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Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals, IDEA 2004 Update Edition,9780205470358
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Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals, IDEA 2004 Update Edition

by
Edition:
Revised
ISBN13:

9780205470358

ISBN10:
0205470351
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $106.67
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Summary

";The chapter on collaboration is an excellent addition that most texts of this type do not include, and I believe it is a unique, positive feature of this text. None of the introductory texts I've looked at have had such a thorough introduction to this topic."; Cynthia Herr, University of Oregon ";I like the balance achieved between professional delivery and family need. This degree of collaboration is long overdue and is welcomed."; James A. Siders, The University of Southern Mississippi ";One strength of the text is that. . .the parents are clearly included as a component of the team rather than an ls"outside party.rs""; Philip Lee Gunter, Valdosta State University This exciting new text's contemporary treatment of special education prepares teachers for their role in the education and well-being of students with special needs. Some features include. . . bull; bull;IDEA 2004 Update Edition: Special Education reflects the IDEA 2004 legislation in two ways: bull; bull;An ";IDEA 2004"; icon appears in the margins adjacent to relevant discussions throughout the book that have been revised to reflect IDEA rs"04. bull;";Guide to IDEA 2004"; has been included as an appendix. It provides side-by-side comparison of IDEA rs"04 versus the previous rs"97 legislation for each of the statutes and a little friendly ";background"; where it will help the reader better understand the practical implications of the law. bull;Real People, Real Stories: Special Education brings the experience of people with disabilities to life for your students. The text includes powerful stories of people with disabilities and the stories of the people who live and work with them. bull;Validated Teaching Practices: This text is filled with information and teaching approaches, strategies, and tips based on validated, peer-reviewed research findings. bull; bull;";Specialized Instruction"; highlights teaching applications for intensive instruction delivered by special education teachers in various educational settings. bull;";Inclusion Matters"; presents teaching applications for students with various needs in general education settings. bull;";Collaboration in Action"; explores the practical applications of collaborative school relationships. bull;";Positive Behavior Supports"; illustrates the many positive, proactive ways to address student behavior/social issues as part of overall classroom teaching and learning. bull;Unique Content Coverage: Recurring sections in all chapters include discussion of critical areas such as content area learning, social and emotional characteristics, early childhood, transition, parents and families, inclusive practices, best educational practices, and current trends and issues.

Table of Contents

Special Features xx
Preface xxiii
Key Concepts for Understanding Special Education
1(43)
Learning Objectives
2(1)
What Is Special Education?
3(1)
The Core Provisions of Special Education
4(1)
Special Education
4(1)
Related Services
4(1)
Supplementary Aids and Services
5(1)
Development of the Field of Special Education
5(4)
Early History
5(1)
Basis for Today's General Education and Special Education System
6(3)
Discrimination and the Beginning of Change
9(1)
Litigation for the Rights of Students with Disabilities
10(1)
A Federal Response: Laws to Protect Students with Disabilities
10(1)
Refinements to the Law
11(1)
Federal Special Education Law: Accomplishments and Disappointments
11(3)
Development of Inclusive Practices
11(2)
Overrepresentation
13(1)
An Era of Continuing Improvement
14(1)
What Are the Laws for Students with Disabilities?
14(1)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
14(2)
Zero Reject
14(1)
Free Appropriate Public Education
15(1)
Least Restrictive Environment
15(1)
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
15(1)
Parent and Family Rights to Confidentiality
16(1)
Procedural Safeguards
16(1)
Other Legislation Related to Special Education
16(1)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
16(1)
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
17(1)
Who Receives Special Education?
17(1)
Prevalence of Students with Disabilities
18(1)
Special Education for Young Children
19(1)
Students Not Specifically Included in Idea
19(2)
Students Who Are Gifted or Talented
20(1)
Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
20(1)
Students at Risk for School Failure
21(1)
What Are the Recommended Practices That Characterize Today's Special Education?
21(1)
Inclusive Practices
21(3)
Definitions and Debates
21(1)
Research on Inclusive Practices
22(1)
Inclusive Practices in This Textbook
23(1)
Accountable and Accessible Instruction
24(4)
Universal Design for Learning
25(1)
Assistive Technology
26(2)
Positive Behavior Supports
28(2)
Collaboration
30(2)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families Regarding Their Children with Disabilities?
32(1)
Parents and Their Children with Disabilities
32(1)
Parent Participation in Special Education
33(2)
Barriers to Parent Participation
33(2)
Strategies to Encourage Parent Participation
35(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Influencing Special Education?
35(1)
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
35(4)
NCLB and Students with Disabilities
36(3)
Discipline
39(1)
Discipline Issues for Students with Disabilities
39(1)
The Cost of Special Education
39(1)
The Effect of Rising Costs
40(1)
Summary
40(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
41(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
41(1)
Working the Standards
42(2)
The Personnel and Procedures of Special Education
44(38)
Learning Objectives
46(1)
Who Are the Professionals Who Work in Special Education?
46(1)
Special Education Teachers
47(1)
Bilingual Special Educator
47(1)
Early Childhood Special Educator
47(1)
Related Services Professionals
47(2)
Speech/Language Pathologist
47(1)
School Psychologist
48(1)
School Counselor
48(1)
School Social Worker
49(1)
School Nurse
49(1)
Educational Interpreter
49(1)
Others Who Work in Special Education
49(3)
General Education Teacher
49(1)
Paraeducator
50(1)
Parents
50(1)
Additional Highly Specialized Service Providers
50(2)
How Do Students Become Eligible to Receive Special Education Services?
52(1)
Initial Consideration of Student Problems
53(2)
Intervention Assistance
54(1)
Screening
54(1)
Special Education Referral and Assessment
55(3)
Parent Rights
55(1)
Assessment Components
55(2)
Assessment Procedures
57(1)
Decision Making for Special Education
58(1)
Preparation of IEP
59(1)
Decision about Placement
59(1)
Monitoring for Students with Disabilities
59(1)
Annual Review
59(1)
Three-Year Reevaluation
59(1)
What Is an Individualized Education Program?
60(1)
Members of the IEP Team
60(3)
Required Components of the IEP
63(6)
Present Level of Performance
65(1)
Annual Goals
65(1)
Short-Term Objectives
65(1)
Special Education and Related Services
66(1)
Supplementary Aids and Services
66(1)
Assistive Technology
66(1)
Participation with Peers Who Do Not Have Disabilities
66(2)
Participation in State and District Testing
68(1)
Dates and Places
68(1)
Transition Service Needs and Transition Services to Be Provided
69(1)
Age of Majority
69(1)
Measurement of Progress
69(1)
Other Considerations
69(1)
What Are the Services Students with Disabilities Receive?
69(2)
The Continuum of Special Education Placements
71(3)
General Education
71(1)
Resource Class
72(1)
Separate Class
72(1)
Separate School
73(1)
Residential Facility
73(1)
Home or Hospital
73(1)
What Are the Options for Resolving Disagreements Regarding Special Education?
74(1)
Mediation
74(1)
Due Process Hearing
75(2)
What Are Issues Related to Special Education Professionals and Procedures?
77(1)
Shortage of Special Education Teachers
77(1)
Special Education Paperwork
78(1)
Summary
78(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
79(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
79(1)
Working the Standards
80(2)
Multicultural and Bilingual Perspectives
82(38)
Learning Objectives
84(1)
What Is Culture?
85(1)
Elements of Culture
85(1)
Macroculture and Microculture
86(1)
Culture and Race or Ethnicity
87(1)
How Does Culture Affect the Learning Process?
87(1)
The Content of Instruction
87(1)
Cognitive Styles
88(1)
Field Independence
88(1)
Field Sensitivity
89(1)
Effects of Cultural Dissonance
89(1)
Academic Challenges
90(1)
Behavior Challenges
90(1)
How Are Culturally Diverse Groups Represented in Special and Gifted Education?
90(2)
Representation in Special Education
92(1)
Representation of African Americans
92(1)
Continuum of Placements
93(1)
Why Disproportionality Matters
93(1)
Representation in Gifted Education
93(1)
Factors Contributing to Disproportionate Representation
94(3)
Poverty
95(1)
Systemic Bias
95(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Diverse Students with Special Needs?
97(1)
Promising Practices in Referral and Identification
97(2)
Redesigning the Prereferral Process
98(1)
Alternative Assessment Strategies
98(1)
Universal Screening and Early Intervention
99(1)
Multicultural Education
99(4)
Content Integration
99(1)
Knowledge Construction
100(2)
Prejudice Reduction
102(1)
Empowering School Culture
102(1)
Equity Pedgagogy
103(1)
Supporting English Language Learners
103(4)
Bilingual Education
106(1)
English as a Second Language
106(1)
Sheltered English
106(1)
English Language Learners with Disabilities
107(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families of Diverse Students with Disabilities?
107(1)
Parents of Diverse Learners and Participation in Their Children's Education
108(3)
Factors Educators Directly Influence
109(1)
Factors beyond the Direct Influence of Educators
110(1)
Promising Practices in Developing Collaborative Relationships
111(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Education of Diverse Exceptional Learners?
112(2)
Equity Issues
114(1)
The Standards and Accountability Movement
114(1)
School Choice Programs
115(1)
Teachers and Their Preparation
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
117(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
117(1)
Working the Standards
118(2)
Creating Partnerships through Collaboration
120(40)
Learning Objectives
122(1)
What Is Collaboration?
123(1)
Understanding Collaboration
124(3)
Collaboration Is Voluntary
124(1)
Collaboration Is Based on Parity
125(1)
Collaboration Requires a Mutual Goal
125(1)
Collaboration Involves Shared Responsibility for Key Decisions
126(1)
Collaboration Includes Shared Accountability for Outcomes
126(1)
Collaboration Requires Sharing Resources
126(1)
Collaboration Is Emergent
126(1)
Collaboration within the Context of Contemporary Legislation and Litigation
127(2)
Collaboration in Idea
128(1)
What Elements Are Necessary for Collaboration?
129(1)
Personal Belief System
129(1)
Communication Skills
130(3)
Effective Communication Strategies
130(2)
Communication Habits to Avoid
132(1)
Interaction Processes
133(3)
Create a Climate for Problem Solving
133(1)
Identify the Problem
133(1)
Generate Alternatives
134(1)
Assess the Potential Solutions, Selecting One or More to Implement
134(1)
Implement the Idea
134(1)
Evaluate the Outcome of the Intervention and Decide to Continue, Modify, or Select Another One
134(2)
Programs and Services
136(1)
Supportive Context
137(1)
How Is Collaboration Implemented in Schools?
137(1)
Teams
138(2)
Understanding Team Concepts
139(1)
Team Effectiveness
139(1)
Special Education Teams
140(1)
Co-Teaching
140(3)
One Teach, One Observe
141(1)
One Teach, One Assist
142(1)
Parallel Teaching
142(1)
Station Teaching
142(1)
Alternative Teaching
142(1)
Teaming
143(1)
Other Co-Teaching Considerations
143(1)
Consultation
143(4)
How Does Collaboration Involve Parents and Families?
147(1)
Families and Collaboration
147(1)
Building Partnerships with Parents
148(2)
What Are Issues Related to Collaboration?
150(1)
Working with Paraeducators
150(2)
Time for Collaboration
152(2)
The Effectiveness of Collaboration
154(2)
Summary
156(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
157(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
157(1)
Working the Standards
158(2)
Students with Learning Disabilities
160(40)
Learning Objectives
162(1)
What Are Learning Disabilities?
162(1)
Development of the Learning Disabilities Field
163(1)
A Focus on Process Interventions
163(1)
A Focus on Instructional Interventions
164(1)
Definitions of Learning Disabilities
164(3)
Federal Definition
164(1)
NJCLD Definition
164(2)
Essential Dimensions of a Definition of Learning Disabilities
166(1)
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities
167(1)
Causes of Learning Disabilities
168(2)
Physiological Causes
168(1)
Environmental Causes
169(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Learning Disabilities?
170(1)
Cognitive Characteristics
171(2)
Attention
171(1)
Perception
172(1)
Memory
172(1)
Information Processing
173(1)
Academic Characteristics
173(4)
Reading
173(1)
Oral Language
173(1)
Written Language
174(2)
Mathematics
176(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
177(1)
Social Perception and Social Competence
177(1)
Motivation
178(1)
Behavior Characteristics
178(1)
How Are Learning Disabilities Identified?
179(1)
Assessment
179(2)
Formal Assessments
179(2)
Classroom Assessments
181(1)
Eligibility
181(1)
Criteria for Eligibility
181(1)
How Do Students with Learning Disabilities Receive Their Education?
182(1)
Early Childhood
182(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
183(4)
Inclusive Practices
184(3)
Transition and Adulthood
187(2)
Transition Planning
187(2)
Model Transition Practices
189(1)
Self-Advocacy
189(1)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Learning Disabilities?
189(1)
Direct Instruction
190(1)
Strategy Instruction
190(3)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
193(2)
Parents as Partners
195(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Learning Disabilities?
196(1)
Identification Procedures for Learning Disabilities
196(1)
High School and College Students and Learning Disabilities
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
198(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
198(1)
Working the Standards
199(1)
Students with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
200(40)
Learning Objectives
202(1)
What Is Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder?
203(1)
Development of the ADHD Field
204(1)
Terminology Related to ADHD
205(1)
Definition of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
205(2)
Prevalence of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
207(1)
Prevalence Based on Gender
207(1)
Prevalence Based on Race and Poverty
208(1)
Causes of Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder
208(3)
Physiological Causes
208(2)
Environmental Causes
210(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder?
211(1)
Cognitive Characteristics
211(1)
Academic Characteristics
212(4)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
216(1)
Self-Esteem
216(1)
Social Functioning
216(1)
Behavior Characteristics
216(1)
Aggression
217(1)
Other Behavior Characteristics
217(1)
Comorbidity with Other Disorders
217(1)
How Is Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder Identified?
218(1)
Initial Referral
218(1)
Assessment
219(2)
Medical Assessment
219(1)
Continuous Performance Tests
219(1)
Parent Assessment
220(1)
Teacher and School Assessment
220(1)
Additional Considerations for Idea Eligibility
220(1)
ADHD or Gifted
220(1)
Eligibility
221(1)
How Do Learners with Attention Deficit--Hyperactivity Disorder Receive Their Education?
221(1)
Early Childhood
222(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
222(2)
Transition and Adulthood
224(1)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder?
224(1)
Parent and Professional Education
224(2)
Parent Education
225(1)
Professional Education
226(1)
Environmental Supports
226(1)
Behavior Interventions
227(1)
Rewards
227(1)
Low-Involvement Strategies
227(1)
Token Economy
228(1)
Instructional Interventions
228(2)
Medication
230(2)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
232(1)
Parenting Children with ADHD
232(2)
Supporting Students by Supporting Parents
234(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of ADHD?
234(1)
Young Children with ADHD
234(2)
The Current Knowledge Base
236(1)
ADHD in Adolescents and Adults
236(1)
Outcomes for Adults Diagnosed as Children
236(1)
Identification of ADHD in Adolescents and Adults
237(1)
Summary
237(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
237(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
238(1)
Working the Standards
238(2)
Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders
240(42)
Learning Objectives
242(1)
What Are Emotional and Behavior Disorders?
243(1)
Development of the Field of Emotional and Behavior Disorders
243(1)
Definitions of Emotional and Behavior Disorders
244(3)
Federal Definition
245(1)
National Coalition on Mental Health and Special Education Definition
245(1)
Other Considerations in Defining Emotional and Behavior Disorders
246(1)
Prevalence of Emotional and Behavior Disorders
247(1)
Prevalence by Gender
248(1)
Causes of Emotional and Behavior Disorders
248(4)
Biological Factors
248(1)
Psychosocial Factors
249(1)
Making Sense of the Factors Contributing to Emotional and Behavior Disorders
250(2)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Emotional and Behavior Disorders?
252(1)
Behavior and Emotional Characteristics
252(3)
Emotional Characteristics
252(3)
Social Characteristics
255(2)
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
257(1)
The Question of Cause and Effect
257(1)
Emotional and Behavior Disorders and Comorbidity
258(1)
How Are Emotional and Behavior Disorders Identified?
258(1)
Assessment
258(2)
Formal Assessments
258(1)
Classroom Assessments
259(1)
Other Assessment Strategies
259(1)
Eligibility
260(1)
Eligibility Criteria
260(1)
How Do Learners with Emotional and Behavior Disorders Receive Their Education?
261(1)
Early Childhood
261(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
262(3)
Inclusive Practices
263(2)
Transition and Adulthood
265(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders?
267(1)
The Importance of Prevention
267(1)
The Effectiveness of Collaboration
268(1)
Requirements for Interventions in Idea
268(4)
Functional Behavior Assessment
269(2)
Behavior Intervention Plan
271(1)
Examples of Classroom Interventions
272(3)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
275(1)
The Impact of Having a Child with an Emotional or Behavior Disorder
276(1)
Building Positive Relationships
276(1)
Parent Education
276(1)
Support Groups
276(1)
Collaboration with a Family Focus
277(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Emotional and Behavior Disorders?
277(1)
The Problem of Access
278(1)
Creating a Promising Future
278(1)
Summary
278(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
279(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
279(1)
Working the Standards
280(2)
Students with Mental Retardation
282(42)
Learning Objectives
284(1)
What Is Mental Retardation?
285(1)
Development of the Field of Mental Retardation
285(2)
Shifting Perspectives
285(1)
Recent Changes for Students with Mental Retardation
286(1)
Definitions of Mental Retardation
287(1)
Federal Definition
287(1)
American Association on Mental Retardation Definition
288(1)
Prevalence of Mental Retardation
288(1)
Other Prevalence Considerations
289(1)
Causes of Mental Retardation
289(4)
Prenatal Causes of Mental Retardation
290(2)
Perinatal Causes of Mental Retardation
292(1)
Postnatal Causes of Mental Retardation
292(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Mental Retardation?
293(4)
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
293(1)
Cognitive Functioning
294(3)
Social, Behavioral, and Emotional Characteristics
297(3)
Social Characteristics
297(1)
Adaptive Behavior Characteristics
298(1)
Additional Behavior Characteristics
299(1)
Emotional Characteristics
299(1)
Physical and Medical Characteristics
300(1)
How Is Mental Retardation Identified?
300(1)
Assessment
300(1)
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning
300(1)
Assessment of Adaptive Behavior
301(1)
Assessment of Medical Factors
301(1)
Eligibility
301(1)
How Do Learners with Mental Retardation Receive Their Education?
302(1)
Early Childhood
302(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
303(4)
Inclusive Practices
305(2)
Transition and Adulthood
307(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Mental Retardation?
309(1)
Task Analysis
309(2)
Peer-Mediated Instruction
311(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
312(1)
Parent Experiences and Acceptance
313(1)
Parents' Reactions to Having a Child with Mental Retardation
313(1)
Parents' Concerns
314(1)
Professionals' Interactions with Parents of Children with Mental Retardation
315(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Mental Retardation?
315(2)
Students with Mental Retardation in Today's Schools
317(2)
Which Curriculum?
317(1)
High School Curriculum Issues
317(1)
The Dilemma of High-Stakes Testing
318(1)
Self-Determination: The Potential, Promises, and Practices
319(1)
Perceptions of Parents and Teachers
319(1)
Implementation of Practices that Foster Self-Determination
319(1)
Summary
320(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
321(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
321(1)
Working the Standards
322(2)
Students with Speech and Language Disorders
324(42)
Learning Objectives
326(1)
What Are Speech and Language Disorders?
326(1)
Development of the Study of Speech and Language Disorders
327(1)
Emergence of a Profession
327(1)
Contemporary Practices
328(1)
Definitions of Speech and Language Disorders
328(1)
Concepts to Describe Speech and Language Disorders
329(8)
Elements of Language
329(2)
Language Disorders
331(3)
Elements of Speech
334(2)
Speech Disorders
336(1)
Prevalence of Speech and Language Disorders
337(1)
Distinguishing between Speech and Language Prevalence Data
338(1)
Other Prevalence Considerations
338(1)
Causes of Speech and Language Disorders
338(2)
Biological Causes
338(1)
Environmental Causes
339(1)
Making Sense of the Factors Contributing to Speech and Language Disorders
340(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Speech and Language Disorders?
340(1)
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
340(1)
Academic Characteristics
341(1)
Speech and Language Disorders and Reading
341(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
341(2)
Behavior Characteristics
343(1)
Speech and Language Disorders and Other Disabilities
343(2)
How Are Speech and Language Disorders Identified?
345(1)
Assessment
345(3)
Speech Assessments
345(1)
Language Assessments
346(1)
Assessment for Students Whose First Language Is Not English or Whose Use of English Is Nonstandard
347(1)
Eligibility
348(1)
How Do Learners with Speech and Language Disorders Receive Their Education?
348(1)
Early Childhood
348(1)
The Importance of Early Intervention
349(1)
Approaches for Early Speech and Language Intervention
349(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
349(3)
Inclusive Practices
350(2)
Transition and Adulthood
352(1)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Speech and Language Disorders?
353(1)
Speech/Language Services and Literacy Instruction
353(1)
Communication Using Technology
353(3)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
354(1)
Technology for Language Practice
355(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
356(2)
Helping Parents to Develop Children's Language Skills
358(1)
Diversity and Speech and Language Interventions
358(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Speech and Language Disorders?
359(2)
Differences versus Disorders in a Multicultural Society
361(1)
Language Differences
361(1)
Other Cultural Influences on Communication
361(1)
Central Auditory Processing Disorder
361(2)
Summary
363(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
363(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
364(1)
Working the Standards
364(2)
Students with Deafness and Hearing Loss
366(40)
Learning Objectives
368(1)
What Are Deafness and Hearing Loss?
368(1)
Development of the Field of Deaf Education
368(2)
Definitions of Deafness and Hearing Loss
370(2)
Federal Definitions
370(1)
Additional Information on Definitions
371(1)
Deaf Culture
371(1)
Prevalence of Hearing Loss
372(1)
Hearing Loss and Other Disabilities
372(1)
Causes of Hearing Loss
372(3)
Prelingual Causes of Hearing Loss
372(1)
Postlingual Causes of Hearing Loss
373(1)
Types of Hearing Loss
373(2)
Degree of Hearing Loss
375(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing?
375(1)
Hearing Loss and Child Development
375(3)
Impact on Communication
375(1)
Experiential Learning
376(2)
Cognitive Characteristics
378(1)
Academic Characteristics
378(3)
Language
378(1)
Reading
379(1)
Written Language
380(1)
Mathematics
381(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
381(1)
Behavior Characteristics
381(1)
How Is a Hearing Loss Identified?
382(1)
Audiological Evaluation
383(1)
Other Assessments
383(1)
Determination of Eligibility
384(1)
How Do Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing Receive Their Education?
384(1)
Early Childhood
385(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
386(1)
General Education Classroom
386(1)
General Education Classroom with Supplementary Instruction
386(1)
Separate Class for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
386(1)
Other Settings
386(1)
Inclusive Practices
387(4)
Transition and Adulthood
391(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing?
393(1)
Integrated Vocabulary and Concept Development
394(1)
Experiential Ladder of Learning
395(1)
Visual Teaching Strategies
396(1)
Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
396(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
397(1)
The Voices of Parents
397(2)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Deaf Education?
399(1)
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening
400(1)
Cochlear Implants
400(1)
Bilingual--Bicultural Approach
401(2)
Summary
403(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
403(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
404(1)
Working the Standards
404(2)
Students with Visual Impairments
406(40)
Learning Objectives
408(1)
What Are Visual Impairments?
409(1)
Development of the Field of Visual Impairment
409(2)
Beginnings in France
409(1)
Residential Schools in the United States
409(1)
Public Day School Programs
410(1)
Other Historical Developments
411(1)
Definitions of Visual Impairment
411(2)
Functional Definitions
411(1)
Idea Definition
412(1)
Clinical Definitions
413(1)
Prevalence
413(1)
Prevalence Information from the American Printing House for the Blind
414(1)
Additional Prevalence Information
414(1)
Causes of Visual Impairment
414(1)
Structure of the Eye and How It Works
414(1)
Examples of Visual Impairments
415(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Visual Impairments?
416(1)
Cognitive Characteristics
417(1)
Academic Characteristics
417(4)
Braille Literacy Skills
418(3)
Print Literacy Skills
421(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
421(3)
Behavior Characteristics
424(1)
How Is Visual Impairment Identified?
425(1)
Assessment
425(1)
Eligibility
426(1)
How Do Learners with Visual Impairments Receive Their Education?
426(1)
Early Childhood
426(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
427(3)
Consultant Model
427(1)
Itinerant Teaching Model
427(1)
Resource Model
428(2)
Specialized Classes and Schools
430(1)
Inclusive Practices
430(1)
Transition and Adulthood
431(4)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Visual Impairments?
435(1)
Instruction in the Expanded Core Curriculum
435(1)
Use of Principles of Special Methods
436(2)
Need for Concrete Experiences
436(1)
Need for Unifying Experiences
436(1)
Need for Learning by Doing
436(2)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
438(1)
Studying Parent Perspectives
439(1)
Perceptions of Parents with Children in Specialized Schools
440(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Visual Impairment?
440(1)
Shortage of Fully Prepared Personnel
441(1)
Limited Continuum of Placement Options
442(1)
Summary
442(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
443(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
443(1)
Working the Standards
444(2)
Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
446(40)
Learning Objectives
448(1)
What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders?
448(1)
Development of the Field
449(1)
Early Beliefs
449(1)
Formalizing Understanding
449(1)
Definitions of Autism Spectrum Disorders
450(4)
Federal Definition
450(1)
Definitions of the American Psychiatric Association
451(3)
Making Sense of the Definitions
454(1)
Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders
454(1)
Other Prevalence Considerations
454(1)
Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders
455(1)
Biological Factors
455(1)
Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Brain
455(1)
Environmental Factors
455(1)
Autism and Immunizations
456(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders?
456(1)
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
456(3)
Rote Memory
456(1)
Theory of Mind
457(1)
Problem Solving
458(1)
Motivation
458(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
459(2)
Language Disorders
459(1)
Communicative Intent
460(1)
Other Language Problems
460(1)
Immaturity
461(1)
Behavior Characteristics
461(3)
Stimulus Overselectivity
461(1)
Self-Stimulatory Behaviors
461(1)
Generalization Difficulties
461(1)
Sensory Issues
462(2)
How Are Autism Spectrum Disorders Identified?
464(1)
Assessment Practices and Procedures
464(1)
Assessment Related to Characteristics of Autism
464(1)
Cognitive Ability, Academic Achievement, and Adaptive Skills
464(1)
Developmental Measures
465(1)
Behavior Assessment
465(1)
Student Learning Traits
465(1)
Eligibility
465(1)
How Do Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders Receive Their Education?
466(1)
Early Childhood
466(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
467(1)
Inclusive Practices
468(1)
Exploring the Autism Inclusion Collaboration Model
468(1)
Transition and Adulthood
469(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders?
471(1)
Environmental Supports
471(1)
Visual Supports
472(1)
Home Base
472(1)
Assistive Technology
472(1)
Instructional Practices
473(3)
Priming
473(3)
Discrete Trial Training
476(1)
Prompting
476(1)
Social Skills Supports
476(2)
Instruction
477(1)
Social Stories
477(1)
Interpretation
477(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
478(2)
Family Needs for Information and Support
480(1)
The Roles of Siblings
481(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Autism Spectrum Disorders?
481(1)
Assessment, Diagnosis, and Prevalence
481(1)
Research-Based Interventions
482(1)
Training and Support
482(1)
Summary
483(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
483(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
483(1)
Working the Standards
484(2)
Students with Physical and Health Disabilities
486(42)
Learning Objectives
488(1)
What Are Physical and Health Disabilities?
488(1)
Development of the Field of Physical and Health Disabilities
489(2)
Increasing Attention for an Ignored Group
489(1)
Refining Students' Rights and School Responsibilities
490(1)
Looking at the Big Picture
491(1)
Key Concepts for Understanding Physical and Health Disabilities
492(1)
Understanding Physical Disabilities
492(4)
Federal Definition
492(1)
Neurological Disorders
493(2)
Musculoskeletal Disorders
495(1)
Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury
496(2)
Federal Definition
496(1)
Types of Traumatic Brain Injury
497(1)
The Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury
497(1)
Prevalence and Causes
498(1)
Understanding Other Health Impairments
498(8)
Federal Definition
498(1)
Examples of Health Impairments
498(8)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Physical and Health Disabilities?
506(1)
Cognitive and Academic Characteristics
506(1)
Behavior, Emotional, and Social Characteristics
507(3)
Behavior Characteristics
507(2)
Emotional Characteristics
509(1)
Social Characteristics
509(1)
Physical and Medical Characteristics
510(1)
How Are Physical and Health Disabilities Identified?
511(1)
Assessment
511(1)
Assessment of Medical Condition and Physical Functioning
511(1)
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning, Academic Achievement, Language, and Related Areas
511(1)
Assessment of Behavior
511(1)
Eligibility
512(1)
How Do Learners with Physical and Health Disabilities Receive Their Education?
512(1)
Early Childhood
512(1)
Elementary and Secondary School Services
512(2)
Inclusive Practices
514(1)
Transition and Adulthood
514(4)
Postsecondary Education
514(1)
Practical Matters of Adulthood
514(2)
Career Choice
516(2)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Physical and Health Disabilities?
518(1)
Access to Education
518(3)
Aids for Posture and Mobility
518(1)
Aids for Communication
518(2)
Aids for Learning
520(1)
Related Services
520(1)
Factors Related to the Illness, Injury, Condition, or Disorder
521(1)
School Reentry
521(1)
Responding to Emergencies
521(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
522(1)
Parent Experiences
523(1)
Advice to School Professionals
523(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Physical and Health Disabilities?
523(1)
Professionals Prepared to Work with Students with Physical Disabilities
524(1)
Access to Technology
524(1)
Summary
525(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
525(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
526(1)
Working the Standards
526(2)
Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities
528(42)
Learning Objectives
530(1)
What Are Severe or Multiple Disabilities?
531(1)
Development of the Field of Severe and Multiple Disabilities
531(1)
Emerging Recognition of Needs and Services to Address Them
531(1)
A Changing Climate
531(1)
The Era of Advocacy
532(1)
Definitions of Severe and Multiple Disabilities
532(1)
Federal Definitions
532(1)
TASH Definition
533(1)
Prevalence of Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities
533(1)
Causes of Severe and Multiple Disabilities
534(2)
Labels and Their Limitations
535(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals with Severe and Multiple Disabilities?
536(1)
Cognitive Characteristics
536(1)
Academic Characteristics
537(1)
Literacy
537(1)
Oral Language
537(1)
Mathematics
538(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
538(1)
Behavior Characteristics
539(2)
Disruptive Behaviors
540(1)
Behavior and the General Education Setting
541(1)
What Is the Role of Assessment for Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities?
541(1)
Assessment for Instruction
541(1)
Standardized Assessment
542(1)
Authentic Forms of Assessment
542(1)
Person-Centered Approach
543(1)
Functional-Ecological Assessment
543(1)
How Do Learners with Severe and Multiple Disabilities Receive Their Education?
543(1)
Early Childhood
544(1)
Elementary and Secondary Education
545(3)
Beyond the Elementary Years
546(1)
Partial Participation
547(1)
Inclusive Practices
548(2)
Transition and Adulthood
550(1)
Supported Employment
550(1)
Community-Based Instruction
550(1)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students with Severe and Multiple Disabilities?
551(1)
Meaningful and Individualized Curriculum
551(1)
Making the Core Curriculum Meaningful
552(1)
Collaborative Approaches for Education
552(3)
Active Family Involvement
553(1)
Collaboration on the Team
554(1)
Positive Behavior Supports
555(3)
Inclusive Education
558(1)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families?
558(1)
Family Views of Their Children
559(2)
Considering Cultural Diversity
561(2)
Influence of Culture on Student Learning
562(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting the Field of Severe and Multiple Disabilities?
563(1)
Accountability of Academic Performance for All Students
563(1)
Kentucky's Academic Expectations Model
563(1)
Integrated Delivery of Related Services
564(2)
Summary
566(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
567(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
567(1)
Working the Standards
568(2)
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
570(40)
Learning Objectives
572(1)
What Is Giftedness?
572(1)
Development of the Field of Giftedness
572(2)
Emergence of a Profession
573(1)
Recent Changes in the Field
573(1)
Definition of Giftedness
574(4)
Alternative Conceptualizations of Giftedness
576(1)
A Final Word on Definitions
577(1)
Prevalence
578(1)
Prevalence, Race, and Gender
578(1)
Determining Factors
579(1)
What Are the Characteristics of Individuals Who Are Gifted and Talented?
580(1)
Cognitive Characteristics
580(2)
Ability to Manipulate Abstract Symbol Systems
580(1)
Power of Concentration
581(1)
Unusually Well Developed Memory
581(1)
Early Language Interest and Development
581(1)
Curiosity
581(1)
Preference for Independent Work
582(1)
Multiple Interests
582(1)
Ability to Generate Original Ideas
582(1)
Academic Characteristics
582(1)
Social and Emotional Characteristics
583(3)
Sense of Justice
584(1)
Altruism and Idealism
584(1)
Sense of Humor
585(1)
Emotional Intensity
585(1)
Perfectionism
585(1)
High Level of Energy
585(1)
Strong Attachments and Commitments
586(1)
Aesthetic Sensitivity
586(1)
How Are Learners Who Are Gifted and Talented Identified?
586(1)
Considerations for Identifying Giftedness
586(2)
Underlying Principles of Effective Assessment
588(1)
Two-Stage Assessment Process
588(1)
Measures to Match Programs
588(1)
Other Considerations
588(1)
Equity
588(1)
Authentic Assessment
589(1)
Dynamic Assessment
589(1)
Spatial Ability
590(1)
Eligibility
590(1)
How Do Learners Who Are Gifted and Talented Receive Their Education?
590(1)
Early Childhood Education
590(1)
The Debate on Early Intervention
590(1)
Elementary and Secondary Education
591(2)
Grouping
591(1)
Full-Time and Part-Time Separate Classes
592(1)
Specialized Schools
592(1)
Home Schooling
593(1)
Inclusive Practices
593(1)
Transition and Adulthood
593(1)
Special Challenges
594(1)
Supporting Adolescents Who Are Gifted and Talented
594(1)
What Are Recommended Educational Practices for Students Who Are Gifted and Talented?
594(1)
Curriculum Compacting
595(1)
Acceleration
595(1)
Acceleration in High School
595(1)
Enrichment
596(1)
Differentiation
596(2)
Problem-Based Learning
598(1)
Interventions for Diverse Populations
598(2)
What Are the Perspectives of Parents and Families of Students Who Are Gifted and Talented?
600(2)
Parent Strategies for Encouraging Their Children
602(1)
What Trends and Issues Are Affecting Students Who Are Gifted?
602(1)
Talent Development
603(1)
Identification and Programming for Underrepresented Groups
604(1)
Effective Differentiation
604(2)
Alternative Program Models
606(1)
Technology-Based Options
606(1)
Opportunities External to Schools
606(1)
Summary
607(1)
Key Terms and Concepts
607(1)
Review, Discuss, Apply
607(1)
Working the Standards
608(2)
Appendix A CEC Special Education Content Standards and INTASC Core Principles 610(4)
Appendix B What Every Teacher Should Know About Idea 2004 614
Glossary 1(1)
References 1(1)
Name Index 1(1)
Subject Index 1


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