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Public Speaking : Strategies For Success,9780205307890

Public Speaking : Strategies For Success

by
ISBN13:

9780205307890

ISBN10:
0205307892
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $57.00
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Table of Contents

To the Instructor xiii
To the Student xxi
Part 1 Foundations of Public Speaking 3(86)
Welcome to Public Speaking
3(34)
Why Study Public Speaking
4(2)
Apply What You Learn
Develop Specific Communication Skills
Focus on Critical Thinking and Strategic Planning
Public Speaking and Communication
6(2)
The Rhetorical Situation
8(4)
Determinants of the Rhetorical Situation
Goals and Strategies for Your First Speech
12(2)
A Clear Message
Establishing Positive Ethos
Strategies for Organizing Your Speech
14(4)
The Introduction
The Body
The Conclusion
Beginning Assignments
18(2)
The One-Point Speech
The Speech of Introduction
Practicing the Speech
20(3)
Outlining Your Speech
Practicing Your Delivery
Strategies for Overcoming Speech Anxiety
23(2)
The Quest for Quality
25(2)
Purpose and Quality
Feedback and Quality
Ethics: Respect for Audience, Topic, and Occasion
27(4)
Respect for Your Listeners
Respect for Your Topic
Responsibility for Your Statements
Concern for the Consequences of Your Speech
Summary
31(6)
Choose a Strategy
20(5)
Applying Strategies
25(12)
Listening Critically
37(26)
Are You Really Listening?
38(5)
Why Listening Is Important
Why Listening Is Difficult
Strategies for Careful Listening
43(5)
Mapping
Note Taking
Listening Critically
48(5)
Critical Thinking
Applying Critical Thinking to the Speech Situation
Evaluating Speeches Critically
53(5)
Evaluation Standards
Evaluating Classroom Speeches
Evaluating Speeches in the Field
Rhetorical Criticism
Summary
58(5)
Applying Strategies
53(10)
Analyzing Your Audience
63(26)
Checking Audience Demographics
65(2)
Size
Heterogeneity
Voluntary versus Captive Audience
Composition
Respecting Audience Culture
67(7)
Self-Interest
Personal Interests
Beliefs and Values
Prior Understanding
Common Knowledge and Experience
Roles and Reference Groups
Cultural Diversity
Understanding Audience Psychology
74(4)
Selective Exposure and Selective Attention
Perception
Strategies for Analyzing the Audience
78(4)
Formal Methods
Informal Methods
Simplifying Devices
Critical Appraisal
Analyzing Your Own Ethos
82(2)
Summary
84(5)
Applying Strategies
68(10)
Choose a Strategy
78(11)
Part 2 Invention and Development of the Speech 89(90)
Choosing a Topic and Developing a Strategy
89(28)
Understanding the Rhetorical Situation
91(4)
The Audience
The Occasion
The Speaker
The Speech
What Makes a Good Topic?
95(2)
How to Choose a Good Topic
97(3)
Conduct a Personal Inventory
Use Finding Aids
Narrow the Topic
Developing a Strategic Plan
100(8)
Identifying the Purpose
Identifying the Constraints
Identifying the Opportunities
Selecting the Means
Developing the Purpose Statement and the Thesis Statement
108(2)
The Purpose Statement
The Thesis Statement
Analyzing the Thesis Statement
110(2)
Identifying the Issues
Why Identify the Issues?
Summary
112(5)
Applying Strategies
100(17)
Researching the Topic
117(30)
Types of Supporting Material
118(7)
Personal Experience
Common Knowledge
Direct Observation
Examples
Documents
Statistics
Testimony
Finding Supporting Material from People
125(3)
Personal Experience
Interviews
Finding Supporting Material in Print
128(5)
Books
Reference Works
Periodicals
Newspapers
Government Publications
Finding Supporting Material Electronically
133(5)
Searching for Information on the Web
Avoiding Information Overload
Finding Useful Information
Evaluating Internet Evidence
A Strategy for Research
138(3)
Note Taking and Filing
141(2)
Summary
143(4)
Choose a Strategy
125(13)
Applying Strategies
138(9)
Reasoning
147(32)
Proof, Support, and Reasoning
148(5)
Rhetorical Proof as Support
Proof and the Audience
Components of Proof
An Example of Rhetorical Proof
Using Rhetorical Proof in Your Speech
Strategies for Reasoning through Example
153(4)
Types of Inference from Example
Tests for Inference from Example
Guidelines for Reasoning through Example
Strategies for Reasoning through Analogy
157(3)
Types of Inference from Analogy
Tests for Inference through Analogy
Guidelines for Reasoning through Analogy
Strategies for Reasoning through Signs
160(2)
Types of Inference from Signs
Tests for Inference from Signs
Guidelines for Reasoning through Signs
Strategies for Reasoning through Cause
162(3)
Types of Inference from Cause
Tests for Inference from Cause
Guidelines for Reasoning through Cause
Strategies for Reasoning through Testimony
165(4)
Types of Inference from Testimony
Tests for Inference from Testimony
Guidelines for Using Inferences from Testimony
Strategies for Reasoning through Narrative
169(1)
Tests for Inference from Narrative
Avoiding Errors in Reasoning
170(3)
Six General Tests of Inferences
Reasoning in Public Speaking
173(1)
Summary
174(5)
Applying Strategies
153(26)
Part 3 Arrangement of the Speech 179(74)
Organizing the Speech: The Body
179(26)
Why Is Organization Important?
180(1)
Selecting the Main Ideas
181(5)
Identifying Your Main Ideas
Choosing among Main Ideas
Criteria for Selecting the Main Ideas
Characteristics of the Main Ideas
Arranging the Main Ideas
186(9)
Factors Affecting Arrangement
Patterns for Arranging Main Ideas
Choosing the Organizational Pattern
Selecting and Arranging Supporting Materials
195(4)
Selection of Supporting Materials
Arrangement of Supporting Materials
Summary
199(6)
Applying Strategies
187(7)
Choose a Strategy
194(11)
Organizing the Speech: Introductions, Conclusions, and Transitions
205(28)
Introductions: Beginning the Speech
206(11)
The Purposes of an Introduction
An Example of an Introduction Types of Introductions
Strategies for Preparing an Introduction
Conclusions: Ending the Speech
217(6)
The Purposes of a Conclusion
An Example of a Conclusion
Types of Conclusions Strategies for Preparing a Conclusion
Transitions: Connecting the Elements of a Speech
223(6)
The Purposes of Transitions
Elements of Effective Transitions
Strategies for Preparing Transitions
Summary
229(4)
Applying Strategies
224(9)
Outlining the Speech
233(20)
The Preparation Outline
234(7)
What Does a Good Outline Look Like?
Constructing the Preparation Outline
Outlining Introductions and Conclusions
Outlining Transitions
Citing Supporting Materials in the Outline
The Presentation Outline
241(3)
Guidelines for the Presentation Outline
Use of Note Cards
Reference to Supporting Materials
Use of Stage Directions
Using an Outline in Rehearsal
Sample Outlines
244(5)
Summary
249(4)
Applying Strategies
236(17)
Part 4 Style and Delivery of the Speech 253(82)
Achieving Style through Language
253(28)
What Is Style?
254(6)
Style in a Speech
Style and Language
Oral Style versus Written Style
Basic Requirements for Effective Style
Defining Terms Appropriately
260(4)
Neutral Definitions
Denotation and Connotation in Definitions
Persuasive Definitions
Achieving Clarity, Rhythm, and Vividness
264(8)
Clarity
Rhythm
Vividness
Style and the Entire Speech
272(2)
Choosing the Right Level of Style
Finding the Right Pace and Proportion
Memorable Phrases
Congruence of Language and Delivery
Achieving Good Style
274(2)
Erroneous Assumptions about Speeches
Suggestions for Developing and Improving Style
Summary
276(5)
Applying Strategies
271(10)
Presenting the Speech
281(24)
Characteristics of Effective Presentation
282(1)
The Voice in Presentation
283(8)
Volume
Pitch
Rate
Pauses
Articulation and Enunciation
Pronunciation
The Body in Presentation
291(5)
Physical Appearance
Movement
Gesture
Facial Expression
Modes of Presentation
296(3)
Impromptu Presentation
Memorized Presentation
Manuscript Presentation
Extemporaneous Presentation
Practicing for Speech Presentation
299(2)
The Presentation Outline
Mental Rehearsal
Oral Practice
Simulation
Summary
301(4)
Applying Strategies
291(14)
Using Visual Aids
305(30)
Benefits of Using Visual Aids
306(2)
Interest
Credibility
Comprehension and Retention
Types of Visual Aids
308(10)
Charts
Graphs
Representations
Objects and Models
People
Choosing Materials for Visual Aids
318(5)
Chalkboard
Flip Charts
Posterboard
Handouts
Transparencies
Slides
Videotape
Preparing Visual Aids
323(2)
Storyboarding
Designing Visual Aids
Using Visual Aids in the Speech
325(1)
Computer-Generated Visual Aids
326(3)
Preparing Visual Aids on the Computer
Using Visual Aids on the Computer
329(1)
Summary
330(5)
Choose a Strategy
317(5)
Applying Strategies
322(13)
Part 5 Uses of Public Speaking 335(74)
Informing
335(20)
Matching Strategy to Purpose
336(4)
Defining Your Specific Purpose
Informing Your Audience
Clarifying Your Informative Goal
Informative Strategies
340(9)
Defining
Reporting
Describing
Explaining
Demonstrating
Comparing
Encouraging Retention
349(2)
Summary
351(4)
Choose a Strategy
342(1)
Applying Strategies
343(12)
Persuading
355(30)
Comparing Informative and Persuasive Strategies
356(2)
Asking for Commitment
Changing Degrees of Commitment
Plan Your Strategy
358(1)
Determine Your Target Audience
Assess Your Audience's Motivation
Requirements for Effective Persuasive Speaking
359(4)
Follow Appropriate Organizational Patterns
Establish Positive Ethos
Encourage Retention through Reinforcement
Use Sound Reasoning
Achieve Identification
Constraints on Effective Persuasive Speaking
363(4)
Selective Listening
Disposing of the Message
Compartmentalization
The Boomerang Effect
The Problem-Solution Speech
367(2)
Describe the Situation
Evaluate the Situation as a Problem
Propose a Solution
Argue for the Solution
Other Goals for Persuasive Speeches
369(7)
Strengthening Convication
Conversion
Refutation
Organizing for Persuasion
376(3)
The Motivated Sequence
Using the Motivated Sequence
Summary
379(6)
Applying Strategies
377(8)
Occasions for Public Speaking
385(24)
Fitting Your Speech to the Occasion
386(3)
Influence of the Occasion
The Concept of Decorum
Deliberative Speaking
389(6)
The Nature of Deliberative Speaking
Oral Reports and Presentations
Group Presentations
Ceremonial Speaking
395(3)
Reexperiencing a Common Past
Guidelines for Ceremonial Speaking
Ceremonial Speaking Occasions
398(5)
Speeches of Greeting
Speeches of Tribute
Speeches Marking Awards
Speeches Combining Deliberative and Ceremonial Goals
403(2)
Speeches Posing Challenges
Commencement Speeches
Summary
405(4)
Applying Strategies
389(20)
Appendix A: Beyond the Classroom: Speaking in the Public Forum 409(10)
The Public Forum
410(2)
Public Speaking and Democracy
Occasions for Speaking in Public
412(6)
Public Hearings and Debates
Ceremonial Occasions
Speeches Marking Candidacy and Election
Summary
418(1)
Appendix B: Speeches for Analysis and Discussion 419(22)
Children of Divorced Families
420(1)
T. J. Brinkerhoff
Tissue Engineering
421(2)
Patricia Ann Campos
College Credit Card Crisis
423(2)
Jeni Pruitt
Address to the National Women's Rights Convention, 1855
425(2)
Lucy Stone
Second Inaugural Address, 1865
427(1)
Abraham Lincoln
First Inaugural Address, 1933
428(3)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
I Have a Dream, 1963
431(2)
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Eulogy for the Challenger Astronauts, 1986
433(1)
Ronald Reagan
Address on AIDS: Republican National Convention, 1992
434(2)
Mary Fisher
Nobel Prize Lecture, 1993
436(5)
Toni Morrison
Name Index 441(2)
Subject Index 443


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