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Teaching Students With Learning Problems,9780131128071
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Teaching Students With Learning Problems

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131128071

ISBN10:
0131128078
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $118.66

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Summary

This top-selling practical, research-based text contains the resources teachers need to make informed decisions concerning their students with learning or behavior problems, making it the most useful methods text on the market. Prided for its unique and comprehensive coverage of classroom assessment and methods for the content areas, it assists teachers in finding effective practices to facilitate instruction of students with learning problems.

Table of Contents

PART I FOUNDATIONS OF TEACHING
1(206)
Creating Responsive Learning Environments
2(38)
Students at Risk for School Failure
3(2)
Characteristics of Students at Risk for School Failure
4(1)
Individualized Educational-Programs
5(8)
Participants in IEP Meetings
9(1)
Components of an IEP
9(3)
Using the IEP
12(1)
Educational Services and Related Practices
13(4)
Least Restrictive Environment
13(2)
The General Education Class
15(1)
Reintegration of Students
16(1)
Movement from Mainstreaming to Inclusion
17(6)
The Regular Education Initiative
17(1)
The Inclusion Movement
18(1)
Rationale for Inclusion
19(1)
Rationale for Continuum of Alternative Placements
19(1)
Research on the Inclusion and Continuum of Alternative Placements Issue
20(2)
Perspective on the Movement from Mainstreaming to Inclusion
22(1)
Program Factors and Least Restrictive Environment
23(10)
Teachers Teaching Teachers
24(5)
The Special Education or At-Risk Teacher
29(1)
Teacher-Parent Collaboration
30(3)
Instructional Variables Related to Student Learning
33(7)
Focus on Time for Learning
33(1)
Ensure High Rates of Student Success
34(2)
Provide Positive and Supportive Learning Environments
36(1)
Plan and Maintain a Motivational Environment
37(3)
Planning and Organizing Instruction
40(43)
Physical Arrangements
41(3)
Arrangement of Students
41(1)
Arrangement of Materials
42(1)
Arrangement of Special Areas and Centers
42(1)
General Considerations
42(2)
Instructional Arrangements
44(30)
Large-Group Instruction
46(1)
Small-Group Instruction
47(2)
One Student with Teacher
49(1)
Students Teaching Students: Peer Tutoring
50(5)
Students Teaching Students: Classwide Peer Tutoring
55(3)
Students Teaching Students: Cooperative Learning
58(1)
Material with Student: Seatwork Activities
59(2)
Material with Student: Self-Correcting Materials
61(4)
Material with Student: Instructional Games
65(2)
Material with Student: Technological Tools
67(4)
Material with Student: Homework
71(3)
Scheduling
74(4)
General Scheduling Techniques
74(1)
Scheduling at the Elementary Level
75(1)
Scheduling at the Secondary Level
76(1)
Scheduling in the Resource Room
77(1)
Classroom Equipment
78(4)
Tape Recorder
78(1)
Overhead Projector
79(1)
Small-Item Materials
80(2)
Material Organization System
82(1)
Assessing Students for Instruction
83(44)
Individualized Programming: A Continuous Process of Assessment and Teaching
84(5)
Step I: Assess to Identify Target Skill or Content
84(4)
Step II: Determine Factors Likely to Facilitate Learning
88(1)
Step III: Plan Instruction
88(1)
Step IV: Begin Daily Data-Managed Instruction
88(1)
Stages of Learning
89(2)
Acquisition Stage
90(1)
Proficiency Stage
90(1)
Maintenance Stage
90(1)
Generalization Stage
90(1)
Adaption Stage
90(1)
Commentary on Learning Stages
90(1)
Monitoring Student Performance for Determining What to Teach
91(15)
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Establish Performance Standards
91(2)
Individually Referenced Data Systems
93(12)
Basic Guidelines for Monitoring Student Performance
105(1)
Commentary on Data-Based Instruction
105(1)
Assessment for Determining How to Teach
106(4)
Formats for Determining How to Teach
106(4)
Assessment Areas for Determining How to Teach
110(8)
Expectation Factors
110(2)
Stimulus Events
112(3)
Response Factors
115(1)
Subsequent Events
116(1)
Analysis of the Student Learning Profile
116(1)
Perspective on Assessing for How to Teach
116(2)
Grading
118(4)
Types of Alternative Grading
119(1)
Guidelines for Developing an Effective Grading System
120(2)
Testing Modifications
122(2)
Record keeping
124(3)
Composite Recordkeeping
124(1)
Daily Recordkeeping
125(2)
Teaching Students and Managing Instruction
127(35)
A Continuum of Instructional Choices
128(5)
Setting Demands of an Implicit Learning Environment
130(1)
Research Base for a Continuum of Instructional Choices
131(1)
Perspective on a Continuum of Instructional Choices
132(1)
Systematic Teaching Steps
133(10)
Opening the Lesson
133(1)
Conducting an Interactive Presentation
134(1)
Closing the Lesson
135(1)
Using Continuous Teaching Components
136(4)
Fostering Independence
140(2)
Using Questions
142(1)
Classroom Management
143(4)
Classroom Tone
143(1)
Classroom Rules
144(3)
Engaging Students
147(1)
Accommodating Students with Learning Problems in General Education Classrooms
147(5)
Accommodations Involving Materials
147(2)
Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction
149(1)
Accommodations Involving Student Performance
150(2)
Selecting Curriculum
152(2)
Material Selection Factors
152(2)
Guidelines for Designing a Curriculum
154(1)
Planning Units and Lessons
154(4)
Planning Routines for Units
156(2)
Lesson Planning Format
158(1)
Postinstructional Activities
158(2)
Teacher Reflection and Collaboration
158(2)
Perspective on Instructional Components
160(2)
Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
162(45)
Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
163(13)
Commercial Observer-Rater Instruments
165(2)
Commercial Measures of Adaptive Behavior
167(2)
Self-Report Instruments
169(3)
Sociometric Techniques
172(2)
Naturalistic Observations
174(2)
General Techniques for Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
176(8)
Teach for Success
176(2)
Focus on Promoting Proactivity
178(1)
Promote Cooperation
178(1)
Teach Self-Management
179(1)
Model Target Behaviors and Attributes
179(1)
Focus on Motivation through Behavior Modification
180(3)
Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior
183(1)
Social Development Interventions
184(2)
Social Skills Training
184(2)
Social Development Activities
186(1)
Instructional Games in Social Development
187(1)
Commercial Social Development Programs
187(1)
Emotional Development Interventions
188(4)
Bibliotherapy
188(1)
Attribution Retraining
189(1)
Life-Space Interviewing
189(1)
Reality Therapy
190(1)
Techniques for Improving Mood States
191(1)
Projective Techniques
191(1)
Emotional Development Activities
192(1)
Activities for Improving Reactions to Authority Figures
192(1)
Activities for Enhancing Self-Concept
192(1)
Instructional Games in Emotional Development
193(1)
Commercial Emotional Development Programs
193(1)
Behavioral Development Interventions
194(9)
Positive Reinforcement Plan
195(1)
Contingency Contracting
196(1)
Token Systems
197(1)
Extrinsic Reinforcement
198(1)
Punishment
198(5)
Techniques for Managing Surface Behaviors
203(1)
Behavioral Development Activities
203(1)
Instructional Games in Behavioral Development
204(1)
Commercial Behavioral Development Programs
205(1)
Perspective on Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
206(1)
PART II TEACHING ACADEMIC SKILLS
207(332)
Assessing and Teaching Language
208(46)
Theories of Language Acquisition
210(1)
Components of Language
210(7)
Form: Phonology
211(1)
Form: Morphology
212(1)
Form: Syntax
213(1)
Content: Semantics
214(2)
Use: Pragmatics
216(1)
Language Difficulties
217(2)
Preschool and Kindergarten Students
217(1)
Elementary Students
217(1)
Secondary Students
218(1)
Bilingual and Culturally Diverse Students
219(2)
Assessment of Language Skills
221(12)
Formal Language Assessment
222(1)
Informal Language Assessment
223(10)
Language Service Delivery Models
233(3)
Pullout Therapy Model
233(1)
Classroom-Based Language Models
234(1)
Strategies-Based Model
235(1)
Teaching Language Skills
236(3)
Strategies for Increasing Language Comprehension
237(1)
Strategies for Increasing Language Production
237(1)
Imitation and Modeling Strategies
238(1)
Parental Involvement
239(1)
Language Activities
239(3)
Instructional Games in Language
242(4)
Self-Correcting Language Materials
246(4)
Commercial Language Programs
250(2)
Computer Software Programs in Language
252(2)
Assessing Reading
254(27)
The Reading Process
255(5)
Adams's Model of the Reading Process
255(2)
Chall's Reading Stages
257(2)
Ehri's Phases of Sight Word Development
259(1)
Emergent Literacy
260(4)
Concepts about Print
262(1)
Phonological Awareness
262(2)
Assessment of Reading Skills
264(17)
Formal Reading Assessment
264(4)
Informal Reading Assessment
268(13)
Teaching Reading
281(59)
The Expanding Research Base in Reading
282(1)
Components of Evidence-Based Reading Instruction
282(10)
Phonological Awareness Training
283(2)
Phonics Instruction
285(1)
Fluency Instruction
286(2)
Vocabulary Instruction
288(2)
Comprehension Instruction
290(2)
Core Reading Programs
292(1)
Core Developmental Reading Approaches
293(11)
Basal Reading Approach
293(1)
Literature-Based Reading Approach
294(1)
Whole Language Approach
295(1)
Language Experience Approach
296(2)
Phonics Approach
298(5)
Linguistic Approach: Word Families and Onset-Rime
303(1)
Remedial Reading Programs and Methods
304(11)
Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading
304(1)
Success for All
305(1)
Reading Recovery
305(1)
Multisensory Reading Method
306(2)
Oral Reading Fluency Methods
308(2)
Peer-Assisted Reading Method
310(1)
High Interest--Low Vocabulary Method
311(1)
Functional Reading
311(4)
Designing a Reading Program
315(4)
Use Effective Teaching Principles
315(1)
Provide Prereading Experiences
316(1)
Consider the Nature of Reading Development
316(1)
Provide Explicit and Implicit Reading Instruction
317(2)
Teaching Strategies in Reading
319(2)
Keyword Method
319(1)
Reciprocal Teaching
320(1)
Mapping Strategies
320(1)
Reading and Study Skills for Adolescents
321(2)
Reading Rate
321(1)
Study Skills
322(1)
Learning Strategies
322(1)
Reading Activities
323(7)
Prereading Activities: Concepts About Print
323(1)
Prereading Activities: Phonological Awareness
324(1)
Word-Attack Activities
325(2)
Fluency Activities
327(1)
Vocabulary Activities
327(1)
Comprehension Activities
328(2)
Instructional Games in Reading
330(2)
Self-Correcting Reading Materials
332(3)
Commercial Reading Programs
335(2)
Computer Software Programs in Reading
337(3)
Assessing and Teaching Spelling
340(26)
Assessment of Spelling Skills
342(6)
Formal Spelling Assessment
342(2)
Informal Spelling Assessment
344(4)
Teaching Spelling Skills
348(7)
Rule-Based Instruction
349(1)
Multisensory Approach
350(1)
Test-Study-Test Technique
351(2)
Fixed and Flow Word Lists
353(1)
Imitation Methods
354(1)
Additional Considerations
354(1)
Spelling Activities
355(2)
Instructional Games in Spelling
357(3)
Self-Correcting Spelling Materials
360(3)
Commercial Spelling Programs
363(1)
Computer Software Programs in Spelling
364(2)
Assessing and Teaching Handwriting and Written Expression
366(37)
Handwriting Problems
367(1)
Assessment of Handwriting Skills
367(3)
Formal Handwriting Assessment
367(2)
Informal Handwriting Assessment
369(1)
Teaching Handwriting Skills
370(10)
Readiness Skills
374(1)
Manuscript Writing
375(2)
Transitional Writing
377(1)
Cursive Writing
378(2)
Typewriting and Keyboarding
380(1)
Handwriting Activities
380(2)
Readiness Activities
380(1)
Manuscript Writing Activities
381(1)
Cursive Writing Activities
382(1)
Commercial Handwriting Programs
382(1)
Written Expression Skills
383(1)
Assessment of Written Expression Skills
384(7)
Formal Written Expression Assessment
384(1)
Informal Written Expression Assessment
384(7)
Teaching Written Expression Skills
391(6)
Process Approach to Writing
391(3)
Writing Instruction
394(3)
Written Expression Activities
397(3)
Fluency and Syntax Development Activities
398(1)
Vocabulary Development Activities
398(1)
Structure Development Activities
398(1)
Content Development Activities
399(1)
Commercial Written Expression Programs
400(1)
Computer Software Programs in Written Expression
401(2)
Assessing Math
403(24)
Development of Math Skills
405(2)
Readiness for Number Instruction
405(1)
Readiness for More Advanced Mathematics
406(1)
Assessment Considerations
407(4)
Examining Math Errors
407(3)
Determining Level of Understanding
410(1)
Determining Mastery Learning
411(1)
Assessment of Math Skills
411(16)
Formal Math Assessment
411(1)
Informal Math Assessment
412(15)
Teaching Math
427(57)
Basic Terms and Processes
429(1)
Research on Effective Math Instruction
429(9)
Selecting Appropriate Mathematics Content
430(1)
Teaching the Acquisition of Math
431(3)
Teaching Mastery
434(1)
Teaching Problem Solving
435(1)
Teaching Generalization
436(1)
Using Explicit-Implicit Math Instruction
437(1)
Promoting a Positive Attitude Toward Math
438(1)
Instructional Practices for Computation and Problem Solving
438(24)
Thornton and Toohey Math Facts Program
438(3)
Mercer and Miller Math Facts Program
441(1)
Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract Activities
442(8)
Basic Rules and Algorithms
450(4)
Problem-Solving Interventions
454(3)
Functional Math
457(2)
Estimation
459(2)
Calculators
461(1)
Math Activities
462(12)
Readiness
462(1)
Place Value
463(1)
General Computation
464(1)
Addition
465(1)
Subtraction
466(1)
Multiplication
467(2)
Division
469(1)
Fractions
469(2)
Time
471(1)
Decimals/Money
472(1)
Measurement
473(1)
Word Problems
473(1)
Instructional Games in Math
474(3)
Self-Correcting Math Materials
477(3)
Commercial Math Programs
480(2)
Computer Software Programs in Math
482(1)
Perspective
483(1)
Teaching Learning Strategies, Content, and Study Skills
484(37)
Motivation
486(1)
Learning Strategies
487(6)
Learning Strategies Curriculum
487(2)
Features of Effective Learning Strategies
489(1)
Instructional Procedures
489(4)
Content Instruction
493(12)
Content Enhancements
494(7)
Adapting Materials
501(1)
Assignments
502(1)
Tutoring
503(1)
Testing
504(1)
Administrative Considerations
504(1)
Study Skills
505(14)
Preparatory Study Skills
505(2)
Acquisition Study Skills
507(7)
Recall Study Skills
514(1)
Expression Study Skills
515(4)
Commercial Learning Strategies and Study Skills Programs
519(1)
Computer Software Programs in Learning Strategies and Study Skills
519(2)
Promoting Transitions
521(18)
Adults with Learning Disabilities
522(3)
Transitions from Secondary Settings
525(1)
Transition Program Components
525(1)
Transition Program Participants and Transition Plans
526(1)
Program Areas in Transition Education
526(9)
Academic Interventions
527(1)
Life Skills Instruction
528(4)
Career and Vocational Education
532(3)
Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination Instruction
535(1)
College Students with Special Needs
535(2)
Commercial Transition Education Programs
537(1)
Computer Software Programs in Transition Education
538(1)
Appendix A Scope and Sequence Skills Lists 539(2)
Appendix B Publishers of Books, Tests, and Materials 541(2)
References 543(32)
Author Index 575(8)
Subject Index 583

Excerpts

Most educators can recall key events that made lasting impressions on their minds or hearts. One such event occurred in 1968 during a PTA meeting at a small elementary school next to the Blue Ridge Mountains in Virginia. The officers of the PTA were concerned about the uninterested, unmotivated, and misbehaving students in their school, and they asked me to discuss the topic. More than 70 people--parents, teachers, and central office staff--entered the small cafeteria for the PTA meeting.Within a few minutes I was introduced. I told the audience that I was delighted to be with them and wanted to begin by giving them a short test. The test consisted of a problem involving the transporting of a chicken, a fox, and a bag of chicken feed across a lake. However, the problem was designed so that it was impossible to answer correctly. I gave these instructions: "This is a short test that most people with average ability finish in 1 minute. When I say 'Begin,' please start. Ready?" Toward the end of the minute, many of the assemblage were mumbling, fidgeting, and attempting to look at others' papers. I called time and asked how many had solved the problem. Nobody raised a hand. With a puzzled expression I said, "You must be tired. I'll give you another minute. Slow learners usually can solve it in 2 minutes."Although I had anticipated some frustration, the behavior of this group of adults during the next minute was somewhat surprising. Many cheated, some cursed, others broke my pencils, and still others crumpled up the test and tossed it aside. At the end of the minute I informed them that time was up. I asked several people how they felt. Responses included: "I feel like punching you in the mouth." "I want to leave and never come back:' "I'd like to give you a piece of my mind." "What's the answer to this expletive thing?"Within 2 minutes, this situation had prompted adults to cheat, swear, want to leave, destroy property, threaten physical violence, and talk rudely. I pointed out that what had happened to them was the same thing that often happens to students with learning problems. Tasks are assigned that are too difficult or practically impossible for them to do correctly. Moreover, failure to do these tasks generally is viewed as a reflection of one's ability. The point was clear: Both students and adults are inclined to act aggressively or avoid situations in which they are given inappropriate tasks. With adults reacting so quickly and intensely to this type of failure, I was reminded of what happens to youngsters who customarily face failure within the schools. Ann and I enthusiastically share the conviction of many educators that students with learning problems have a right to educational programs tailored to their unique needs. To us, individualized programming involvesthe student working on appropriate tasks or content over time under effective motivational conditions.The primary purpose of this book is to prepare special education professors and teachers, resource room teachers, remedial education teachers, and general education teachers for the challenges of individualized programming for students with learning or behavioral problems. Individualized programming requires an understanding of subject matter, assessmeiat, effective teaching practices for each content area, instructional activities, independent work activities, and commercial programs and software. Moreover, the complex needs of students with learning problems and the abundance of interventions necessitate that special education teachers collaborate with general education teachers, other professionals, and parents. As teachers of elementary, secondary, and university students, we have had difficulty finding a text that covers all of these areas. Resource and classroom teachers as well as special education professors often refer to one text for instructional activities, another for teacher-made materials, ano


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