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Psychological Testing : History, Principles, and Applications,9780205468829
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Psychological Testing : History, Principles, and Applications

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205468829

ISBN10:
0205468829
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $169.20
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Summary

The goal of Psychological Testing is to teach students about the characteristics, objectives, and wide-ranging effects of psychological testing. In addition to the breadth of coverage of traditional topics, the fifth edition features new detailed presentations on neuropsychological and geriatric assessment, the early uses and abuses of testing, assessment of learning disabilities, testing in special settings, race differences in IQ, and cheating on national group achievement tests. The author describes and critiques the latest versions of the most widely used tests, examines the subtleties of the testing process, and explores the value-laden issues surrounding the wisdom of testing. Other Highlights of the Fifth Edition bull; bull;Chapter 2, "The History of Psychological Testing," and Appendix A, "Major Landmarks in the History of Psychological Testing," give students a broad overview of the field. bull;The importance of ethical and social issues in testing is emphasized in Chapter 1, "Applications and Consequences of Testing." bull;Real-world case studies bring concepts to life for students.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Applications and Consequences of Psychological Testing 1(44)
TOPIC 1A The Nature and Uses of Psychological Testing
1(24)
The Consequences of Testing
2(1)
Definition of a Test
2(4)
Case Exhibit 1.1 True-Life Vignettes of Testing
3(3)
Further Distinctions in Testing
6(1)
Types of Tests
7(3)
Uses of Testing
10(2)
Factors Influencing the Soundness of Testing
12(1)
Case Exhibit 1.2 The Impact of Nonstandard Testing
13(1)
Standardized Procedures in Test Administration
13(2)
Desirable Procedures of Test Administration
15(4)
Influence of the Examiner
19(2)
Background and Motivation of the Examinee
21(2)
Summary
23(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
24(1)
TOPIC 1B Ethical and Social Implications of Testing
25(20)
The Rationale for Professional Testing Standards
25(1)
Responsibilities of Test Publishers
26(3)
Case Exhibit 1.3 Ethical and Professional Quandaries in Testing
27(2)
Responsibilities of Test Users
29(2)
Case Exhibit 1.4 Overzealous
Interpretation of the MMPI
31(4)
Testing of Cultural and Linguistic Minorities
35(5)
Unintended Effects of High-Stakes Testing
40(2)
Reprise: Responsible Test Use
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
44(1)
2 The History of Psychological Testing 45(31)
TOPIC 2A The Origins of Psychological Testing
45(15)
The Importance of Testing
46(1)
Rudimentary Forms of Testing in China in 2200 B.C.
47(1)
Psychiatric Antecedents of Psychological Testing
47(1)
Physiognomy, Phrenology, and the Psychograph
48(1)
The Brass Instruments Era of Testing
49(4)
Changing Conceptions of Mental Retardation in the 1800's
53(1)
Influence of Binet's Early Research on His Test
54(1)
Binet and Testing for Higher Mental Processes
55(2)
The Revised Scales and the Advent of IQ
57(1)
Summary
58(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
59(1)
TOPIC 2B Early Testing in the United States
60(16)
Early Uses and Abuses of Tests in the United States
60(2)
Howard Knox and Nonverbal Tests in the Early 1900's
62(2)
The Stanford-Binet: The Early Mainstay of IQ
64(1)
Group Tests and the Classification of WWI Army Recruits
64(5)
Early Educational Testing
69(1)
The Development of Aptitude Tests
69(1)
Personality and Vocational Testing after WWI
70(1)
The Origins of Projective Testing
71(2)
The Development of Interest Inventories
73(1)
Summary of Major Landmarks in the History of Testing
73(1)
Summary
74(2)
3 Norms and Reliability 76(43)
TOPIC 3A Norms and Test Standardization
76(20)
Case Exhibit 3.1 Outmoded Tests and Outdated Norms
77(1)
Raw Scores
78(1)
Essential Statistical Concepts
78(5)
Raw Score Transformations
83(7)
Selecting a Norm Group
90(3)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
93(1)
Summary
94(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
95(1)
TOPIC 3 B Concepts of Reliability
96(23)
Case Exhibit 3.2 Test Reliability and Courtroom Testimony
97(1)
Classical Test Theory and the Sources of Measurement Error
98(1)
Sources of Measurement Error
98(2)
Measurement Error and Reliability
100(1)
The Reliability Coefficient
101(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
102(1)
The Correlation Coefficient as a Reliability Coefficient
103(1)
Reliability as Temporal Stability
103(1)
Reliability as Internal Consistency
104(4)
Item Response Theory
108(3)
The New Rules of Measurement
111(1)
Special Circumstances in the Estimation of Reliability
112(1)
The Interpretation of Reliability Coefficients
113(1)
Reliability and the Standard Error of Measurement
114(3)
Summary
117(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
118(1)
4 Validity and Test Development 119(44)
TOPIC 4A Basic Concepts of Validity
119(24)
Validity: A Definition
120(1)
Case Exhibit 4.1 Research as the Essential Proof of Test Validity
121(1)
Content Validity
121(2)
Criterion-Related Validity
123(8)
Construct Validity
131(1)
Approaches to Construct Validity
132(7)
Extravalidity Concerns and the Widening Scope of Test Validity
139(2)
Summary
141(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
142(1)
TOPIC 4B Test Construction
143(20)
Defining the Test
144(1)
Selecting a Scaling Method
144(2)
Representative Scaling Methods
146(4)
Constructing the Items
150(3)
Testing the Items
153(5)
Revising the Test
158(2)
Publishing the Test
160(1)
Summary
161(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
162(1)
5 Theories and Individual Tests of Intelligence and Achievement 163(132)
TOPIC 5A Theories of Intelligence and Factor Analysis
163(31)
Definitions of Intelligence
164(4)
Case Exhibit 5.1 Learning and Adaptation as Core Functions of Intelligence
166(2)
A Primer of Factor Analysis
168(7)
Galton and Sensory Keenness
175(1)
Spearman and the g Factor
176(1)
Thurstone and the Primary Mental Abilities
177(1)
Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory
178(3)
Piaget and Adaptation
181(1)
Guilford and the Structure-of-Intellect Model
182(2)
Theory of Simultaneous and Successive Processing
184(1)
Information-Processing Theories of Intelligence
185(1)
Intelligence as a Biological Construct
185(2)
Gardner and the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
187(1)
Sternberg and the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
188(3)
Summary
191(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
192(2)
TOPIC 5B Individual Tests of Intelligence and Achievement
194(38)
Orientation to Individual Intelligence Tests
195(1)
The Wechsler Scales of Intelligence
195(2)
The Wechsler Subtests: Description and Analysis
197(8)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III
205(3)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV
208(3)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Fifth Edition
211(3)
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-4
214(1)
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II
215(4)
Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT)
219(1)
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2)
220(1)
Individual Tests of Achievement
221(3)
Nature and Assessment of Learning Disabilities
224(6)
Summary
230(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
231(1)
6 Group Tests and Controversies in Ability Testing
232(63)
TOPIC 6A Group Tests of Ability and Related Concepts
232(34)
Nature, Promise, and Pitfalls of Group Tests
233(1)
Group Tests of Ability
234(12)
Multiple Aptitude Test Batteries
246(6)
Predicting College Performance
252(3)
Postgraduate Selection Tests
255(3)
Educational Achievement Tests
258(4)
Effects of Coaching on Aptitude Test Scores
262(2)
Summary
264(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
265(1)
TOPIC 6B Test Bias and Other Controversies
266(29)
Misconceptions about IQ
266(2)
The Question of Test Bias
268(8)
Social Values and Test Fairness
276(1)
Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Intelligence
277(6)
Origins of African American and White IQ Differences
283(4)
Age Changes in Intelligence
287(4)
Generational Changes in Intelligence Test Scores
291(2)
Summary
293(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
294(1)
7 Testing Special Populations 295(145)
TOPIC 7A Infant and Preschool Assessment
295(25)
Assessment of Infant Ability
296(4)
Assessment of Preschool Intelligence
300(7)
Practical Utility of Infant and Preschool Assessment
307(3)
Screening for School Readiness
310(8)
Summary
318(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
319(1)
TOPIC 7B Testing Persons with Disabilities
320(21)
Origins of Tests for Special Populations
320(1)
Nonlanguage Tests
321(6)
Nonreading and Motor-Reduced Tests
327(3)
Case Exhibit 7.1 The Challenge of Assessment in Cerebral Palsy
328(2)
Testing Persons with Visual Impairments
330(1)
Testing Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
331(1)
Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Mental Retardation
332(7)
Summary
339(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
340(1)
8 Origins of Personality Testing
341(36)
TOPIC 8A Theories and the Measurement of Personality
341(16)
Personality: An Overview
342(1)
Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
342(4)
Type Theories of Personality
346(2)
Phenomenological Theories of Personality
348(1)
Behavioral and Social Learning Theories
349(2)
Trait Conceptions of Personality
351(4)
Summary
355(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
356(1)
TOPIC 8B Projective Techniques
357(20)
The Projective Hypothesis
357(1)
A Primer of Projective Techniques
357(2)
Association Techniques
359(5)
Completion Techniques
364(3)
Construction Techniques
367(5)
Expression Techniques
372(2)
Reprise: The Projective Paradox
374(1)
Case Exhibit 8.1 Projective Tests as Ancillary to the Interview
375(1)
Summary
375(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
376(1)
9 Structured Assessment of Personality and Other Qualities
377(63)
TOPIC 9A Self-Report Inventories
377(42)
Theory-Guided Inventories
378(6)
Factor-Analytically Derived Inventories
384(7)
Criterion-Keyed Inventories
391(10)
Attitudes and Their Assessment
401(4)
The Assessment of Moral Judgment
405(3)
The Assessment of Spiritual and Religious Concepts
408(8)
Summary
416(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
418(1)
TOPIC 9B Behavioral and Observational Assessment
419(21)
Foundations of Behavior Therapy
420(1)
Behavior Therapy and Behavioral Assessment
421(7)
Structured Interview Schedules
428(2)
Assessment by Systematic Direct Observation
430(2)
Assessment of Nonverbal Behavior
432(4)
Analogue Behavioral Assessment
436(1)
Ecological Momentary Assessment
437(1)
Summary
438(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
439(1)
10 Neuropsychological Assessment and Screening 440(55)
TOPIC 10A A Primer of Neurobiological Concepts
440(26)
The Human Brain: An Overview
441(3)
Structures and Systems of the Brain
444(1)
Survival Systems: The Hindbrain and Midbrain
445(2)
Attentional Systems
447(1)
Motor/Coordination Systems
448(2)
Memory Systems
450(1)
Limbic System
451(1)
Language Functions and Cerebral Lateralization
451(3)
Visual System
454(1)
Executive Functions
455(3)
Neuropathology of Adulthood and Aging
458(4)
Brain Imaging Techniques
462(1)
Summary
463(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
464(2)
TOPIC 10B Neuropsychological Tests, Batteries, and Screening Tools
466(29)
A Conceptual Model of Brain–Behavior Relationships
467(1)
Assessment of Sensory Input
468(2)
Measures of Attention and Concentration
470(3)
Tests of Learning and Memory
473(5)
Assessment of Language Functions
478(2)
Tests of Spatial and Manipulatory Ability
480(4)
Assessment of Executive Functions
484(2)
Assessment of Motor Output
486(1)
Test Batteries in Neuropsychological Assessment
487(2)
Case Exhibit 10.1 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery
488(1)
Screening for Alcohol Use Disorders
489(2)
Assessment of Mental Status in the Elderly
491(2)
Summary
493(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
494(1)
11 Industrial, Occupational, and Forensic Assessment 495(65)
TOPIC 11A Industrial and Organizational Assessment
495(40)
The Role of Testing in Personnel Selection
496(1)
Autobiographical Data
497(2)
The Employment Interview
499(2)
Cognitive Ability Tests
501(4)
Personality and Temperament Tests
505(1)
Paper-and-Pencil Integrity Tests
506(2)
Work Sample and Situational Exercises
508(3)
Appraisal of Work Performance
511(2)
Case Exhibit 11.1 Career Assignment in Canada
512(1)
Approaches to Performance Appraisal
513(5)
Sources of Error in Performance Appraisal
518(2)
Inventories for Interest Assessment
520(12)
Summary
532(2)
Key Terms and Concepts
534(1)
TOPIC 11B Forensic Applications of Assessment
535(25)
Standards for the Expert Witness
536(1)
The Nature of Forensic Assessment
537(1)
Evaluation of Suspected Malingering
538(2)
Assessment of Mental State for the Insanity Plea
540(3)
Competency to Stand Trial
543(2)
Prediction of Violence and Assessment of Risk
545(3)
Evaluation of Child Custody in Divorce
548(4)
Personal Injury and Related Testimony
552(1)
Interpretation of Polygraph Records
553(2)
Specialized Personality Assessment in Forensic Settings
555(2)
Controversy over the Psychologist as Expert Witness
557(1)
Summary
558(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
559(1)
12 Legal Issues and the Future of Testing 560(40)
TOPIC 12A Psychological Testing and the Law
560(20)
The Sources and Nature of Law
560(4)
Testing in School Systems and the Law
564(5)
Disability Assessment and the Law
569(3)
Case Exhibit 12.1 Unwise Testing Practices in Employee Screening
572(1)
Legal Issues in Employment Testing
572(6)
Summary
578(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
579(1)
Topic 12B Computerized Assessment and the Future of Testing
580(20)
Computers in Testing: Overview and History
580(2)
Computer-Based Test Interpretation: Current Status
582(7)
High-Definition Video and Virtual Reality: The New Horizons of CAPA
589(2)
Evaluation of Computer-Based Test Interpretation
591(3)
Case Exhibit 12.2 Unwise Reliance on a
Computerized MMPI Report
594(1)
Computerized Adaptive Testing
595(1)
The Future of Testing
596(2)
Summary
598(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
599(1)
APPENDIX A Major Landmarks in the History of Psychological Testing 600(3)
APPENDIX B Test Publisher Addresses 603(2)
APPENDIX C Major Tests and Their Publishers 605(5)
APPENDIX D Standard and Standardized-Score Equivalents of Percentile Ranks in a Normal Distribution 610(2)
Glossary 612(12)
References 624(62)
Name Index 686(12)
Subject Index 698


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