-language pathologists.

Author Biography

Robert E. Owens, Jr., Ph.D., is a professor of speech-language pathology and director of the graduate program in speech pathology at the State University of New York at Geneseo. He is the author of a number of textbooks, book chapters, and articles, including Language Development: An Introduction (Allyn & Bacon, 2007), and the Program for Acquisition of Language with the Severely Impaired (PALS). He has presented approximately 150 professional papers and workshops in both the U.S. and abroad.

Table of Contents

 Language Disorders: A Functional Approach to Assessment and Intervention, 5/e


Preface ix


Part I:  Introduction 1

1 A Functional Language Approach 3

    Role of Pragmatics in Intervention 8

    Dimensions of Communication Context  Summary 10

    Role of Generalization in Intervention 10

    Variables that Affect Generalization Summary 17

    Evidence-Based Practice 17

    Conclusion 19

2 Language Impairments 21

    Diagnostic Categories 22

    Information Processing 24

    Mental Retardation or Intellectual Diability 26

    Language Learning Disability 34

    Specific Language Impairment 41

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism-Spectrum Disorder 48

    Brain Injury 55

    Maltreatment: Neglect or Abuse 57

    Other Language Impairments 61

    Conclusion 63

    Implications 64


Part II: Communication Assessment 67


3 Assessment of Preschool and School-Age Children with Language Impairment 69

    Psychometric Versus Descriptive Procedures 7

    Psychometric Assessment Protocols 73
    Test Differences 74

    Content 74

    Misuse of Normative Testing 75

    Variables in Test Selection 79

    Summary 80
    Descriptive Approaches 80 
    Reliability and Validity 81

    Summary 83
    An Integrated Functional Assessment Strategy 83 
    Questionnaire, Interview, and Referral 84

    Observation 85

    Formal Testing 87

    Sampling 97
    Assessment for Information-Processing Deficits 98

    Conclusion 98
4 Assessment of Preschool and School-Age Children with Language Difference 99 
    State of Service Delivery 101 
    Lack of Preparation and Experience 101

    Unfamiliarity with Language and Culture 101

    Lack of Appropriate Assessment Tools 106
    Overcoming Bias in an Assessment 107 
    Use of Interpreters 108

    Alternative Assessment 110
    An Integrated Model for Assessment 111 
    Children with LEP 112

    Children with Different Dialects 118

    Summary 120
   Conclusion 120
5 Language Sampling 121 
    Planning and Collecting a Representative Sample 122 
    Representativeness 122

    A Variety of Language Contexts 123

    Evocative Conversational Techniques 128

    Language Sampling of Children with CLD Backgrounds 137

    Recording the Sample 138

    Transcribing the Sample 140

    Collecting Samples of Written Language 143

    Conclusion 143
6 Analysis Across Utterances and Partners and by Communication Event 145 
    Across Utterances and Partners 147 
    Stylistic Variations 147

    Referential Communication 148

    Cohesive Devices 151
    Communication Event 153 
    Social Versus Nonsocial 154

    Conversational Initiation 155

    Topic Initiation 156

    Conversation and Topic Maintenance 158

    Duration of Topic 161

    Topic Analysis Format 162   

    Turn Taking 166

    Conversation and Topic Termination 169

    Conversational Breakdown 170
    Conversational Partner 173

    Conclusion 175
7 Analyzing a Language Sample at the Utterance Level 176 
    Language Use 177 
    Disruptions 178

    Intentions 179
    Content 184

    Lexical Items 185

    Word Relationships 187

    Figurative Language 190

    Word Finding 191
    Form 192

    Quantitative Measures 192

    Syntactic and Morphological Analysis 197
    Conclusion 215

8 Narrative Analysis 216 
    Scripts and Narrative Frames 218

    Collecting Narratives 218

    Narrative Analysis 220
    Narrative Levels 221

    High-Point Analysis 222

    Story Grammars 224

    Expressive Elaboration 227

    Quantitative Measures 229

    Cohesive Devices 230

    Reliability and Validity 232     
    Children with CLD Backgrounds 233

    Narrative Collection and Analysis 235

    Conclusion 236

Part 3 Intervention 239

9 A Functional Intervention Model 241 
    Principles 243 
    The Language Facilitator as Reinforcer 243

    Close Approximation of Natural Learning 244

    Following Developmental Guidelines 244

    Following the Child’s Lead 246

    Active Involvement of the Child 247

    Heavy Influence of Context on Language 247

    Familiar Events Providing Scripts 247

    Designing a Generalization Plan First 248 
    Generalization Variables 248 
    Training Targets 248

    Training Items 250

    Method of Training 252

    Language Facilitators 255

    Training Cues 262

    Contingencies 263

    Location 264

    Conclusion 265
10 Manipulating Context 266 
    Nonlinguistic Contexts 267 
    Linguistic Contexts 269 
    Modeling 270

    Direct Linguistic Cues 272

    Indirect Linguistic Cues 273

    Contingencies 274 
    Top-Down Teaching 279 
    Conclusion 281
11 Specific Intervention Techniques 283 
    Pragmatics 283 
    Intentions 284

    Conversational Abilities 288

     Narration 295 
    Semantics 299

    Inadequate Vocabulary 300

    Semantic Categories and Relational Words 303

    Word Retrieval and Categorization 311

    Comprehension 315 
    Syntax and Morphology 322 
    Morphology 323

    Verb Tensing 323

    Pronouns 327

    Plurals 328

    Articles 328

    Prepositions 329

    Word Order and Sentence Types 330

    Summary 331
    Children with CLD Backgrounds 333

    Use of Microcomputers 336

    Conclusion 338
12 Classroom Functional Intervention 339 
    Background and Rationale: Recent Educational Changes 340 
    Inclusion 341

    Collaborative Teaching 342

    Summary 343
    Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist 344 
    Relating to Others 344

    Language Intervention and Language Arts 345 
    Elements of a Classroom Model 346 
    Identification of Children at Risk 346

    Curriculum-Based Intervention 353

    Linguistic Awareness Intervention Within the Classroom 358

    Language Facilitation 365 
    Instituting a Classroom Model 370

    Conclusion 374
13 Literacy Impairments: Language in a Visual Mode 375 
    Reading 377

    Reading Problems 377

    Children with CLD Backgrounds 379

    Assessment of Reading 380

    Intervention for Reading Impairment 385 
    Writing 397

    Writing Problems 397

     Assessment of Writing 399

    Intervention for Writing Impairment 403
Conclusion 408


A Considerations for CLD Children 409
B Language Analysis Methods 419
C Selected English Morphological Prefixes and Suffixes 443
D Indirect Elicitation Techniques 445

E Intervention Activities and Language Targets 449

F Use of Children’s Literature in Preschool Classrooms 453 

Glossary 467

References 471

Author Index 535

Subject Index 549



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