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Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilzing Human Resources,9780132441124
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Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilzing Human Resources

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780132441124

ISBN10:
0132441128
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $84.00
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Summary

Used by more than a million people throughout the world, this highly readable book provides a comprehensive examination of the applied behavioral sciences, and focuses on fundamental ideas which have stood the test of years of application in academic, business, not-for-profit and administrative environments. Builds on the concepts and techniques of two important applied behavioral science approaches: Situational Leadership and One Minute Management. Highlights many real world examples not only from the business world but also from fields such as nursing, education, athletic administration, and communications.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Management: An Applied Behavioral Sciences Approach
1(23)
Organizations as Sources of Competitive Advantage
3(1)
Capabilities of Effective Organizations
3(1)
The Challenges of Leading an Organization
3(2)
A Look Back
5(1)
Successful Versus Unsuccessful Sciences
5(2)
Change
6(1)
Management Defined
7(2)
One Distinction between Management and Leadership
7(1)
Another Distinction between Management and Leadership
7(1)
Are Leadership and Management Really Necessary?
8(1)
Are Leaders Born or Made?
9(1)
Three Competencies of Leadership
9(1)
Management Process
10(1)
Skills of a Manager
11(2)
Emphasis on Human Skills
12(1)
Organizations as Social Systems
13(3)
Managerial Roles in a Social System
13(3)
The Changing Face of Management
16(1)
Ingredients for Effective Human Skills
17(3)
Understanding Behavior
17(1)
Predicting Behavior
17(1)
Directing, Changing, and Controlling Behavior
18(1)
Controlling People
18(1)
A Hammer Won't Always Do the Job
18(1)
Learning to Apply Behavioral Science Theory
19(1)
Applied Behavioral Sciences
20(1)
What Is a Behavioral Scientist?
20(1)
The Design of This Book
21(1)
Notes
22(2)
Motivation and Behavior
24(40)
Theories of Behavior
24(8)
Goal-Oriented Behavior
25(1)
The Causal Sequence
26(1)
Motives
27(1)
Goals
27(1)
Motive Strength
28(1)
Changes in Motive Strength
28(4)
Categories of Activities
32(1)
Motives, Goals, and Activities
33(3)
Expectancy Theory
36(1)
Availability
37(2)
Personality Development
39(1)
Changing Personality
39(1)
Hierarchy of Needs
40(5)
Alderfer's Erg Theory
45(1)
Motivational Research
46(15)
Physiological Needs
46(1)
Safety Needs
46(2)
Social Needs
48(2)
Esteem Needs
50(2)
Self-actualization Needs
52(4)
Money Motive
56(2)
Some Recent Thoughts About Money
58(1)
What Do Workers Want From Their Jobs?
58(1)
What Do Workers Want?---1949
59(2)
What Do Workers Want?---Recent Findings
61(1)
Summary
61(1)
Notes
62(2)
Motivating Environment
64(26)
The Hawthorne Studies
65(2)
Theory X and Theory y
67(4)
Informal Work Groups
71(1)
Increasing Interpersonal Competence
72(5)
Argyris's Immaturity-Maturity Theory
73(2)
Theory into Practice
75(2)
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
77(7)
Hygiene Factors
78(1)
Motivators
78(2)
The Relationship of Herzberg's Theory to Maslow's Theory
80(1)
Job Enrichment
81(1)
Example of Job Enrichment
82(1)
A Problem of Placement
83(1)
Motivation and Satisfaction
84(1)
Integration of Four Motivation Theories
84(2)
Self-Concept and Perception
86(1)
Attribution Theory
86(1)
Putting Ideas Together
87(1)
Summary
88(1)
Notes
88(2)
Leadership: An Initial Perspective
90(30)
Leadership Defined
90(1)
Leaders as Vision Creators
91(7)
The SOAR Peak Performance Model
91(3)
Vision to Results Model
94(4)
Legacies of the Past
98(1)
Schools of Organizational Theory
99(2)
Scientific Management Movement
100(1)
Human Relations Movement
100(1)
Trait Approach to Leadership
101(4)
Negative Leadership Traits
103(2)
Attitudinal Approaches
105(11)
Ohio State Leadership Studies
105(1)
Michigan Leadership Studies
106(1)
Group Dynamics Studies
107(1)
Rensis Likert's Management Systems
108(3)
Theory into Practice
111(3)
The Leadership Grid
114(2)
Is There a Best Style of Leadership?
116(2)
Preview
118(1)
Notes
118(2)
Leadership: Situational Approaches
120(24)
Situational Approaches to Leadership
121(17)
Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum of Leader Behavior
121(2)
Fiedler's Contingency Model
123(3)
House-Mitchell Path-Goal Theory
126(2)
Stinson-Johnson Model
128(1)
Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model
129(5)
Hersey-Blanchard Tridimensional Leader Effectiveness Model
134(4)
What About Consistency?
138(1)
Attitude Versus Behavior
139(3)
Summary
142(1)
Notes
142(2)
Determining Effectiveness
144(20)
Management Effectiveness Versus Leadership Effectiveness
144(1)
Successful Leadership Versus Effective Leadership
145(4)
What Determines Organizational Effectiveness?
149(6)
Causal Variables
149(1)
Intervening Variables
150(1)
Output, or End Result, Variables
150(2)
Long-Term Goals versus Short-Term Goals
152(1)
Organizational Dilemma
152(3)
Integration of Goals and Effectiveness
155(2)
Participation and Effectiveness
157(1)
Management by Objectives
158(2)
Style and Effectiveness
160(2)
Notes
162(2)
Diagnosing the Environment
164(24)
Environmental Variables
164(2)
Style Defined
166(1)
Expectations Defined
166(1)
Interaction of Style and Expectations
166(7)
Leader's Style and Expectations
167(1)
Followers' Styles and Expectations
168(2)
Supervisor's Style and Expectations
170(2)
Associates' Styles and Expectations
172(1)
Organization's Style and Expectations
172(1)
Organizational Goals
173(1)
Other Situational Variables
173(4)
Job Demands
173(2)
Time
175(1)
Other Environmental Variables
175(1)
External Environment
176(1)
Developing Strategies
177(5)
Changing Style
177(2)
Changes in Expectations versus Changes in Style
179(1)
Team Building: Selection of Key Employees
180(1)
Changing Situational Variables
181(1)
Diagnosing the Environment---a Case
182(4)
Peter Principle Vaccine
185(1)
How Can Managers Learn to Deal With all These Environmental Variables?
186(1)
Notes
186(2)
Situational Leadership
188(41)
Situational Leadership
189(18)
The Center for Leadership Studies
189(1)
Basic Concept of Situational Leadership
190(2)
Readiness of the Followers or Group
192(1)
Readiness Defined
193(6)
Going from R1 to R2 to R3
199(2)
Selecting Appropriate Styles
201(5)
Appropriate Leadership Styles
206(1)
Application of Situational Leadership
207(10)
Determining Appropriate Style
209(2)
Effective Task Statements
211(1)
Direction of Readiness Change
212(1)
Instruments to Measure Readiness
213(2)
Components of Leadership Style
215(2)
Situational Leadership in Various Organizational Settings
217(5)
Parent-Child Relationships
218(1)
Ineffective Parent Styles
218(1)
Management of Research and Development Personnel
219(1)
Educational Setting
220(2)
Understanding Earlier Research
222(5)
Determining the Effectiveness of Participation
222(1)
The Influence of Cultural Change
223(2)
Does Situational Leadership Work?
225(2)
Changing Leadership Style Appropriately
227(1)
Notes
227(2)
Situational Leadership, Perception, and the Impact of Power
229(28)
Power Defined
229(1)
Power: an Eroding Concept
230(1)
Position Power and Personal Power
231(3)
Selling within Your Own Organization
223(11)
Additional Bases of Power
234(5)
The Perception of Power
234(1)
Get the Information Out
235(1)
Readiness, Styles, and Power Bases
236(3)
Is There a Best Type of Power?
239(3)
Power Bases and Readiness Level
242(1)
Integrating Power Bases, Readiness Level, and Leadership Style Through Situational Leadership
242(9)
The Situational Use of Power
243(2)
Developing Sources of Power
245(1)
Sources of Power
246(1)
Eroding Sources of Power
247(2)
Willingness to Take a Power Role
249(1)
Do You Want Power?
250(1)
Other Views on Differences Between Men and Women Managers
251(1)
What About Empowerment?
251(1)
The Power Perception Profile
252(2)
Development of the Power Perception Profile
252(1)
Uses of the Power Perception Profile
253(1)
Summary
254(1)
Notes
254(3)
Developing Human Resources
257(21)
Increasing Effectiveness
258(4)
Breaking the Ineffective Cycle
261(1)
Developmental Cycle
262(11)
What's in It for the Manager?
262(1)
What Do We Want to Influence?
263(1)
How Is the Person Doing Now?
263(1)
Determining Readiness
264(1)
Increasing Readiness
265(2)
Successive Approximations
267(5)
Time and the Developmental Cycle
272(1)
Changing Readiness Through Behavior Modification
273(4)
Positive Reinforcement
274(1)
Individualizing Reinforcement
274(1)
Schedule of Reinforcement
275(1)
Consistency in Reinforcement
276(1)
Isn't All This Reinforcement a Form of Bribery?
276(1)
Notes
277(1)
Constructive Discipline
278(20)
The Regressive Cycle
279(5)
Relationship between Ability and Willingness in the Developmental and Regressive Cycles
282(2)
Some Things to Remember When Disciplining an Individual
284(7)
Making the Intervention Timely
284(1)
Varying the Emotional Level
285(1)
Focusing on Performance
285(1)
Be Specific, Do Your Homework
286(1)
Keep It Private
286(1)
Punishment and Negative Reinforcement
286(2)
Extinction
288(2)
When to Use Punishment or Extinction
290(1)
An Example of Using Behavior Modification
290(1)
Problems and Their Ownership---Who's Got the Problem?
291(4)
Problem Ownership and Situational Leadership
292(3)
Positive Discipline
295(1)
Summary
296(1)
Notes
296(2)
Building Effective Relationships
298(38)
Lead Instrumentation
299(4)
Leadership Style
299(1)
Style Range, or Flexibility
299(1)
Style Adaptability
300(1)
Flexibility: A Question of Willingness
301(1)
Is There Only One Appropriate Style?
302(1)
Use of LEAD Instrumentation
303(1)
Johari Window
303(11)
Feedback
305(2)
Disclosure
307(2)
Self-perception versus Style
309(3)
Is it Too Late?
312(2)
Lead Profiles
314(14)
Sample
314(1)
Two-Style Profile
314(1)
Wide Flexibility
315(1)
Reference to Situational Leadership
315(1)
Style Profile 1-3
316(1)
Style Profile 1-4
317(2)
Style Profile 2-3
319(1)
Style Profile 1-2
320(1)
Style Profile 2-4
321(1)
Style Profile 3-4
322(2)
Maximizing Your Management Staff
324(1)
Implications for Growth and Development
324(3)
Team Building
327(1)
Determining the Leadership Style of a Manager
327(1)
Contracting for Leadership Style
328(1)
Adding the Contracting Process
328(1)
Making the Process Work
329(5)
An Example---Contracting for Leadership Styles in a School
330(1)
Using the Readiness Style Match
330(4)
Summary
334(1)
Notes
334(2)
Communicating With Rapport
336(23)
How Important is Effective Communication?
336(2)
The Communication Process
338(9)
Leader
339(1)
Message
339(2)
Follower
341(1)
Enhanced Model of the Communication Process
342(2)
Active Listening
344(1)
Pacing, Then Leading
345(1)
How to Test for Rapport
346(1)
Preferred Representational Systems
347(5)
``Rep'' Systems and Communication
348(2)
Matching Predicates to Rep Systems
350(2)
Organizational Communication
352(2)
International Business Communication
354(2)
Summary
356(1)
Notes
356(3)
Group Dynamics
359(23)
Individuals and Groups
361(1)
Important Definitions
362(3)
Leadership in a Team Environment
365(4)
Group Problem-Solving Modes
369(2)
Helping and Hindering Roles
371(2)
S1 (HT/LR) Competency
373(1)
Helping Role Category: Establishing
373(1)
Hindering Role Category: Aggressive
373(1)
S2 (HT/HR) Competency
374(2)
Helping Role Category: Persuading
374(1)
Hindering Role Category: Manipulative
375(1)
S3 (HR/LT) Competency
376(2)
Helping Role Category: Committing
376(1)
Hindering Role Category: Dependent
377(1)
S4 (LR/LT) Competency
378(2)
Helping Role Category: Attending
378(1)
Hindering Role Category: Avoidance
379(1)
Summary
380(1)
Notes
381(1)
Implementing Situational Leadership: Managing People to Perform
382(16)
Organizational Performance
383(5)
Goals
385(1)
Standards
386(1)
Feedback
386(1)
Means
387(1)
Competence
387(1)
Motive
387(1)
Opportunity
387(1)
Improving Productivity (And Quality)
388(1)
The Achieve Model
389(4)
Background
389(2)
Using the ACHIEVE Model
391(2)
Performance Management
393(3)
Performance Planning
394(1)
Coaching
395(1)
Performance Review
396(1)
Summary
396(1)
Notes
397(1)
Implementing Situational Leadership: One Minute Management
398(19)
One Minute Goal Setting
399(7)
Areas of Accountability
399(1)
Performance Standards
400(1)
Goals Need to Be Clear
401(1)
Reaching Goals Requires Feedback
401(1)
Performance Review Can Undermine Performance
402(1)
Limit the Number of Goals
403(1)
Diagnosing Blocks to Goal Setting
404(1)
Good Goals Are SMART Goals
405(1)
The One Minute Praising
406(3)
Be Immediate and Specific
406(1)
State Your Feelings
406(2)
Being Close Counts
408(1)
Make Time for Praisings
409(1)
The One Minute Reprimand
409(4)
Reprimand Behavior, Not the Person
411(1)
The One Minute Apology
412(1)
Additions to one Minute Management for the 1990s
413(1)
Talk Specifics
413(1)
Build People Up
413(1)
Hear People Out
414(1)
New Skills, New Roles
414(1)
Integration With Situational Leadership
414(1)
Summary
415(1)
Notes
416(1)
Implementing Situational Leadership: Effective Follow-up
417(21)
The ABCs of Management
418(4)
The Price System
422(11)
P-Pinpoint
422(4)
R-Record
426(2)
I-Involve
428(3)
C-Coach
431(1)
E-Evaluate
432(1)
Principles in Practice
433(4)
Transco Energizes
434(1)
Canadian Pacific Keeps Trucking
435(1)
A Fairweather Forecast
436(1)
Summary
437(1)
Notes
437(1)
Implementing Situational Leadership: Making Decisions That Stick
438(21)
Making Effective Decisions
438(4)
Decision Style
440(2)
Decision Making and Leader Latitude
442(1)
Building Commitments
443(14)
Commitment to the Customer
447(2)
Commitment to the Organization
449(1)
Commitment to Self
450(1)
Commitment to People
451(2)
Commitment to the Task
453(1)
Managerial Excellence
453(4)
Notes
457(2)
Planning and Implementing Change
459(45)
General Framework for Understanding Change
460(8)
Diagnosis
461(2)
Implementation
463(5)
First-Order and Second-Order Change
468(2)
Understanding Strategic Change
470(2)
Change Cycles
472(5)
Patterns of Communication
477(4)
Relationship between Communication Patterns and Change Strategies
480(1)
Change Process
481(9)
Unfreezing
481(1)
Changing
481(1)
Refreezing
482(1)
Updated Lewin Model of Change
483(1)
Creating Psychological Safety in Change
484(2)
Change Process---Some Examples
486(4)
Bringing Change Theories Together
490(1)
Change Process---Recommended Action
490(2)
The ``A'' Victory Model
491(1)
Managing Intergroup Conflict
492(3)
Consequences of Group Competition
492(1)
Preventing Intergroup Conflict
493(1)
Blake, Shepard, and Mouton Model
494(1)
Organizational Growth
495(3)
Organizational Development
498(3)
Organizational Effectiveness and O. D.
498(1)
A Problem with Organizational Development
499(1)
Impact of Change on the Total System
500(1)
Notes
501(3)
Leadership to Achieve Quality
504(15)
Phase 1---Start-Up: Creating the Vision
506(2)
Phase 2---Awareness and Education: Sharing the Vision and Soliciting Feedback
508(3)
Feedback from Employees
509(2)
Feedback from Internal Customers
511(1)
Phase 3---Selecting Performance Targets: Business Objectives and Critical Success Factors
511(1)
Phase 4---Reinforcing Implementation: Achieve Immediate Successes
512(2)
Indicators of Progress
512(1)
Principles of Noneconomic Decision Making
513(1)
Phase 5---Liberating Employees: Giving Employees the Ability to Implement the System
514(1)
Settlement of Claims
514(1)
Pledge Adjustments
515(1)
Phase 6---Measuring and Monitoring Ongoing Performance: Tracking Implementation Progress
515(1)
Performance Ratios
516(1)
Daily Sales Charts
516(1)
Summary
516(1)
Notes
517(2)
Leadership Strategies for Organizational Transformation
519(23)
Characteristics of Organizational Transformation
520(1)
Transformational Leadership
521(5)
Personal Commitment to the Transformation by the Leadership
521(2)
Firm, Relentless, and Indisputable Communication of the Impossibility of Maintaining the Status Quo
523(1)
Clear and Enthusiastic Communication of an Inspiring Vision of What the Organization Could Become
523(1)
Timely Establishment of a Critical Mass of Support for the Transformation
523(1)
Acknowledging, Honoring, and Dealing with Resistance to the Transformation
524(1)
Defining and Setting Up an Organization That Can Implement the Vision
524(1)
Regular Communication of Information about Progress and Giving Recognition and Reward for Achievements
524(2)
No One ``Ideal'' Way for Transformation
526(1)
Organizational Readiness for Transformation
527(3)
Transformational Leadership Actions
530(2)
Transformational Leadership Strategies
531(1)
The Situational Leadership for Transformation Model
532(3)
Power Bases for Transformational Leadership
535(4)
Implementing Quality Using the Situational Leadership for Transformation Model
539(1)
Notes
540(2)
The Organizational Cone
542(17)
Vision
542(2)
Energy
544(3)
Focusing and Directing the Energy
546(1)
Mission, Purpose, and Stakeholders
547(1)
Strategy and Culture
548(2)
Goals, Processes, and Team Spirit
550(2)
Goals
550(1)
Processes
550(1)
Team Spirit
551(1)
Roles, Tasks, and Relations
552(1)
The Organizational Cone Model
552(3)
Management---Position Power---Compliance
552(1)
Leadership---Personal Power---Commitment
553(1)
Alignment and Attunement
554(1)
The Magic Triangle
555(2)
Summary
557(1)
Notes
558(1)
Synthesizing Management Theory: Integrating Situational Leadership with the Classics
559(21)
Situational Leadership and Maslow's and Herzberg's Theories of Motivation
559(2)
Situational Leadership and McGregor's, Likert's, and Argyris's Theories
561(2)
Situational Leadership and Argyris's, Schein's, McClelland's, and McGregor's Theories
563(2)
Situational Leadership and the Leadership Grid
565(2)
Situational Leadership, the Leadership Grid, and Likert's Causal, Intervening, and Output Variables
567(1)
Situational Leadership and Control Systems
567(1)
Situational Leadership and Power Bases
567(3)
Situational Leadership and Parent Effectiveness Training (P. E. T.)
570(1)
Situational Leadership and Organizational Growth
571(1)
Situational Leadership and Change
572(3)
Summary
575(1)
Conclusions and Reflections
575(3)
Notes
578(2)
Appendix 580(11)
Recommended Supplementary Reading 591(18)
Index 609


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