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Learning Theories : An Educational Perspective,9780130108500
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Learning Theories : An Educational Perspective

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130108500

ISBN10:
0130108502
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $84.00
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Summary

Through its succinct yet thorough overviews of current behavioral, cognitive and developmental theories, this book explores the many ways in which learning principles can be applied in a variety of educational settings, with a diverse population of learners. It features down-to-earth language, clear explanations, and specific examples of abstract concepts. The author examines the relationship between learning and other topics of importance to educators-development, motivation, instruction, and self-regulation. A detailed glossary of more than 300 technical terms facilitates understanding, and a bibliography with more than 1,100 references encourages self-study. For future and in-service teachers with a minimal psychology background.

Table of Contents

1 Learning: Introduction, Issues, and Historical Perspectives
1(29)
Learning Defined
2(1)
Learning Theory and Research
3(4)
Functions of Theory
3(1)
Conducting Research
4(3)
Methods of Assessing Learning
7(4)
Direct Observations
7(1)
Written Responses
8(1)
Oral Responses
9(1)
Ratings by Others
9(1)
Self-Reports
9(2)
Critical Issues in the Study of Learning
11(4)
How Does Learning Occur?
11(1)
Which Factors Influence Learning?
12(1)
What Is the Role of Memory?
13(1)
What Is the Role of Motivation?
13(1)
How Does Transfer Occur?
14(1)
Which Types of Learning Are Best Explained by Theory?
14(1)
Precursors of Modern Learning Theories
15(6)
Learning Theory and Philosophy
15(3)
Beginnings of the Psychological Study of Learning
18(1)
Structuralism and Functionalism
19(2)
Relation of Learning and Instruction
21(6)
Historical Perspective
22(1)
Critical Features of Theories
23(2)
Instructional Commonalities
25(1)
Integration of Theory and Practice
26(1)
Three Learning Scenarios
27(3)
Kathy Stone's Third-Grade Class
27(1)
Jim Marshall's Ninth-Grade American History Class
28(1)
Gina Brown's Undergraduate Educational Psychology Class
28(2)
2 Behavioral Theories
30(48)
Connectionism
31(6)
Trial-and-Error Learning
31(1)
Laws of Exercise and Effect
32(1)
Other Principles
33(1)
Revisions to Thorndike's Theory
33(1)
Educational Principles
34(3)
Classical Conditioning
37(5)
Basic Processes
37(1)
Other Phenomena
38(1)
Informational Variables
39(1)
Biological Influences
40(1)
Conditional Emotional Reactions
41(1)
Watson's Behaviorism
42(2)
Basic Processes
43(1)
Little Albert Experiment
43(1)
Contiguous Conditioning
44(5)
Acts and Movements
44(1)
Associate Strength
45(1)
Rewards and Punishments
45(1)
Habit Formation and Change
46(3)
Operant Conditioning
49(29)
Conceptual Framework
49(2)
Basic Processes
51(9)
Behavioral Change
60(1)
Behavior Modification
61(3)
Verbal Behavior
64(2)
Applications to Instruction
66(12)
3 Social Cognitive Theory
78(41)
Conceptual Framework for Learning
79(4)
Reciprocal Interactions
80(1)
Enactive and Vicarious Learning
81(1)
Learning and Performance
82(1)
Modeling Processes
83(11)
Theories of Imitation
83(2)
Functions of Modeling
85(4)
Cognitive Skill Learning
89(2)
Rule Learning
91(1)
Motor Skill Learning
92(2)
Influences on Learning and Performance
94(6)
Developmental Status of Learners
95(1)
Model Prestige and Competence
96(1)
Vicarious Consequences to Models
96(4)
Goals and Expectations
100(8)
Goals
100(6)
Outcome Expectations
106(2)
Self-Efficacy
108(11)
Conceptual Overview
108(1)
Self-Efficacy in Achievement Situations
109(1)
Models and Self-Efficacy
110(4)
Motor Skills
114(1)
Instructional Efficacy
115(1)
Health and Therapeutic Activities
116(3)
4 Information Processing
119(50)
Information Processing System
120(6)
Assumptions
120(1)
Two-Store (Dual-Memory) Model
121(1)
Critique
122(1)
Levels of Processing
123(2)
Activation Level
125(1)
Attention
126(11)
Theories of Attention
127(1)
Attention and Learning
128(1)
Attention and Reading
129(1)
Perception
130(1)
Gestalt Theory
131(3)
Sensory Registers
134(1)
LTM Comparisons
135(2)
Two-Store Memory Model
137(10)
Verbal Learning
137(2)
Working (Short-Term Memory)
139(2)
Long-Term Memory
141(4)
Influences on Encoding
145(2)
Long-Term Memory: Storage
147(6)
Propositions
147(2)
Storage of Declarative Knowledge
149(3)
Storage of Procedural Knowledge
152(1)
Long-Term Memory: Retrieval
153(5)
Retrieval Strategies
153(1)
Encoding Specificity
154(1)
Retrieval of Declarative Knowledge
154(3)
Retrieval of Procedural Knowledge
157(1)
Long-Term Memory: Forgetting
158(5)
Verbal Learning
158(2)
Information Processing
160(3)
Mental Imagery
163(6)
Representation of Spatial Information
163(1)
Imagery in LTM
164(2)
Individual Differences
166(3)
5 Cognitive Learning Processes
169(47)
Discovery Learning
170(2)
Meaningful Reception Learning
172(2)
Meaningfulness and Expository Teaching
172(1)
Advance Organizers
173(1)
Production Systems and Connectionist Models
174(5)
Production Systems
174(4)
Connectionist Models
178(1)
Conditional Knowledge and Metacognition
179(5)
Conditional Knowledge
179(1)
Metacognition and Learning
180(1)
Variables Influencing Metacognition
181(2)
Metacognition and Behavior
183(1)
Concept Learning
184(7)
The Nature of Concepts
184(2)
Concept Attainment
186(1)
Teaching of Concepts
187(3)
Motivational Processes
190(1)
Problem Solving
191(15)
Problem Solving Defined
191(1)
Historical Influences
191(3)
Heuristics
194(2)
Information Processing Model
196(1)
Problem-Solving Strategies
196(6)
Problem Solving and Learning
202(1)
Experts and Novices
203(2)
Implications for Instruction
205(1)
Transfer
206(10)
Historical Views
206(1)
Activation of Knowledge in Memory
207(1)
Types of Transfer
208(3)
Strategy Transfer
211(1)
Integration and Applications
212(4)
6 Development and Learning
216(40)
Beginnings of the Scientific Study of Development
217(4)
Historical Foundations
217(1)
Philosophical Foundations
218(1)
The Child Study Movement
219(2)
Perspectives on Human Development
221(8)
Issues Relevant to Learning
221(2)
Types of Developmental Theories
223(4)
Structural Theories
227(2)
Constructivism
229(3)
Assumptions
229(1)
Perspectives
230(1)
Critique
231(1)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
232(6)
Developmental Processes
233(4)
Implications for Instruction
237(1)
Bruner's Theory of Cognitive Growth
238(3)
Cognitive Growth and Knowledge Representation
238(2)
Spiral Curriculum
240(1)
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
241(6)
Background
242(1)
Basic Principles
242(1)
Zone of Proximal Development
243(1)
Applications
244(3)
Contemporary Themes in Development and Learning
247(9)
Developmental Changes
247(2)
Situated Cognition
249(1)
Implicit Theories
250(1)
Implications for Teaching and Learning
251(5)
7 Content-Area Learning
256(44)
Skill Acquisition
257(3)
General and Specific Skills
257(2)
Novice-to-Expert Research Methodology
259(1)
Language Comprehension
260(6)
Components of Comprehension
261(1)
Parsing
261(4)
Utilization
265(1)
Reading
266(8)
Decoding
267(3)
Comprehension
270(4)
Writing
274(5)
Composition Processes
274(4)
Reviewing Processes
278(1)
Mathematics
279(7)
Computation Skills
280(1)
Problem-Solving Skills
281(3)
Constructivism
284(2)
Science
286(8)
Expert-Novice Differences
286(2)
Reasoning
288(4)
Constructivism and Scientific Beliefs
292(2)
Social Studies
294(6)
History
294(3)
Geography
297(3)
8 Motivation
300(55)
Model of Motivated Learning
301(2)
Pretask
301(1)
During Task
302(1)
Posttask
303(1)
Historical Perspectives
303(10)
Drive Theory
303(2)
Conditioning Theory
305(1)
Cognitive Consistency Theory
305(2)
Humanistic Theory
307(6)
Achievement Motivation
313(11)
Expectancy-Value Theory
314(2)
Familial Influences
316(1)
Fear of Success
317(1)
Contemporary Model of Achievement Motivation
318(2)
Self-Worth Theory
320(2)
Task and Ego Involvement
322(1)
Achievement Motivation Training
323(1)
Attribution Theory
324(8)
Locus of Control
324(1)
Native Analysis of Action
325(1)
Attribution Theory of Achievement Behavior
325(3)
Attribution Change Programs
328(4)
Social Cognitive Theory
332(2)
Goals and Expectations
332(1)
Social Comparison
332(2)
Goal Theory
334(6)
Types of Goals
336(2)
Conceptions of Ability
338(1)
Implications for Teaching
339(1)
Perceptions of Control
340(4)
Control Beliefs
341(1)
Learned Helplessness
341(1)
Students with Learning Problems
342(2)
Self-Concept
344(2)
Dimensions and Development
344(1)
Self-Concept and Learning
345(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
346(9)
Theoretical Perspectives
346(4)
Overjustification and Reward
350(5)
9 Self-Regulation
355(47)
Dimensions of Self-Regulation
356(3)
Conceptual Framework
356(2)
Relation to Other Processes
358(1)
Reinforcement Theory
359(5)
Self-Monitoring
360(2)
Self-Instruction
362(1)
Self-Reinforcement
363(1)
Developmental Perspectives
364(8)
Social and Self Origins of Competence
364(2)
Private Speech
366(2)
Production, Mediational, and Continued-Use Deficiencies
368(1)
Verbalization and Achievement
369(3)
Social Cognitive Processes
372(8)
Self-Observation
372(1)
Self-Judgment
372(4)
Self-Reaction
376(1)
Cyclical Nature of Regulation
376(1)
Self-Evaluation and Self-Regulation
377(2)
Social Cognitive Theory and Learning Strategies
379(1)
Information Processing and Strategy Instruction
380(14)
Model of Self-Regulation
381(1)
Learning Strategies
382(8)
Constructivism and Strategy Instruction
390(1)
Academic Studying
391(3)
Self-Regulation and Motivation
394(8)
Volition
394(2)
Values
396(1)
Goal Orientations
397(1)
Self-Schemas
398(1)
Help Seeking
399(3)
10 Instruction
402(47)
Conditions of Learning
403(5)
Learning Outcomes
403(1)
Learning Events
404(1)
Learning Hierarchies
405(1)
Phases of Learning
405(3)
Theories of Instruction
408(8)
Learning Time
408(1)
Mastery Learning
409(2)
Developmental Model of Instruction
411(2)
Inquiry Teaching
413(1)
Instructional Quality Profile
414(1)
Social Constructivism
415(1)
Research on Teaching
416(4)
Teacher Planning and Decision Making
416(2)
Instructional Practices
418(2)
Learner and Teacher Characteristics
420(13)
Aptitude-Treatment Interactions
420(1)
Cognitive Styles
421(4)
Learners' Resource Allocations
425(1)
Teachers' Use of Models
426(1)
Teacher Expectations
427(1)
Teacher-Student Interactions
428(4)
Adapting Instruction
432(1)
Organization and Structure of Learning Environments
433(4)
Dimensionality and Differentiation
433(1)
Classroom Factors
434(3)
Technology and Instruction
437(12)
Functions of Technology
437(1)
Technological Applications
438(8)
Future Directions
446(3)
Glossary 449(11)
References 460(43)
Author Index 503(13)
Subject Index 516


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