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Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques,9780205418497
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Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205418497

ISBN10:
020541849X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Public Relations Writing and Media Techniquesis the most comprehensive and up-to-date PR writing text available, with real-world examples of outstanding work by public relations professionals. The text thoroughly integrates new communication technologies┐the Internet, Webcasting, etc.┐and shows students the many techniques currently in use to reach a variety of audiences. Clearly written and well-organized, this book places emphasis on the nuts and bolts of daily work in public relations, giving students step-by-step procedures for creating and distributing a variety of successful public relations materials. An engaging and highly effective text for students,Public Relations Writing and Media Techniquesis also an invaluable resource for public relations practitioners.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
PART ONE The Basics of Public Relations Writing
Chapter 1 Preparing for Writing
1(36)
The Framework of Public Relations
2(1)
Writing Is Only One Component
2(1)
Writers as Communication Technicians
2(1)
The Public Relations Writer
3(4)
Objectives
3(3)
Audiences
6(1)
Channels
6(1)
Preparation for Writing
7(15)
Computer
7(3)
References
10(8)
Research: Prelude to Writing
18(1)
Online Networks
19(1)
The Internet and the World Wide Web
19(3)
Writing Guidelines
22(7)
Outlining the Purpose
22(3)
Sentences
25(1)
Paragraphs
25(1)
Word Choice
26(1)
Active Verbs/Present Tense
27(1)
Imagery
28(1)
Errors to Avoid
29(5)
Spelling
29(1)
Gobbledygook and Jargon
29(1)
Poor Sentence Structure
30(1)
Wrong Words
30(1)
"Sound-alike" Words
30(1)
Redundancies
31(1)
Too Many Numbers
32(1)
Hype
32(1)
Bias and Stereotypes
32(1)
Politically Incorrect Language
33(1)
Summary
34(1)
Additional Resources
35(2)
Chapter 2 Persuasive Writing
37(26)
The Basics of Communication
39(1)
Receiver
39(1)
Media
40(1)
Message
40(1)
Sender
40(1)
Theories of Communication
40(8)
Two-Step Flow Theory
40(1)
Media Uses and Gratifications
41(1)
Cognitive Dissonance
41(1)
Media Effects
41(1)
Framing
42(1)
Diffusion and Adoption
42(2)
Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory
44(1)
Applying Theory to Practice
44(4)
Persuasive Writing
48(10)
Audience Analysis
48(1)
Source Credibility
49(1)
Appeal to Self-Interest
50(1)
Clarity of Message
50(1)
Timing and Context
51(1)
Symbols, Slogans and Acronyms
51(1)
Semantics
52(1)
Suggestions for Action
53(1)
Content and Structure
54(4)
The Ethics of Persuasion
58(3)
Summary
61(1)
Additional Resources
62(1)
Chapter 3 Legal and Ethical Guidelines
63(29)
Examples of Legal Problems
64(1)
Libel and Slander
65(1)
The Fair Comment Defense
66(1)
Invasion of Privacy
66(1)
Releases for Advertising and Promotion
67(1)
Regulations of Government Agencies
68(6)
Securities and Exchange Commission
68(4)
Federal Trade Commission
72(1)
Other Regulatory Agencies
73(1)
Copyright Law
74(6)
Fair Use and Infringement
75(5)
The Rights of Freelancers
80(1)
Trademark Law
80(4)
Working with Lawyers
84(1)
Ethics and Professionalism
85(5)
Summary
90(1)
Additional Resources
91(1)
Chapter 4 Finding and Generating News
92(33)
Barriers to Media Coverage
93(1)
What Makes News?
94(7)
Timeliness
94(1)
Prominence
95(1)
Proximity
96(2)
Significance
98(1)
Unusualness
98(1)
Human Interest
99(1)
Conflict
100(1)
Newness
101(1)
How to Find News
101(3)
Internal News Sources
101(2)
External News Sources
103(1)
How to Create News
104(18)
Brainstorming
105(2)
Special Events
107(3)
Contests
110(2)
Polls and Surveys
112(4)
Top 10 Lists
116(1)
Product Demonstrations
116(2)
Stunts
118(2)
Rallies and Protests
120(1)
Personal Appearances
121(1)
Summary
122(1)
Additional Resources
123(2)
PART TWO Writing for Mass Media
Chapter 5 News Releases and Fact Sheets
125(30)
The Value of News Releases and Fact Sheets
127(1)
Planning a News Release
127(3)
The Basic Questions
127(1)
Selection of Paper
128(1)
Spacing and Margins
128(2)
Use AP Style
130(1)
Types of News Releases
130(5)
Announcements
130(1)
Spot Announcements
131(1)
Reaction Releases
131(2)
Bad News
133(2)
Local News
135(1)
Types of Fact Sheets
135(1)
Parts of a News Release
136(12)
Letterhead
136(5)
Contacts
141(1)
Headline
141(1)
Dateline
142(1)
The Lead
143(2)
Body of Text
145(3)
Placement
148(4)
Gatekeepers
149(2)
Deadlines
151(1)
Getting Maximum Results
151(1)
Summary
152(2)
Additional Resources
154(1)
Chapter 6 News Features
155(24)
The Value of Features
156(1)
Planning a News Feature
157(3)
Ways to Proceed
159(1)
Types of Features
160(7)
Case Study
160(2)
Application Story
162(1)
Research Study
163(2)
Backgrounder
165(1)
Personality Profile
166(1)
Historical Piece
167(1)
Parts of a Feature
167(8)
The Headline
167(4)
The Lead
171(2)
Body of the Feature
173(1)
Summary
173(2)
Photos and Graphics
175(1)
Placement Opportunities
175(2)
Newspapers
175(1)
General Magazines
176(1)
Specialty/Trade Magazines
177(1)
Internal Publications
177(1)
Summary
177(1)
Additional Resources
178(1)
Chapter 7 Photos and Graphics
179(22)
Elements of a Good Publicity Photo
181(9)
Quality
181(1)
Subject Matter
182(1)
Composition
182(1)
Action
183(2)
Scale
185(1)
Camera Angle
186(1)
Lighting and Timing
187(1)
Color
188(2)
Working with Photographers
190(3)
Finding Photographers
190(1)
Contracts
190(1)
The Photo Session
191(1)
Cropping and Retouching
191(1)
Ethical Considerations
192(1)
Writing Photo Captions
193(3)
Distribution of Photos and Captions
196(1)
Graphics
196(3)
Charts
197(1)
Diagrams
198(1)
Renderings and Models
198(1)
Maps
198(1)
Line Drawings and Clip Art
199(1)
Photo and Art Files
199(1)
Summary
199(1)
Additional Resources
200(1)
Chapter 8 Pitch Letters, Advisories, Media Kits, and Op-Ed
201(29)
Pitch Letters
203(5)
Researching the Publication
204(1)
Preparing the Pitch Letter
205(3)
Follow Up Your Letter
208(1)
Media Alerts
208(4)
Media Kits
212(10)
Corporate Profile
214(1)
Backgrounder
214(2)
Compiling a Media Kit
216(5)
Electronic Media Kits
221(1)
Op-Ed
222(5)
Op-Ed: A Case History
225(1)
Letters to the Editor
226(1)
Summary
227(2)
Additional Resources
229(1)
Chapter 9 Radio, Television, and Webcasting
230(47)
Radio
231(12)
Radio News Releases
231(3)
Audio News Releases
234(4)
Public Service Announcements
238(5)
Radio Media Tours
243(1)
Television
243(19)
Video News Releases
244(9)
Public Service Announcements
253(4)
Satellite Media Tours
257(5)
Personal Appearances and Product Placements
262(10)
Talk Shows
262(4)
Magazine Shows
266(1)
Product Placement
266(2)
Radio Promotions
268(1)
Community Calendars
269(1)
Editorials
270(1)
Free-Speech Messages
271(1)
Feature Films and Videos
271(1)
Webcasting
272(2)
Organizational Web Sites
272(2)
Summary
274(1)
Additional Resources
275(2)
Chapter 10 Distribution: Snail Mail to the Internet
277(27)
Finding the Media
279(5)
Media Directories
279(3)
Editorial Calendars
282(1)
Tip Sheets
283(1)
Distribution of Materials
284(12)
Mail
284(1)
Fax
285(2)
Electronic Wire Services
287(3)
Feature Placement Firms
290(3)
CD-ROM
293(1)
E-Mail
294(2)
The World Wide Web
296(5)
Usenet and Listserv
300(1)
The Continued Role of Traditional Media
301(1)
Summary
302(1)
Additional Resources
303(1)
Chapter 11 Working with the Media
304(35)
Media Dependence on Public Relations
305(1)
Public Relations Dependence on the Media
306(1)
Areas of Friction
307(5)
Hype and Other Irritations
307(2)
Name Calling
309(1)
Sloppy/Biased Reporting
309(1)
Tabloid Journalism
310(1)
Advertising Influence
311(1)
Working with Journalists
312(17)
Media Interviews
313(3)
News Conferences
316(4)
Teleconferences
320(1)
Media Tours
321(1)
Previews and Parties
322(4)
Press Junkets
326(1)
Editorial Board Meetings
327(2)
A Media Relations Checklist
329(4)
Media Etiquette
331(2)
Crisis Communication
333(3)
Summary
336(1)
Additional Resources
337(2)
PART THREE Writing for Other Media
Chapter 12 Newsletters, E-zines, and Brochures
339(36)
The Value of Print Publications
340(4)
The Dual Role of the Editor
344(3)
Mission Statement and Editorial Plan
345(2)
Newsletters and Magazines
347(10)
Meeting Audience Interests
349(2)
Design
351(6)
Electronic Newsletters
357(3)
Using an Intranet
357(3)
Brochures
360(10)
Planning
360(1)
Writing
361(3)
Production
364(1)
Paper
365(1)
Type Fonts
366(3)
Ink and Color
369(1)
Desktop Publishing
370(3)
Summary
373(1)
Additional Resources
374(1)
Chapter 13 The World Wide Web
375(33)
The Growth of the World Wide Web
377(2)
The Web: A Major Source for Journalists
379(6)
Creating a Press-Friendly Web Site
380(5)
Writing for the Web
385(3)
Building an Effective Web Site
388(16)
Making the Site Interactive
391(2)
Using Audio and Video Components
393(2)
Who Controls the Site?
395(2)
The Cost of a Site
397(1)
Attracting Visitors to Your Site
398(4)
Tracking Site Visitors
402(2)
Summary
404(2)
Additional Resources
406(2)
Chapter 14 E-Mail, Memos, Letters, Proposals, and Reports
408(23)
The Challenge of Information Overload
409(1)
E-Mail
410(4)
Purpose
410(1)
Content
411(2)
Format
413(1)
Memorandums
414(3)
Purpose
415(1)
Content
415(1)
Format
416(1)
Letters
417(2)
Purpose
417(1)
Content
418(1)
Format
418(1)
Proposals
419(2)
Purpose
420(1)
Organization
421(1)
Annual Reports
421(7)
Preparing an Annual Report
424(1)
Trends in Annual Reports
425(3)
Summary
428(1)
Additional Resources
429(2)
Chapter 15 Direct Mail and Advertising
431(33)
The Basics of Direct Mail
433(2)
Advantages of Direct Mail
433(1)
Disadvantages of Direct Mail
434(1)
Creating a Direct Mail Package
435(7)
Mailing Envelope
435(2)
The Letter
437(2)
Brochure
439(1)
Reply Card
440(1)
Return Envelope
440(1)
Gifts
441(1)
The Basics of Public Relations Advertising
442(2)
Advantages of Advertising
443(1)
Disadvantages of Advertising
443(1)
Types of Public Relations Advertising
444(10)
Image Building
445(3)
Investor and Financial Relations
448(1)
Public Service
448(2)
Advocacy/Issues
450(4)
Announcements
454(1)
Creating a Print Ad
454(2)
Headline
454(1)
Text
455(1)
Artwork
456(1)
Layout
456(1)
Working with an Ad Agency
456(1)
Other Advertising Channels
457(5)
Billboards
457(1)
Transit Panels
458(1)
Buttons and Bumper Stickers
458(1)
Posters
458(2)
Sponsored Books
460(1)
T-Shirts
460(1)
Promotional Items
461(1)
Product Placements
461(1)
Summary
462(1)
Additional Resources
463(1)
Chapter 16 Speeches and Presentations
464(33)
The Basics of Speech Writing
466(5)
Researching the Audience and Speaker
466(1)
Laying the Groundwork
466(3)
Writing the Speech
469(2)
The Basics of Giving a Speech
471(5)
Know Your Objective
472(1)
Structure the Message for the Ear
473(1)
Tailor Remarks to the Audience
474(1)
Give Specifics
475(1)
Keep It Short
476(1)
Eye Contact and Gestures
476(1)
Visual Aids for Presentations
476(10)
PowerPoint
478(4)
Slide Presentations
482(4)
Other Speech Formats
486(2)
Panels
486(1)
Debates
487(1)
Speaker Training and Placement
488(7)
Executive Training
488(1)
Speaker's Bureaus
489(1)
Placement of Speakers
490(2)
Publicity Opportunities
492(3)
Summary
495(1)
Additional Resources
496(1)
PART FOUR Managing Programs and Campaigns
Chapter 17 Meetings and Events
497(31)
Staff and Committee Meetings
498(1)
Club Meetings and Workshops
499(6)
Planning
499(3)
Registration
502(1)
Program
503(2)
Banquets
505(2)
Working with Banquet Managers
506(1)
Logistics and Timing
507(1)
Cocktail Parties and Receptions
507(5)
Open Houses and Plant Tours
512(1)
Conventions
513(4)
Planning
513(3)
Program
516(1)
Trade Shows
517(4)
Exhibit Booths
518(1)
Press Rooms
519(4692)
Planning Guidelines
5211
Promotional Events
521(4)
Summary
525(1)
Additional Resources
526(2)
Chapter 18 Program Planning
528(20)
Developing a Plan
530(2)
Gathering Information
530(2)
Analyzing the Information
532(1)
Elements of a Plan
532(11)
Situation
532(2)
Objectives
534(1)
Audience
535(2)
Strategy
537(1)
Tactics
537(2)
Calendar
539(2)
Budget
541(2)
Evaluation
543(1)
Reviewing the Final Draft
543(3)
Summary
546(1)
Additional Resources
546(2)
Chapter 19 Measurement & Evaluation
548(23)
The Importance of Evaluation
550(3)
Start with Objectives
551(2)
Measurement of Production/Distribution
553(1)
Measurement of Message Exposure
553(9)
Media Impressions
555(1)
Advertising Value Equivalency
556(1)
Systematic Tracking
557(2)
Monitoring the Internet
559(1)
Requests and 800 Numbers
560(1)
Cost per Person
560(1)
Event Attendance
561(1)
Measurement of Audience Awareness
562(1)
Measurement of Audience Attitudes
562(1)
Other Forms of Feedback
563(1)
Measurement of Audience Action
563(1)
Evaluation of Newsletters and Brochures
564(4)
Content Analysis
565(1)
Readership Surveys
565(1)
Article Recall
566(1)
Readability
567(1)
Advisory Boards and Focus Groups
568(1)
Writing an Evaluation Report
568(1)
Summary
569(1)
Additional Resources
570(1)
Glossary 571(4)
Index 575


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