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What is included with this book?
J. Charles Sterin is an award-winning documentary filmmaker, investigative television journalist, and screenwriter. Over the course of his 35-year career, Sterin has produced over 60 hours of television documentaries, including episodes of A&E Network’s primetime series Investigative Reports and Ancient Mysteries, and documentary specials aired on PBS. Sterin co-produced a national media project with ten of the world’s leading humanist thinkers (including anthropologist Margaret Mead, psychologist Carl Rogers, and anthropologist Ashley Montagu) and was selected by the Poynter Institute to produce its seminal PBS documentary series NewsLeaders on the leading figures of American news media. Sterin is fascinated with the future of media technologies, especially the evolution of the Internet, mass media convergence, and artificial intelligence-based expert systems. He has developed innovative approaches to producing short-form documentary videos in integrated content delivery platforms for “blended” online training and higher education. In 2001, Sterin joined the faculty of the University of Maryland University College–a world leader in web-enhanced and online college programs–where he has applied his interests in the evolution of mass media and media-based blended learning applications to the creation of a number of UMUC’s mass communication courses. Through these popular courses, Sterin has introduced thousands of students across the country and around the world to the study of mass media. Today, he continues to develop innovative approaches to connect and communicate with a diverse body of students in multimedia-enhanced face-to-face and online teaching environments, as well as pursuing his work as a documentary filmmaker, screenwriter and author.
Resources in Print and Online xix
I PAVING THE WAY TO TODAY’S MASS MEDIA
1 Introduction to the Mass Media Revolution 2
This chapter lays out the book’s approach to the study of mass media in the digital millennium, as well as gives a broad overview of the historical and theoretical context necessary for understanding mass media from a critical perspective.
The Style and Approach of the Mass Media Revolution 6
Media as Storytellers 7
Inspiring Debate Through Bias and Controversy 7
Experience and Scholarship 8
A Sneak Peek at MMR 8
View this movie trailer of things to come as you experience Mass Media Revolution.
Appreciating Historical Context in Mass Media 8
Studying the Mass Media 9
Passive and Active Media 10
Media Framing 11
Models for Filtering Information and Identifying Meaning 11
Mass Communication Models and Theories 12
The Humanistic Approach to Communication 14
Linking the Medium and the Message 15
Marshall McLuhan, Explorations 15
In this 1960 broadcast, mass media theorist Marshall McLuhan predicts where the future of mass media communication and technologies are headed.
Culture and Mass Media: Sharing What We Know 16
The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Communication 16
The Media’s Influence on Religion and Beliefs 17
Global Access, Global Threats 19
From My Village to the Global Village 20
Proximity and Media Space 21
Media Hegemony 21
Convergence: Understanding Mass Media in the Digital Age 22
Dealing with Information Bombardment 23
Media Access versus Media Overload 24
Audience Trends: What the Consumers Want 25
Why Are Audiences Always Being Researched? 26
How Ratings Work 27
Conclusion: Understanding New Mass Media from a Critical Perspective 28
2 Mass Media: A Brief Historical Narrative 30
This chapter offers a brief survey of the roots of mass media, moving from the earliest storytellers through the dawning of the Digital Age.
The Storytellers 34
Early Mass Media Networks 34
Telling Stories in the Digital Age 35
The Scribes 36
The Visual Artists 37
The Mass-Communication Power of Maps 38
The Arts in the Middle Ages 38
The Renaissance 39
The Printers and the Publishers 40
The Newsmakers 41
The Early Knowledge Industry 42
The Rise of Yellow Journalism and Penny Presses 43
The First Media War in the United States 44
The Photographers 45
The Early Photojournalists 46
Photography’s Golden Age 47
The Music-Makers 49
Music, Culture and Entertainment 49
Music, Patriotism and Revolution 50
The Radio Broadcasters 51
The History of Radio 52
Following three decades of Marconi’s attempt to monopolize the international wireless communication business, and a maze of competing innovations, patent battles and competitions between rival governments, radio at last moved beyond point-to-point communications.
The Filmmakers 53
Motion Pictures Become a Major Part of American Mass Media 53
Early Documentary Films and Newsreels 54
The Television Producers 55
The Birth of Television Broadcast Systems 56
The Advent of News and Entertainment Television 56
The Evolution of Media Technologies 58
Television Investigative Reporting 60
News Stories 61
Again and again during times of national and international crisis, television news, as established by Edward R. Murrow, plays an essential role.
The Dawning of the Digital Age 61
Computers Get Linked 62
The Birth of the Personal Computer 63
The Emergence of a New World: The Internet 64
Conclusion: Mass Media Converge 64
3 Media Technologies and the Dynamics of Change 66
This chapter covers the evolution of mass media–its vast and wide-ranging content and the constantly evolving technological platforms that deliver it.
The Stages of Technological Innovation 70
The Precursor Stage 70
The Invention and Development Stages 70
Media Technology Format Wars 71
A closer look at the causes and industry effects of the HDDVD and Blu-Ray format wars.
The Maturity Stage 72
The Antiquity Stage 73
Hurtling into the Future: The Effects of Technology on Mass Media 73
Dominating the Media Message 75
Coping with “Future Shock” 76
Converging Technologies 76
Evolving Roles of Mass Media in Society 77
Forming a New Global Culture 78
Paul Levinson on the Future of Mass Media 79
A modern communication and media professor's insight into the future of mass media–after McLuhan’s global village.
The Life or Death of the Printed Word? 79
The Digitization of Libraries 81
World Digital Library Project 82
The LOC’s World Digital Library Project comes to fruition.
Print-on-Demand Publishing 82
Textbook Customization 83
The e-Book Market 83
The Digitization of Newspapers and Magazines 84
Going Green in Publishing 85
Information Revolution: Innovation and Roadblocks 86
The Read-Write Media Culture 87
Conclusion: Adapting to Change 88
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 90
II THE EVOLUTION OF MEDIA CONTENT AND PLATFORMS
4 Print Media 92
This chapter traces the history and evolution of the three primary forms of print media: newspapers, magazines and books, as well as explores how advanced media technologies may have altered these media forever. In addition, the chapter examines two contemporary forms of print media–comic books and graphic novels–and the impact they have had on other media industries.
Early American Newspaper Publishing 96
Newspapers Evolve to Dominate Mass Media 96
The Industrial Revolution Alters the Newspaper Business 98
Newspapers Become an Advertising-Based Business 98
Early Communication Technologies Further Change the Industry 99
The Establishment of News Syndicates 101
The Rise of Magazine Publishing 101
Early Business Challenges 102
The Economics of Magazine Publishing 102
Diversification of Magazine Audience, Style and Specialty 103
The Evolution of the Book Industry 104
The Social and Cultural Impact of Books 104
The Birth of the Novel 105
Technologies Extend the Print Media 105
The Birth of Publishing Dynasties 106
Otis Chandler, L.A. Times 107
The late Otis Chandler, former publisher of the L.A. Times, discusses the influence of newspapers and publishing dynasties on American culture and politics.
Print Media Go Visual 108
The Use of Illustrations 108
The Use of Photographs 109
The Photo Magazine 109
The Comic Book Industry 111
Will Eisner Ushers in the Modern Comic Book 111
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster Introduce the Comic Book Hero 112
Comic Books Influence Society 113
The Comic Book Industry Transitions 114
The Graphic Novel 115
The Newspaper Industry in the 20th Century 116
Early American Newspapers and the Freedom of Information 116
The Fifties 119
The Sixties and the Seventies 119
The Eighties into the Digital Age 120
Al Neuharth, USA Today 121
Al Neuharth, founder of USA Today offers an in-depth analysis of the success and popularity of his paper.
The Magazine Industry in the 20th Century 122
Rob Covey, National Geographic 124
Rob Covey, Managing Editor and Creative Director of National Geographic Online, offers insight
into how the publication and the magazine industry overall is coping with the migration of content to the Web.
The Book Industry in the 20th Century 124
Conclusion: Will Printed Media Survive the Digital Revolution? 126
5 Music and Radio 128
In this chapter we will explore the history, evolution and interconnection of the music recording and radio broadcasting industries.
Matt & Kim 131
Popular indie rock group Matt & Kim recount their story of going up against the major record labels.
The Cultural Influence of Music and Sound Recording 132
The Phonograph Advances the Music Industry 132
Musical Tastes Change in Changing Times 133
New Delivery Platforms Emerge 134
The Birth of the Radio Broadcasting Industry 135
The Recording Industry Links with Radio 136
The Pioneers of Radio Broadcasting 136
The Development of Early Radio 137
Watch this to learn about the battle between the early pioneers of radio.
Improved Technology Spurs the Growth of Radio 138
FM Radio 138
Armstrong invents FM radio and changes the future of commercial radio.
Popular Music: The First Cultural Shift 139
Rock ‘n’ Roll Pushes the Social Envelope 139
Payola: Paying for Popularity 140
New Sounds, Old Sounds 141
Motown: The Sounds of Detroit 141
The Beatles and the British Invasion 142
Studio Mixing Changes Popular Music 143
The Music of Revolution: The Second Cultural Shift 144
Folk Music: The Songs of Protest 144
Psychedelic Sound: When the Tide Turns 145
Looking back on the Woodstock Festival on its 40th anniversary.
Musical Styles Diversify 146
Two Extremes: Hard Rock to Disco 146
The Singer-Songwriters 147
Punk Rock 147
MTV and the Birth of Music Videos 148
Alternative and Independent Music 150
The Grunge Alternative 151
The Hip-Hop Movement 152
Music and Radio Transition into the Digital Age 153
Deregulation and Consolidation Transform 21st-Century Radio 153
Is the Internet Killing Radio? 155
Commercial Satellite Radio 156
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File Sharing Revolutionizes Music 156
Conclusion: Music and Radio Converge–and Endure 158
6 Film and Television 160
This chapter describes the interconnected development of the film and television industries and the challenges and opportunities created by an empowered audience in the Digital Age.
Narrative in Film 164
An overview on the significance of mise-en-scène in filmic storytelling.
The Early Innovators of Film 165
The Special Effects of Georges Méliès 165
A Trip to the Moon 165
View the special effects–spectacular for its time–of Méliès’ A Trip to the Moon.
The Editing Techniques of Edwin Porter 165
The Great Train Robbery 166
Porter's cross-cutting editing technique made it possible for films to display action happening in multiple locations.
The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System 166
Hollywood’s Golden Age 167
New Sound Technologies Herald the Success of Talkies 167
The Star System Maximizes Studio Profits 169
The Big Five Start to Lose Power 169
The Rise of the Financing-Distribution Model 170
Post-Studio System Distribution and Exhibition Practices 170
The Film Industry After the Golden Age 171
The Influence of International Cinema Styles 171
European Cinema 171
The Maltese Falcon 172
John Huston's The Maltese Falcon (1941) adopted the French film noir style.
Asian Cinema 173
Middle Eastern Cinema 175
Latin American Cinema 175
The Motion Pictures Rating System of 1968 176
The Rise of the Independent Film Movement 176
The Magic of Special Effects 177
Special Effects 178
Audiences love special effects, as depicted in this short video history.
The Film Industry in the Digital Age 179
The Film Industry Suffers Decreased Revenue 179
Narrative in Television 180
The Evolution of Television 181
Early Television Programming 181
The Big Three Networks Become the Big Four 182
Television Genres 183
The Situation Comedy 183
The Drama 184
Sports Programming 184
The Soap Opera 184
Anatomy of a TV Show: The Young and the Restless 185
Take a look behind the scenes of a popular daytime drama in the making.
Reality Television 185
Cable Television Innovates Content 186
Conflicting Visions of the Future of Television 186
Conclusion: The Audience Drives the Future of Film and Television 188
7 New Media 190
This chapter explains what new media is and explores the highlights in its evolution, its contrast to what we now call old media, and new media’s impact on society and culture in the 21st century.
What Are the New Media and Where Did They Originate? 194
The New New Media 195
The New Media Meme 195
Innovators and Visionaries of the Internet 196
The Information Superhighway 197
The Evolution of Web 2.0 198
Rediscovering Text: E-mail and Text Messaging 199
The Language of Texting 200
Investigative report detailing the explosion of text messaging among high school students.
The Dynamic New Media 200
Linear versus Nonlinear Information 200
User-Mediated Content 201
Participatory Content Creation 202
Knowledge Sharing: An Open Source Model 203
Consuming New Media: Honing Critical Skills 203
Media Convergence: The Current Wave 204
Current TV and Current.com 205
The Effects of Content Mobility 206
Viral Media 206
YouTube and User-Generated Television 207
Linking Up: The 21st-Century Phenomenon of Social Networking 207
Digital Meeting Places 209
The Dark Side of Online Social Networking 210
Follow My Twitter 211
Activism and Citizen Journalism 213
The New Media Politics: Grassroots to Mainstream 214
The Net Roots Movement 214
Politics in Cyberspace 215
New media pioneer Robert Greenwald looks at the impact of new media journalism on politics and democracy.
Technology and Participatory Democracy 215
The Gaming Generation 216
War Games Lead to Video Games 217
The Development of PC and Console Games 218
Video Games Converge with Hollywood Movies 219
The History of Video Games 220
A tour of some of the highlights of the evolution of video games.
Virtual Worlds: Playing in Alternate Realities 220
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games 223
Conclusion: New New Media and the Impact on Society and Culture 224
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 226
III MEDIA BUSINESS, ECONOMICS AND
8 Advertising and Public Relations 228
Learn about the allied fields of advertising and public relations in this chapter, and discover how they influence the public’s attitudes and beliefs about everything from products and brands, to political leaders, to government policies and the media.
Tracing the History of American Advertising 232 Advertising Is All Around Us 232
This video montage of Mobius Award—winning commercials illustrates how successful advertising draws us into the story, despite how impractical or unreasonable it may be.
Product Affinity: Making Us Want It 233
Unlocking the Code to Our Desires 234
Relying on Universal Appeal 235
Ejector Pew 236
Provocative religious commercials, such as this one, can cast religious messages using trendy and even humorous imagery.
Suspend Reality 236
Commercial advertising asks us to suspend reality and accept that we can be part of the story it is presenting.
Teaching and Informing 236
Narrowcasting: Connecting Consumers and Products 238
Product Placement: Advertising Without Advertising 239
Breaking the Rules: Advertising in the 21st Century 240
Humor is an effective way of engaging audience attention or “capturing eyeballs.”
The Influences of Commercial Advertising 242
Dove Evolution 244
Dove brand produced a series of commercials that, rather than promote artificial beauty, encouraged young women to embrace and nurture their natural beauty, body and self esteem.
Political Advertising: Making Us Vote for It 245
Johnson Daisy Girl 245
Sometimes negative messages are far from subtle, as depicted in this 1964 Lyndon Johnson ad, which played on the Cold War fears of most Americans at the time.
Kerry Swift Boat Vets 246
The Republican political action group called the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, created a series of television ads questioning the actions of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry.
Clinton 3 A.M. 247
When then Senator Barack Obama tenaciously held on to the lead in the closely contested Democratic primary race, then Senator Hillary Clinton came out with this ad spot.
Public Relations: Building and Managing Image 247
Tracing the History of American Public Relations 248
Public Relations Today 249
Fair Advocacy 249
Content Creation 249
360-Degree Campaigning 250
Developing Public Interest: Paparazzi and Promoters 251
Developing Public Trust: PR Ethics 251
Raising Social Awareness: The PSA 252
Sample PSAs 254
Anti-drinking and anti-smoking ads, such as the ones shown in this video, reinforce the health and safety risks of alcohol and tobacco use, especially to younger audiences.
Facilitating Communication: Diversity in New PR 255
Conclusion: Selling Ideas, Framing Perceptions 256
9 Media Industry 258
In this chapter we take a look inside the fascinating and often complex world of the business and economics of the media industry and the forces and challenges driving the industry in the 21st century.
Tracing American Media Ownership 262
Vertical Integration: Process and Impact 263
Public Corporations and Private Ownership 264
Localism: A Model Alternative 265
Content Control from the Boardroom 266
News Corporation: Agenda or Profit? 266
Corporate Influence on the News 267
An excerpt from Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, highlighting public concerns over corporate control over news.
Catering to the Local Audiences 267
The Economics of Media: Three Models 268
The American Commercial Model 269
The Public Sphere Model 271
The New Media Model: The Internet Alternative 272
Arianna Huffington 274
The Huffington Post’s successful business model is helping to drive the migration of newspapers and news organizations onto the Web.
The Federal Communication Commission 276
The Business of Music and Sound Recording 278
Technology Turns the Tide: Music Makes Money 278
The Recording Industry 279
Race Music: The Predecessor to Rhythm and Blues 280
The Business of Radio 281
Commercial Radio: Beginnings 281
Recording Technologies Drive Radio Content 282
Going Digital: The Demise of Music on the Radio 283
The Business of Television and Film 285
The Audience Is “King” 287
Finding the Right Audience: Targeting Factors 287
Audiences Under the Influence: Media Effects 288
Researching the Audience: Identifying Trends 289
Targeting the Children’s Audience 290
Empowering the Passive Media Consumer 291
The Effects of Media Globalization 292
Conclusion: Surviving the Business of Mass Media in the Digital Age 294
10 Media Bias 296
This chapter explores why some media outlets show specific bias and identifies the different forms of bias that exist; it also takes a critical look at the audience’s role in driving bias in the media.
The Building Blocks of Bias 300
Catherine Crier on Media Bias 301
Catherine Crier, former State Supreme Court judge, author, and TV host discusses media bias.
Are the Media Always Biased? 301
Packaging Media Bias 302
Types of Media Bias 304
Bias by Selection 305
Bias by Extraordinary Experiences 305
Bias by Market Demand 306
Perspectives on Media Bias 307
Multiple perspectives on bias in the media from top personalities in the field.
The Economics of Media Bias 308
Corporate Control of the Media Message 309
Federal Control of the Media Message 309
Bias in Films and Television 310
The Liberal Rebel 311
The Global Evangelist 311
The Missionary Filmmaker 312
The Civics Lesson 312
The Newsman-Comic 313
The Protector 313
Bias in Blogs 314
Are Mainstream Media Liberally Biased? 315
Drawing the Line Between Fact and Opinion 316
REM, “Bad Day” 318
Michael Stipe’s satirical musical commentary on the 24/7 news cycle.
Conclusion: What Is the Impact of Bias in American Media? 318
11 Mass Media Law and Ethics 320
This chapter explores the inextricable links between mass media, law, and the advance of technological innovation, as well as how we should define media ethics in our rapidly evolving global culture.
Brief History of Mass Media Law 323
The Printing Press Challenges Early Regulation 323
Benjamin Franklin and the Fourth Estate 324
The First Amendment 325
Robert Wuhl, Assume the Position 325
Excerpts from the HBO series Assume the Position with Robert Wuhl.
Early Attempts at Censorship 326
Regulatory Censorship in the 21st Century 327
Defamation: Libel and Slander 328
Media and Privacy 329
Privacy on the Internet 329
Invasion of Privacy Laws 330
The Privacy of Public Figures and in
Public Places 331
Privacy in Public Places 332
The widespread use of security monitoring technology in public places is challenging previous legal limitations on the protection of individual privacy.
Mass Media Law and National Security 333
The Freedom of Information Act 334
Historical Roots of Copyright Law 335
Lawrence Lessig on Copyright History 336
Stanford University Law Professor Lawrence Lessig explores the historic roots and present 21st-century challenges of U.S. Copyright Law.
Fair Use Doctrine 336
Copyright and Ownership of Digital Properties 337
Enforcing Copyright Law in a Digital World 337
Copyright Basics 339
An animated quick tutorial on how copyright works.
Alternative Approaches to Copyright Protection 340
Creative Commons 340
Introduction to the Creative Commons alternative to traditional copyright law.
Enforcing Copyright Law on a Global Playing Field 341
International Models of Intellectual Property Law 342
International Broadcast Law and Regulation 342
Confidentiality in Newsgathering 343
Reporting on Government Officials and Agencies 344
Reporting on the Judiciary 345
Pornography: Free Expression or Obscenity? 345
Distinguishing Between Obscenity and Pornography 346
The Miller Test 347
Ethics and Mass Media 348
The Philosophy Behind Mass Media Ethics 349
Self-Regulation in the Media 350
Journalistic Ethics 351
Former White House correspondent Lee Thornton on journalistic ethics and the Jayson Blair case.
The Ethical Challenges of a Converged World 352
The Public as Media Producers: Ethical Responsibilities 352
Critical Models for Mass Media Ethics 353
Conclusion: We Are Legally and Ethically Responsible 354
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 356
IV THE MEDIA EXPERIENCE, CULTURE AND YOU
12 The Power of Photography in Mass Media 358
This chapter concentrates on photography as a visual mass medium and how technological advances in photography have contributed to a more active media-consumer culture.
Visual Communication in Mass Media 362
Understanding Visual Literacy 362
Finding Meaning in Visual Media 363
The Visual Form 363
The Subject Matter 364
The Media Environment 364
Photography and Modern Culture 366
History of Photography–Part I 367
Learn how photography throughout its over 150-year history has played an important role in helping to define our sense of culture.
Manufactured Realities 367
Framed Realities 369
History of Photography–Part II 370
Watch this segment on the impact of photography on major events in American history from the late 19th century forward.
Sexuality as Subject 370
Photojournalism: The Image as a Mass Medium 371
Photojournalism Covers Major Events 373
Photojournalism Profiles Faces of the Great Depression 373
Photojournalism During World War II 374
Photojournalism in the Post—World War II Years 376
Photojournalism Covers Science and Nature 377
History of Photography–Part III 379
A look at the work and influence of some of America’s photography masters.
Photography in the Digital Age 379
Conclusion: The Mass Media Effects of the Photographic Image 380
13 Journalism in the Digital Millennium 382
In this chapter we will explore New Journalism and the special trends and challenges facing journalists in the
21st century and the new skill sets required to meet these new challenges.
Reinventing Journalism for the Digital Millennium 386
The New Wave of “New Journalism” 387
From Short-Tail to Long-Tail Journalism 388
The 24/7 News Cycle: All the News, All the Time 388
Journalism in the Online World: Alternative Forms and Methods 392
News Aggregator Sites 393
Hyperlocal News Sites 394
The New World of Reporting, Writing and Editing the News 396
Mediated Content in the Digital World: We Still Need Editors 398
Journalism Produced Directly for the Web 399
Penniman on News for the Web 399
American News Project’s Nick Penniman on the unique nature of video news stories produced directly for the Web.
Backpack Journalism: Delivering More with Fewer Resources 400
Penniman on Backpack Journalism 401
View how the American News Project applies backpack-style journalism to muckrake (investigative) reporting.
Gentile on Backpack Journalism 402
Backpack journalism pioneer Bill Gentile shares his experiences working as an embedded journalist on the frontlines.
Trade-offs and Risks of Backpack Journalism 403
Unique Ethical Challenges of New Journalism 405
Conclusion: The Mission of Journalism Remains the Same 406
14 Media Impact on the Global Stage 408
This chapter looks at how mass media have led to the growth of democracies, and the role mass media systems have played on societies and cultures throughout the world in the 21st century.
The Role of Mass Media 412
Setting the Public Agenda 412
Inspiring Democracy 414
Global Mass Media Systems 417
The Libertarian (Free Press) System 417
The Social-Responsibility System 418
The Authoritarian System 418
The Soviet-Communist System 418
Mass Media Systems in Development 420
Women on the Frontlines 421
Jeanine Nahigombeye, director of Radio Isanganiro, explains her sometimes risky efforts, and the efforts of other women like her, to present fair and balanced journalism promoting peace in civil-war torn Burundi.
Radio Paves the Way 421
The Influence of Satellite Television 422
Arthur C. Clarke 422
Clarke’s groundbreaking work continues to serve as a model for the important role mass media technology plays in social and cultural development.
The Role of the Internet 423
Mass Media and Cultural Context 424
The Influence of High- and Low-Context Cultures 424
The Cultural Divide Plays Out in the Media 425
Cyberspace Globalizes Media and Culture 426
Media Cultures Compete for Survival 426
Culture Conflict 427
Excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World, a film by Charles C. Stuart, which features a Muslim perspective of how American media are affecting the Muslim cultural identity.
Blaming American Media 428
Another excerpt from Hollywood and the Muslim World that features students from American University in Cairo expressing their views on how American culture has deeply influenced Arabs’ self identity.
Media Dominance and the Global Marketplace 428
Al Jazeera 429
Charles C. Stuart explores the heart of the controversial Al Jazeera Network from Doha, Qatar.
Mass Media and Global Diplomacy 430
Information Immediacy and Its Effects on Diplomacy 430
National Security and the World Wide Web 431
Equalizing the Global Community Through Media Technology 432
Conclusion: The Transformative Power of Mass Media 434
15 Stories of Diversity in American Media 436
In this chapter we will explore the sometimes conflicting roles that the media play to advance the cause of ethnic, racial, cultural and sexual diversity, and follow the stories of pioneering figures who have used the media to push against cultural barriers and move into the mainstream.
Pioneers of Latino Media in America 440
The Spanish-Language Press Offers Voice to the Exiled 440
Latino Radio Attracts Business 441
Latino Television Unites, Educates and Empowers 442
The Emergence of Latino TV 443
Univision’s Maria Elena Salinas explores the impact of Univision and Latino Television on today’s Latin American communities.
Latino Entertainment Enters the Mainstream 443
Pioneers of Black Media in America 444
The Black Press Restores Black Identity 445
The Black Press Exposes Inequality 445
The Black Press Promotes Civil Rights 446
John Sengstacke and the Chicago Defender 447
Groundbreaking black newspaper publisher John Sengstacke, tells the story of the role of the ChicagoDefender in the Great Migration of Blacks to the North.
Black Radio–The Voice of The People 448
Black Entertainers Dismantle Stereotypes 448
Pioneering Women in Early American Media 449
Women Stereotypes 450
A critical look at historical and contemporary portrayals of women in the media, particularly through film.
The First Black Woman Newspaper Editor 450
World War II Alters Women’s Roles 451
A Woman Becomes a Television News Broadcaster 451
Women Struggle with Tradition in the 1950s 452
Women Liberate in the 1960s 453
The Doors Widen for Women in the 1970s 453
Women Continue to Seek Equal Opportunity in the 1980s to Now 454
The Impact of Women in Media 454
Filmmaker and author Patricia Melton explores the global impact of women on television.
Pioneers of Asian American Media 455
The Mainstream Media Portray Asians in America 455
Asian American Media Begin with Chinese Immigration 456
Media Stereotypes Plague Asians in the Early 20th Century 457
Asian Americans Break Through in 21st-Century Media 458
Pioneers of Gay and Lesbian American Media 459
Gay Rights Are Human Rights 459
The Sexual Revolution Gives Gay Rights Momentum 460
Gay and Lesbian Media Enter the Mainstream 461
Conclusion: On the Path Toward Greater Future Diversity 462
16 Working in the Mass Media in the Digital Age 464
This chapter talks about the multiple career opportunities one can pursue in the mass media field; videos feature days in the lives of various media professionals.
Employment Trends in Mass Media 468
Hourly and Salaried Wage Earners 468
Contract Professionals 468
Freelance Professionals 469
Survey of Selected Media Industries 470
Newspapers and Magazines 470
Newspaper Editor 471
Loretta Harring, the managing editor of one of the oldest continually-published regional newspapers in America, discusses what she looks for when hiring recent journalism school graduates and the important roles still played by regional and local newspapers.
Television and Radio Broadcasting 472
TV Sports Anchor 472
Joe Fonzi, sports reporter and anchor at San Francisco television station KTVU, shares the challenges and excitement of working as a broadcast sports reporter.
NPR Radio News Host 473
Michel Martin, talk radio host of the NPR news program “Tell Me More,” explains how she decides the day’s agenda, which includes carefully selecting the most important news stories of the day.
Film and Video Production 473
Documentary Film Producer, MTV 474
Cheryl Horner Sirulnick, founder and executive producer ofGigantic! Productions for MTV, describes the creative andtechnical process of developing documentary projects.
Advertising and Public Relations 475
Entertainment Public Relations Agent 476
Marcus Bass, of Spelling Communications, describes his career and his experiences working as an entertainment public relations professional in Hollywood.
Music Industry 476
Radio DJ 477
Sam Diggedy, popular radio DJ at KDON Top-40 radio in Northern California describes what it is like to be a popular radio DJ.
Magazine Photo Editor, National Geographic 479
Elizabeth Krist, senior photo editor at National Geographic, describes the fairly involved and complex process of developing a photographic narrative to accompany an approved story.
Video Game Industry 480
Video Game Developer 481
The founder of a leading video game company gives a tour of the process of video gave development and a glimpse inside what it is really like to work on a video game development team.
Achieving Success in the Media Industry 481
Soft Skills, Hard Skills 481
The Power of Portfolios 482
Conclusion: Make the Industry Want You 484
Chapter Summaries and ACEJMC Learning Objectives 486