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Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3rd Edition,9781405190251
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Work in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3rd Edition

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Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9781405190251

ISBN10:
1405190256
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell
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    Work in the 21st Century : An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology




Summary

"Thoroughly refreshed and updated, this new edition is even better than the last one. At the same time, it retains its wonderful historical perspective, a writing that connects with the audience by using situations and examples that readers can relate to, and a laser-like focus on the scientist-practitioner model as an underlying framework." -Wayne Cascio, University of Colorado DenverNow in its third edition, Work in the 21st Century is the most current, engaging, and highly regarded text for the industrial and organizational psychology course. Combining leading research, consulting, and teaching expertise, Frank Landy and Jeff Conte provide students with up-to-date examples and cases that link current research and theory to practical issues in the workplace. Work in the 21st Century continues to emphasize the scientist-practitioner model showing students the connection between using the tools of science and the practice of I-O psychology.The third edition retains a number of themes from the prior edition that underscore the multifaceted nature of work such as the increase in cross-cultural work, the diversification of workforces, and the increased complexity of the technical and organizational aspects of work. To this edition, the authors add authenticity as a theme with the goal of preparing students for the 21st century workplace.Frank J. Landy is a Professor Emeritus in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Penn State University. He has also been a Visiting Lecturer or Researcher at Stanford University, The University of California at Berkeley, Stockholm University, Gothenburg University, Cluj-Napoca University (Romania) and Ljubljana University (Slovenia). He received his Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Bowling Green State University. He has served as an Editor of various I-O psychology journals as well as President of SIOP. His career has been divided among research, teaching, text and journal writing, and consulting. Frank's research has been funded by federal agencies including the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Agriculture. He has received numerous awards and national recognition for his research on I-O psychology topics. Frank is also a much-sought-after expert witness in State and Federal cases that involve charges of race, gender and age discrimination as well as human factors issues such as product warning signs and labels, accidents, and product defects. He currently is CEO and Senior Testifying Expert of Landy Litigation Support Group, an expert services firm that provides assistance to private and public sector organizations, law firms, and government agencies on issues related to employment discrimination and human behavior. In his capacity as an expert witness, he has been retained by the Department of Justice, EEOC, and many private employers and has also been part of policy level groups responsible for drafting, revising, and interpreting Federal statutes (Americans with Disabilities Act, Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Civil Rights Act of 1991) as well as professional guidelines on fair employment (SIOP Principles and APA Standards). He remains active in the employment and human factors litigation arena today.Jeffrey M. Conte is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. He received his B.A. from the University of Virginia and his Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Penn State University. He teaches courses in introductory I-O psychology, advanced personnel psychology, and psychological testing and measurement. His research int

Author Biography

Frank J. Landy of Baruch College of the City University of New York and Landy Litigation Support Group has been a teacher, published scholar, textbook author, and consultant in Organizational Psychology to government and business in Organizational Psychology both domestically and internationally for 35 years. He has received numerous awards from scientific societies for that body of work. He is also frequently called upon to present expert testimony in employment discrimination cases.

Jeffrey M. Conte is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. He received his Ph.D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Penn State University. His research interests include personnel selection, personality predictors of job performance, and factors associated with health and stress in the workplace.  He has worked with a variety of organizations in addressing such issues as human resource selection, stress, training evaluation, and organizational factors related to safety.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xx
Fundamentals
What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?p. 3
The Importance of I-O Psychologyp. 4
The Importance of Work in People's Livesp. 4
The Concept of "Good Work"p. 5
Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologistsp. 7
How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society?p. 8
What Is I-O Psychology?p. 8
SIOP as a Resourcep. 12
How This Course Can Help Youp. 12
The Importance of Understanding the Younger Workerp. 14
The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychologyp. 17
The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychologyp. 17
1876-1930p. 18
1930-1964p. 20
The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologistsp. 24
Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixturep. 24
What We Call Ourselvesp. 25
The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Centuryp. 25
A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychologyp. 26
Education and Trainingp. 27
Getting into a Graduate Programp. 27
Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychologyp. 30
The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Centuryp. 30
Cross-National Issues at the Workplacep. 32
Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You?p. 34
Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology?p. 35
Some Theories of Cultural Influencep. 36
Hofstede's Theoryp. 36
Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influencep. 40
The Organization of This Bookp. 43
Themesp. 43
Partsp. 44
Resourcesp. 44
Case Study 1.1p. 47
Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychologyp. 53
Sciencep. 54
What Is Science?p. 54
The Role of Science in Societyp. 55
Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research?p. 56
Researchp. 58
Research Designp. 58
Methods of Data Collectionp. 61
Qualitative and Quantitative Researchp. 61
The Importance of Context in Interpreting Researchp. 61
Generalizability and Control in Researchp. 62
Generalizabilityp. 62
Case Study 2.1p. 63
Controlp. 64
Ethical Behavior in I-O Psychologyp. 65
Data Analysisp. 68
Descriptive and Inferential Statisticsp. 68
Descriptive Statisticsp. 68
Inferential Statisticsp. 70
Statistical Significancep. 70
The Concept of Statistical Powerp. 71
Correlation and Regressionp. 71
The Concept of Correlationp. 72
The Correlation Coefficientp. 72
Multiple Correlationp. 74
Correlation and Causationp. 74
Meta-Analysisp. 75
Micro-, Macro-, and Meso-Researchp. 77
Interpretationp. 79
Reliabilityp. 79
Test-Retest Reliabilityp. 80
Equivalent Forms Reliabilityp. 80
Internal Consistencyp. 81
Inter-Rater Reliabilityp. 81
Validityp. 82
Criterion-Related Validityp. 83
Content-Related Validityp. 85
Construct-Related Validityp. 86
Validity and the Law: A Mixed Blessingp. 88
Industrial Psychology
Individual Differences and Assessmentp. 93
An Introduction to Individual Differencesp. 94
Some Backgroundp. 94
Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychologyp. 95
Identifying Individual Differencesp. 96
Varieties of Individual Differencesp. 97
Human Attributesp. 100
Abilitiesp. 100
Cognitive Abilitiesp. 100
Intelligence as "g"p. 100
Is "g" Important at Work?p. 101
Is "g" as Important in Other Countries as It Is in the United States?p. 102
Can Your Level of "g" Change?p. 102
The Issue of Retesting and Cognitive Abilityp. 103
Specific Cognitive Abilities beyond "g"p. 103
Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilitiesp. 106
Physical Abilitiesp. 106
Sensory Abilitiesp. 108
Psychomotor Abilitiesp. 108
Personality and Work Behaviorp. 108
The Big Five and Other Models of Personalityp. 110
Case Study 3.1p. 113
Implications of Broad Personality Modelsp. 113
Personality Change over the Life Spanp. 114
Additional Attributesp. 115
Skillsp. 115
Knowledgep. 115
Competenciesp. 118
Emotional Intelligencep. 118
Foundations of Assessmentp. 121
The Past and the Present of Testingp. 121
What Is a Test?p. 123
What Is the Meaning of a Test Score?p. 123
Test Users and Test Interpretationp. 124
What Is a Test Battery?p. 126
Where to Find Testsp. 126
Administrative Test Categoriesp. 126
Speed versus Power Testsp. 126
Group versus Individual Testsp. 128
Paper and Pencil versus Performance Testsp. 128
Testing and Culturep. 128
International Assessment Practicesp. 131
Assessment Proceduresp. 133
Assessment Content versus Processp. 133
Assessment Procedures: Contentp. 133
Cognitive Ability Testsp. 133
Knowledge Testsp. 136
Tests of Physical Abilitiesp. 136
Psychomotor Abilitiesp. 137
Personalityp. 138
Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measuresp. 138
Integrity Testingp. 142
Emotional Intelligencep. 144
Individual Assessmentp. 145
Interviewsp. 145
Interview Contentp. 145
Interview Processp. 148
Assessment Centersp. 148
Work Samples and Situational Testsp. 151
Work Sample Testsp. 151
Situational Judgment Testsp. 152
Special Topics in Assessmentp. 157
Incremental Validityp. 157
Biographical Datap. 158
Grades and Letters of Recommendationp. 161
Minimum Qualificationsp. 162
Useless Assessment Practices: Graphology and the Polygraphp. 162
Drug and Alcohol Testingp. 163
Computer-Based and Internet Assessmentp. 165
Unproctored Internet Testingp. 167
Who Is a Candidate?p. 168
Computer Adaptive Testingp. 168
Testing and Demographic Differencesp. 169
Job Analysis and Performancep. 173
A Basic Model of Performancep. 174
Campbell's Model of Job Performancep. 174
Typical versus Maximum Performancep. 178
Criterion Deficiency and Contaminationp. 179
A Broader Viewp. 180
Extensions of the Basic Performance Modelp. 182
Task Performance versus Organizational Citizenship Behaviorp. 182
Causes and Correlates of OCBp. 184
The Dark Side of Performance: Counterproductive Work Behaviorsp. 186
Causes of and Treatments for CWBp. 189
OCB and CWB: Two Ends of the Same Continuum?p. 190
Proactive Work Behaviorp. 190
Adaptive Performancep. 191
A Brief Recapp. 193
A Comprehensive Framework for Considering Performance: The "Great Eight"p. 194
The Case of Expert Performancep. 194
Types of Performance Measuresp. 197
Job Analysis: Fundamental Properties and Practicesp. 199
The Uses of Job Analysis Informationp. 199
A Brief History of Job Analysisp. 202
Types of Job Analysisp. 203
How Job Analysis Is Donep. 206
Job Analysis: Newer Developmentsp. 209
Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysisp. 209
Cognitive Task Analysisp. 210
The Context of Workp. 212
Personality-Based Job Analysisp. 213
A Summary of the Job Analysis Processp. 215
Computer-Based Job Analysisp. 216
O*NETp. 217
Competency Modelingp. 219
Job Evaluation and the Lawp. 222
Job Evaluationp. 222
The Concept of Comparable Worthp. 223
Job Analysis and Employment Litigationp. 224
p. 227
Basic Concepts in Performance Measurementp. 228
Uses for Performance Informationp. 228
Relationships among Performance Measuresp. 229
Hands-On Performance Measuresp. 229
Electronic Performance Monitoringp. 230
Performance Managementp. 233
Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Measurementp. 234
Performance Rating-Substancep. 238
Close-Up on a Rating Systemp. 238
Theories of Performance Ratingsp. 240
Focus on Performance Ratingsp. 241
Overall Performance Ratingsp. 241
Trait Ratingsp. 242
Task-Based Ratingsp. 242
Critical Incidents Methodsp. 242
OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratingsp. 243
Structural Characteristics of a Performance Rating Scalep. 243
Rating Formatsp. 245
Graphic Rating Scalesp. 245
Checklistsp. 245
Behavioral Ratingp. 247
Employee Comparison Methodsp. 248
A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARSp. 249
Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formatsp. 251
Performance Rating-Processp. 252
Rating Sourcesp. 252
Supervisorsp. 252
Peersp. 254
Self-Ratingsp. 254
Subordinate Ratingsp. 256
Customer and Supplier Ratingsp. 256
360 Degree Systemsp. 256
Rating Distortionsp. 257
Central Tendency Errorp. 257
Leniency-Severity Errorp. 257
Halo Errorp. 258
Rater Trainingp. 258
Administrative Trainingp. 258
Psychometric Trainingp. 259
Frame-of-Reference Trainingp. 259
The Reliability and Validity of Ratingsp. 259
Reliabilityp. 259
Validityp. 260
The Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluationp. 261
The Motivation to Ratep. 261
Goal Conflictp. 263
Performance Feedbackp. 264
"Destructive" Criticismp. 265
360 Degree Feedbackp. 266
Performance Evaluation and Culturep. 268
Performance Evaluation and the Lawp. 270
Performance Evaluation and Protected Groupsp. 273
Staffing Decisionsp. 277
Conceptual Issues in Staffingp. 278
An Introduction to the Staffing Processp. 278
The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performancep. 279
Stakeholders in the Staffing Processp. 281
Line Managersp. 281
Co-workersp. 281
Applicantsp. 282
Staffing from the International Perspectivep. 283
Evaluation of Staffing Outcomesp. 286
Validityp. 286
Selection Ratiosp. 287
Prediction Errors and Cut Scoresp. 288
Establishing Cut Scoresp. 289
Utilityp. 290
Til Death Us Do Part? The Concept of Dynamic Validitiesp. 291
Fairnessp. 292
Practical Issues in Staffingp. 294
A Staffing Modelp. 294
Comprehensive Selection Systemsp. 294
Compensatory Selection Systemsp. 294
Combining Informationp. 295
Statistical versus Clinical Decision Makingp. 295
The Hurdle System of Combining Scoresp. 296
Combining Scores by Regression (The Compensatory Approach)p. 297
Score Bandingp. 298
Subgroup Normingp. 299
Selection versus Placementp. 299
Deselectionp. 301
Number of Decisions to Be Madep. 301
Large Staffing Projectsp. 301
Small Staffing Projectsp. 303
21st- Century Staffingp. 304
Legal Issues in Staffing Decisionsp. 306
Charges of Employment Discriminationp. 306
Employment Discrimination Outside of the United Statesp. 307
Theories of Discriminationp. 308
Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatmentp. 308
Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impactp. 308
Case Study 6.1p. 310
Training and Developmentp. 315
Foundations of Training and Learningp. 316
Training, Learning, and Performancep. 317
Training Needs Analysisp. 318
The Learning Process in Trainingp. 321
Trainee Characteristicsp. 321
Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Trainingp. 323
Principles of Learningp. 325
Learning Organizationsp. 328
Content and Methods of Trainingp. 331
Training Methodsp. 331
On-Site Training Methodsp. 331
Off-Site Training Methodsp. 333
Distance Learning and Computer-Based Trainingp. 334
Training "Critical Thinking"p. 336
Transfer of Trainingp. 337
Evaluating Training Programsp. 339
Training Evaluationp. 339
Training Criteriap. 340
Utility Analysisp. 341
Training Evaluation Designsp. 341
Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Trainingp. 344
Specialized Training Programsp. 346
Management and Leadership Developmentp. 346
Assessment Centersp. 347
360 Degree Feedbackp. 347
Coachingp. 348
Informal Trainingp. 350
Sexual Harassment Awareness Trainingp. 350
Ethics Trainingp. 352
Cross-Cultural Trainingp. 353
Organizational Psychology
The Motivation to Workp. 359
An Introduction to Motivationp. 360
The Central Position of Motivation in Psychologyp. 360
A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychologyp. 361
Metaphors for Motivationp. 362
Person as Machinep. 363
Person as Scientistp. 363
The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplacep. 365
Motivation and Performancep. 365
Motivation and Work-Life Balancep. 365
Motivation and Attitudesp. 366
Motivation and Personalityp. 367
Motivational Theories-Classic Approachesp. 369
"Person as Machine" Theoriesp. 369
An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow's Need Theoryp. 369
An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theoryp. 371
"Person as Scientist" Theoriesp. 372
Vroom's VIE Theoryp. 373
Equity Theoryp. 374
Modern Approaches to Work Motivationp. 377
Person-as-Intentional Approachesp. 377
Goal-Setting Theoryp. 377
Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulationp. 381
The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theoryp. 383
Action Theoryp. 386
Common Themes in Modern Approachesp. 388
A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneurp. 388
Practical Issues in Motivationp. 393
Can Motivation Be Measured?p. 393
Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivationp. 394
Generational Differences and Work Motivationp. 396
Motivational Interventionsp. 398
Contingent Rewardsp. 398
Job Enrichmentp. 399
ProMESp. 400
Attitudes, Emotions, and Workp. 403
Job Satisfactionp. 404
The Experience of Emotion at Workp. 404
Job Satisfaction: Some Historyp. 405
The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Researchp. 405
An Evolutionp. 407
Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfactionp. 408
The Measurement of Job Satisfactionp. 412
Overall versus Facet Satisfactionp. 412
Satisfaction Questionnairesp. 413
The Concept of Commitmentp. 415
Forms of Commitmentp. 416
Individual Difference Variables and Commitmentp. 418
A New Focus: Organizational Identificationp. 419
Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviorp. 423
Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are?p. 423
The Concept of "Resigned" Work Satisfactionp. 423
Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotionp. 426
Dispositions and Affectivityp. 428
The Time Course of Emotional Experiencep. 429
Genetics and Job Satisfactionp. 431
The Concept of Core Self-Evaluationsp. 432
Withdrawal Behaviorsp. 434
Special Topics Related to Attitudes and Emotionsp. 436
Job Lossp. 436
Telecommutingp. 439
Work-Family Balancep. 440
Psychological Contractsp. 443
Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions from the Cross-Cultural Perspectivep. 444
Stress and Worker Well-Beingp. 447
The Problem of Stressp. 448
Studying Workplace Stressp. 448
What Is a Stressor?p. 450
Common Stressors at Workp. 451
Physical/Task Stressorsp. 451
Psychological Stressorsp. 452
Consequences of Stressp. 456
Behavioral Consequences of Stressp. 456
Psychological Consequences of Stressp. 458
Physiological Consequences of Stressp. 460
Work Schedulesp. 460
Shift Workp. 461
Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedulesp. 462
Theories of Stressp. 467
Demand-Control Modelp. 467
Person-Environment Fit Modelp. 468
Individual Differences in Resistance to Stressp. 469
The Type A Behavior Patternp. 470
Reducing and Managing Stressp. 475
Primary Prevention Strategiesp. 476
Work and Job Designp. 476
Cognitive Restructuringp. 477
Secondary Prevention Strategiesp. 477
Stress Management Trainingp. 478
Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniquesp. 479
Social Supportp. 479
Tertiary Prevention Strategiesp. 480
Summary of Stress Intervention Strategiesp. 481
Future Work Trends and Challenges to Stress and Stress Managementp. 481
Violence at Workp. 484
Stress and Workplace Violencep. 485
Levels of Violencep. 486
The Experiential Sequence of Violencep. 487
The "Typical" Violent Workerp. 487
Theories of Workplace Violencep. 488
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesisp. 488
The "Justice" Hypothesisp. 489
A Special Type of Violence: Bullyingp. 491
What Can We Conclude about Workplace Violence?p. 494
Fairness and Diversity in the Workplacep. 497
Fairnessp. 498
The Concept of Justicep. 498
Justice, Fairness, and Trustp. 500
Approaches to Organizational Justicep. 503
Distributive Justicep. 503
Procedural Justicep. 504
Interactional Justicep. 506
Deontic Justicep. 508
Justice versus Injusticep. 508
The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptionsp. 511
Performance Evaluationp. 512
Applicant Perceptions of Selection Fairnessp. 513
A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threatp. 517
A Model of Applicant Decision Makingp. 518
The Special Case of Affirmative Actionp. 519
Culture and Affirmative Action Programsp. 523
Diversityp. 525
What Does Diversity Mean?p. 525
The Dynamics of Diversityp. 526
Group and Multicultural Diversityp. 528
Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspectivep. 529
Leadership and Diversityp. 532
Leadershipp. 535
The Concept of Leadershipp. 536
Some Conceptual Distinctionsp. 536
Leader Emergence versus Leadership Effectivenessp. 537
Leader Emergencep. 537
The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomesp. 538
Negative Leadership Outcomes: The Destructive Leaderp. 539
Leader versus Manager or Supervisorp. 541
The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Rolesp. 542
Leader Development versus Leadership Developmentp. 544
The Motivation to Leadp. 546
Traditional Theories of Leadershipp. 549
The "Great Man" Theoriesp. 549
The Trait Approachp. 550
The "Power" Approach to Leadershipp. 550
The Behavioral Approachp. 551
The Ohio State University Studiesp. 551
The University of Michigan Studiesp. 553
The Contingency Approachp. 554
The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom-Yetton Modelp. 555
New Approaches to Leadershipp. 558
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)p. 558
Transformational Leadershipp. 560
Authentic Leadershipp. 564
The Charismatic Leaderp. 565
Emerging Topics and Challenges in Leadership Researchp. 568
Leadership in a Changing Workplacep. 568
Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different?p. 570
The Demographics of Leadershipp. 570
The Leadership Styles of Men and Womenp. 572
Personality and Leadershipp. 574
Cross-Cultural Studies of Leadershipp. 576
Leadership in a Diverse Environmentp. 581
Guidelines for Effective Leadershipp. 582
Teams in Organizationsp. 585
Types of Teamsp. 586
Groups and Teams: Definitionsp. 587
Types of Teamsp. 587
Quality Circlesp. 588
Project Teamsp. 589
Production Teamsp. 589
Virtual Teamsp. 591
Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectivenessp. 595
Team Inputsp. 596
Organizational Contextp. 596
Team Taskp. 596
Team Compositionp. 596
Team Diversityp. 599
Team Processesp. 600
Normsp. 601
Communication and Coordinationp. 601
Cohesionp. 602
Decision Makingp. 603
Team Outputsp. 605
Special Issues in Teamsp. 608
Team Appraisal and Feedbackp. 608
ProMESp. 609
Team Rolesp. 610
Team Developmentp. 611
Team Trainingp. 613
Cultural Issues in Teamsp. 614
The Organization of Work Behaviorp. 617
The Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Organizationsp. 618
Organizations and Peoplep. 618
Organization as Integrationp. 621
Theories of Organizationp. 622
Classic Organizational Theoryp. 622
Human Relations Theoryp. 624
Contingency Theoriesp. 626
Systems Theoryp. 629
Conclusions about Theories of Organizationp. 632
Some Social Dynamics of Organizationsp. 635
Climate and Culturep. 635
A Brief History of Climate and Culturep. 636
An Integration of Conceptsp. 638
A New Avenue for Exploration: Climate and Culture Strengthp. 640
Organizational Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspectivep. 642
When Cultures Clashp. 642
An Application of Culture and Climate: Safetyp. 644
The Role of Leaders in Safetyp. 644
Safety Climate and Culturep. 645
Socialization and the Concept of Person-Organization (P-O) and Person-Job (P-J) Fitp. 647
Organizational Socializationp. 647
Positive Consequences of Socializationp. 650
Socialization and National Culturep. 652
Socialization and Person-Organization Fit Modelsp. 653
Organizational Development and Changep. 658
Organizational Changep. 658
Episodic Changep. 659
Continuous Changep. 660
Resistance to Changep. 662
Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiativesp. 663
Total Quality Management (TQM)p. 664
Six Sigma Systemsp. 664
Lean Production Manufacturingp. 666
Management by Objectives, Matrix Organizations, and Mergers and Acquisitionsp. 668
Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventionsp. 668
Glossaryp. G-1
Referencesp. R-1
Creditsp. C-1
Name Indexp. I-1
Subject Indexp. I-18
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