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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief Edition,9780321163417
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Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief Edition

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780321163417

ISBN10:
0321163419
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Longman

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Summary

The market-leading guide to arguments, "Writing Arguments" has proven highly successful in teaching readers to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own. Teaches readers to write better arguments. How to write arguments; how to do research for arguments; an anthology of argumentative readings. Anyone interested in writing better arguments.

Table of Contents

Color Plates xxii
Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxxi
Part One Overview of Argument
1(72)
Argument: An Introduction
3(19)
What Do We Mean by Argument?
3(2)
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel
3(1)
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate
4(1)
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit
4(1)
``Dulce et Decorum Est''
5(2)
Wilfred Owen
The Defining Features of Argument
7(5)
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims
7(2)
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product
9(1)
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion
10(2)
Argument and the Problem of Truth
12(3)
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning Committee
15(2)
``Petition to Waive the University Mathematics Requirement''
17(4)
Gordon Adams
Conclusion
21(1)
Reading Arguments
22(27)
Why Reading Arguments Is Important for Writers
22(1)
Strategy 1: Reading as a Believer
23(1)
``Playing with Our Food''
24(3)
Lisa Turner
Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe
27(4)
Suspending Doubt: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer's Views
30(1)
Strategy 2: Reading as a Doubter
31(2)
Strategy 3: Exploring How Rhetorical Context and Genre Shape the Argument
33(4)
Understanding the Genres of Argument
33(3)
Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre
36(1)
Strategy 4: Seeking Out Alternative Views and Analyzing Sources of Disagreement
37(3)
Disagreement about Facts or Their Relevance
38(1)
Disagreement about Values, Beliefs, or Assumptions
38(2)
``Why Biotech Labeling Can Confuse Consumers''
40(3)
Writing an Analysis of a Disagreement
43(1)
``An Analysis of the Sources of Disagreement between Lisa Turner and the Council for Biotechnology Information''
43(2)
Strategy 5: Using Disagreement Productively to Prompt Further Investigation
45(3)
Accepting Ambiguity and Uncertainty
45(1)
Seeking Sources of Facts and More Complete Versions of Alternative Views
46(1)
Determining What Values Are at Stake for You and Articulating Your Own Values
47(1)
Considering Ways to Synthesize Alternative Views
47(1)
Conclusion
48(1)
Writing Arguments
49(24)
Who Writes Arguments and Why?
49(3)
Tips for Improving Your Writing Process
52(4)
Starting Point
52(1)
Exploring, Researching, and Rehearsing
53(1)
Writing a First Draft
53(1)
Revising through Multiple Drafts
54(1)
Editing for Style, Impact, and Correctness
55(1)
Using Exploratory Writing to Discover Ideas and Deepen Thinking
56(6)
Freewriting or Blind Writing
56(1)
Idea Mapping
57(1)
Playing the Believing and Doubting Game
58(2)
Brainstorming for Pro and Con Because Clauses
60(1)
Brainstorming a Network of Related Issues
61(1)
Shaping Your Argument: Classical Argument as a Planning Tool
62(5)
The Structure of Classical Argument
62(3)
An Illustration of Classical Argument as a Planning Guide
65(2)
Discovering Ideas: Two Sets of Exploratory Writing Tasks
67(3)
Set 1: Starting Points
67(2)
Set 2: Exploration and Rehearsal
69(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 1--3
70(3)
Part Two Principles of Argument
73(124)
The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons
75(12)
The Rhetorical Triangle
75(1)
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument
76(3)
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question
77(2)
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument
79(2)
Pseudo-Arguments: Fanatical Believers and Fanatical Skeptics
79(1)
Another Source of Pseudo-Arguments: Lack of Shared Assumptions
79(2)
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons
81(3)
What Is a Reason?
81(1)
Advantages of Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses
82(2)
Application of this Chapter's Principles to Your Own Writing
84(2)
Application of this Chapter's Principles to the Reading of Arguments
86(1)
Conclusion
86(1)
The Logical Structure of Arguments
87(22)
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the ``Logical Structure'' of an Argument?
87(4)
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System
91(7)
Using Toulmin's Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support
98(3)
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons
101(7)
Difference between Writer-Based and Audience-Based Reasons
102(2)
Finding Audience-Based Reasons: Asking Questions about Your Audience
104(4)
Conclusion
108(1)
Using Evidence Effectively
109(20)
General Principles for the Persuasive Use of Data
109(2)
Apply the STAR Criteria to Data
110(1)
Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts
111(1)
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence
111(11)
Kinds of Evidence
112(4)
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence
116(3)
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence
119(2)
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence
121(1)
Gathering Evidence
122(3)
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence
122(1)
Gathering Data from Interviews
123(1)
Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires
124(1)
Conclusion
125(1)
Writing Assignments for Chapters 4--6
125(1)
``'Half-Criminals' or Urban Athletes? A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders''
126(3)
David Langley
Moving Your Audience: Ethos and Pathos
129(11)
Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview
129(2)
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility
131(1)
Be Knowledgeable about Your Issue
131(1)
Be Fair
131(1)
Build a Bridge to Your Audience
132(1)
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Belief and Emotions
132(5)
Use Concrete Language
133(1)
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations
133(1)
Use Narratives
134(2)
Choose Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations
136(1)
Using Images for Emotional Appeal
137(2)
Conclusion
139(1)
Accommodating Your Audience: Treating Differing Views
140(25)
One-Sided versus Multisided Arguments
140(1)
Determining Your Audience's Resistance to Your Views
141(2)
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument
143(1)
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument
144(6)
Summarizing Opposing Views
144(1)
Refuting Opposing Views
145(3)
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence
148(1)
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy
149(1)
From First Place: A Healing School for Homeless Children
150(2)
Marybeth Hamilton
Conceding to Opposing Views
152(1)
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Delayed Thesis or Rogerian Argument
152(1)
Delayed-Thesis Argument
153(1)
``Minneapolis Pornography Ordinance''
153(5)
Ellen Goodman
Rogerian Argument
156(2)
``Letter to Jim''
158(5)
Rebekah Taylor
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Using Humor
160(3)
Conclusion
163(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapters 7 and 8
164(1)
Conducting Visual Arguments
165(32)
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument
166(4)
Use of Type
166(2)
Use of Space or Layout
168(1)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements
169(1)
``A Single Hit of Ecstasy...'' (advocacy advertisement)---Drug Enforcement Administration
170(4)
Use of Color
172(1)
Use of Images and Graphics
172(1)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components
173(1)
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings
174(5)
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images
176(3)
The Genres of Visual Argument
179(7)
Posters and Fliers
180(1)
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements
180(3)
Cartoons
183(3)
Web Pages
186(1)
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument
186(2)
``Drink and Then Drive? Jeopardize My Future?'' (poster)
188(1)
Leah Johnson
Using Graphics as Visual Arguments
189(5)
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories
189(2)
Using a Graph to Tell a Story
191(1)
Bar Graphs
191(1)
Pie Charts
192(1)
Line Graphs
193(1)
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument
194(2)
Designing the Graphic
194(1)
Numbering, Labeling, and Titling the Graphic
194(1)
Referencing the Graphic in Your Text
195(1)
Conclusion
196(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapters 9
196(1)
Part Three Arguments in Depth: Six Types of Claims
197(158)
An Introduction to the Types of Claims
199(9)
An Overview of the Types of Claims
199(5)
Type 1: Simple Categorical Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where You and Your Audience Agree on the Meaning of Y)
200(1)
Type 2: Definitional Arguments (Is X a Y?, Where the Definition of Y Is Contested)
201(1)
Type 3: Cause/Consequence Arguments (Does X Cause Y? Is Y a Consequence of X?)
201(1)
Type 4: Resemblance Arguments (Is X Like Y?)
202(1)
Type 5: Evaluation Arguments (Is X Good or Bad? Is X a Good or Bad Y?)
202(1)
Type 6: Proposal Arguments (Should We Do X?)
203(1)
What Is the Value of Studying Claim Types?
204(4)
Help in Focusing an Argument and Generating Ideas
204(3)
Help in Organizing and Developing an Argument
207(1)
Categorical and Definitional Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Y
208(33)
An Overview of the Categorical Arguments
209(1)
Simple Categorical Arguments
210(4)
Difference between Facts and Simple Categorical Claims
210(1)
Variations in the Wording of Simple Categorical Claims
211(1)
Supporting Simple Categorical Claims: Supply Examples
212(1)
Refuting Simple Categorical Claims
213(1)
An Overview of Definitional Arguments
214(1)
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definitional Arguments
214(3)
Conceptual Problems of Definition
217(2)
Why Can't We Just Look in the Dictionary?
217(1)
Definitions and the Rule of Justice: At What Point Does X Quit Being a Y?
217(2)
Kinds of Definitions
219(3)
Aristotelian Definition
219(2)
Effect of Rhetorical Context on Aristotelian Definitions
221(1)
Operational Definitions
222(1)
Strategies for Defining the Contested Term in a Definitional Argument
222(4)
Reportive Approach: Research How Others Have Used the Term
223(1)
Stipulative Approach: Create Your Own Definition
224(2)
Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument
226(1)
Writing a Definitional Argument
227(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 11
227(3)
Exploring Ideas
227(1)
Organizing a Definitional Argument
228(1)
Revising Your Draft
229(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Definitional Argument
230(1)
Questioning the Criteria
230(1)
Questioning the Match
231(1)
Readings
231(1)
``Why Not Taiwan?''
231(2)
Jack K. C. Chiang
Critiquing ``Why Not Taiwan?''
232(1)
``Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board''
233(2)
Kathy Sullivan
Critiquing ``Oncore, Obscenity, and the Liquor Control Board''
235(1)
``This Isn't a `Legal' Matter, This Is War''
235(3)
Charles Krauthammer
Critiquing ``This Isn't a `Legal' Matter, This Is War''
237(1)
``Court Win for Martin Not a Defeat for Pro Sports''
238(3)
Blaine Newnham
Critiquing ``Court Win for Martin Not a Defeat for Pro Sports''
239(2)
Causal Arguments: X Causes (Does Not Cause)Y
241(28)
An Overview of Causal Arguments
242(1)
The Nature of Causal Arguing
242(2)
Describing a Causal Argument in Toulmin Terms
244(2)
Three Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another
246(6)
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly
246(2)
Second Method: Use Various Inductive Methods to Establish a High Probability of a Causal Link
248(3)
Third Method: Argue by Analogy or Precedent
251(1)
Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments
252(2)
Writing Your Causal Argument
254(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 12
254(3)
Exploring Ideas
255(1)
Organizing a Causal Argument
256(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument
257(2)
Readings
259(1)
``The Monster That Is High School''
259(3)
Daeha Ko
Critiquing ``The Monster That Is High School''
261(1)
``Kids Who Do Not Participate...'' (advocacy advertisement)
262(1)
Critiquing the United Way advocacy ad
262(1)
``When Mothers on Welfare Go to Work''
263(2)
Richard Rothstein
Critiquing ``When Mothers on Welfare Go to Work''
264(1)
``The Causes of Teen Sexual Behavior''
265(4)
Holly Miller
Critiquing ``The Causes of Teen Sexual Behavior''
268(1)
Resemblance Arguments: X Is (Is Not) like Y
269(20)
An Overview of Resemblance Arguments
270(2)
Arguments by Analogy
272(3)
Using Undeveloped Analogies
273(1)
Using Extended Analogies
273(2)
Arguments by Precedent
275(3)
Writing a Resemblance Argument
278(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 13
278(1)
Exploring Ideas
278(1)
Organizing a Resemblance Argument
278(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Resemblance Argument
279(1)
Readings
280(1)
``Whales Need Silence''
280(1)
Megan Matthews
Critiquing ``Whales Need Silence''
281(1)
``Iraq War Plans''
281(1)
Jean Arbeiter
Critiquing ``Iraq War Plans''
282(1)
``The Long Haul''
282(3)
Paul Klugman
Critiquing ``The Long Haul''
284(1)
``Knock! Knock!'' (political cartoon)
285(1)
Sven Van Assche
Critiquing the Internet Chat Room Cartoon
285(1)
from Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape
285(4)
Susan Brownmiller
Critiquing the Passage from Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape
288(1)
Evaluation and Ethical Arguments: X Is (Is Not) a Good Y; X Is Right (Wrong)
289(30)
An Overview of Evaluation Arguments
289(1)
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations
290(1)
Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument
291(5)
Determining Criteria for a Categorical Evaluation Argument
292(2)
Determining Whether X Meets the Criteria
294(2)
An Overview of Ethical Arguments
296(1)
Two Major Ethical Systems
297(1)
Consequences as the Base of Ethics
297(1)
Principles as the Base of Ethics
298(1)
Conducting an Ethical Argument
298(2)
Constructing a Principles-Based Argument
298(1)
Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument
299(1)
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments
300(2)
Writing an Evaluation Argument
302(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 14
302(3)
Exploring Ideas
302(1)
Organizing an Evaluation Argument
303(1)
Revising Your Draft
304(1)
Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument
305(2)
Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument
305(1)
Critiquing an Ethical Argument
306(1)
Readings
307(1)
``Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?''
307(3)
Sam Isaacson
Critiquing ``Would Legalization of Gay Marriage Be Good for the Gay Community?''
310(1)
``A Woman's View of Hip-Hop''
310(4)
Tiffany Anderson
Critiquing ``A Woman's View of Hip-Hop''
313(1)
``Public Schools U.S.A. 2001'' (political cartoon)
314(1)
Ann Cleaves
Critiquing the Education/Testing Cartoon
314(1)
``Eight Is Too Many: The Case against Octuplets''
315(4)
Dr. Ezekiel J. Emanuel
Critiquing ``Eight Is Too Many: The Case against Octuplets''
318(1)
Proposal Arguments: We Should (Should Not) Do X
319(36)
An Overview of Proposal Arguments
320(1)
The Structure of Proposal Arguments
320(1)
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments
321(2)
The Need for Presence
321(1)
The Need to Overcome People's Natural Conservatism
322(1)
The Difficulty of Predicting Future Consequences
322(1)
The Problem of Evaluating Consequences
322(1)
Developing a Proposal Argument
323(2)
Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists
323(1)
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal
324(1)
The Justification: Convincing Your Readers That Your Proposal Should Be Enacted
324(1)
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements
325(2)
Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
327(3)
Using the ``Stock Issues'' Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument
330(2)
Writing a Proposal Argument
332(1)
Writing Assignment for Chapter 15
332(5)
Exploring Ideas
334(1)
Organizing a Proposal Argument
335(1)
Revising Your Draft
335(2)
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Advertisement
337(1)
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument
337(2)
Readings
339(1)
``A Proposal to Provide Tips for Hosts at Stone's End''
340(4)
Laurel Wilson
Critiquing ``A Proposal to Provide Tips for Hosts at Stone's End''
343(1)
``A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States'' (MLA-style research paper)
344(7)
Mark Bonicillo
Critiquing ``A Proposal for Universal Health Insurance in the United States''
351(1)
``The Supreme Court's Unfree Speech''
351(3)
Akhil Reed Amar
Steven G. Calabresi
Critiquing ``The Supreme Court's Unfree Speech''
352(2)
``She's the Test Subject for Thousands of Toxic Chemicals. Why?'' (advocacy advertisement)
354(1)
Critiquing the Advocacy Ad from the Center for Children's Health and the Environment
354(1)
Part Four The Researched Argument
355(69)
Finding and Evaluating Sources
357(27)
Formulating a Research Question
358(2)
Understanding Differences in the Kinds of Sources
360(5)
Books Versus Periodicals Versus Web Sites
360(3)
Scholarly Books Versus Trade Books
363(1)
Scholarly Journals Versus Magazines
364(1)
Print Sources Versus Cyberspace Sources
364(1)
Finding Books: Searching Your Library's Online Catalog
365(1)
Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database
365(4)
What Is a Licensed Database?
365(2)
Keyword Searching
367(1)
Illustration of a Database Search
368(1)
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web
369(4)
The Logic of the Internet
370(1)
Using Web Search Engines
371(1)
Determining Where You Are on the Web
372(1)
Reading Your Sources Rhetorically
373(1)
Reading with Your Own Goals in Mind
373(1)
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness
373(1)
Taking Effective Notes
374(2)
Evaluating Sources
376(2)
Angle of Vision
376(1)
Degree of Advocacy
377(1)
Reliability
378(1)
Credibility
378(1)
Understanding the Rhetoric of Web Sites
378(4)
The Web as a Unique Rhetorical Environment
378(1)
Analyzing the Purpose of a Site and Your Own Research Purpose
378(1)
Sorting Sites by Domain Type
379(1)
Evaluating a Web Site
380(2)
``Spread of Active Sonar Threatens Whales'' (web page)
382(1)
Conclusion
383(1)
Using, Citing, and Documenting Sources
384(40)
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes
384(3)
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags
387(1)
Using Attributive Tags to Separate Your Ideas from Your Source's
387(1)
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response
387(1)
Working Sources into Your Own Prose
388(4)
Summarizing
388(1)
Paraphrasing
389(1)
Quoting
389(3)
Avoiding Plagiarism
392(1)
Understanding Parenthetical Citation Systems with Bibliographies
393(1)
Understanding MLA Style
394(12)
The MLA Method of In-Text Citation
394(1)
MLA Format for the ``Works Cited'' List
395(1)
MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations
395(2)
MLA Citations
397(8)
Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style
405(1)
Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper
405(1)
Understanding APA Style
406(9)
APA Method of In-Text Citation
406(1)
APA Format for the ``References'' List
407(1)
APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations
407(2)
APA Citations
409(6)
Conclusion
415(1)
Student Example of an APA-Style Research Paper
415(1)
``Sounding the Alarm: Navy Sonar and the Survival of Whales''
416(8)
Megan Matthews
Appendixes
424(1)
One Informal Fallacies
424(14)
The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument
424(1)
An Overview of Informal Fallacies
425(13)
Fallacies of Pathos
426(1)
Fallacies of Ethos
427(3)
Fallacies of Logos
430(8)
Two The Writing Community: Working in Groups
438(19)
From Conflict to Consensus: How to Get the Most Out of the Writing Community
438(2)
Avoiding Bad Habits of Group Behavior
439(1)
The Value of Group Work for Writers
439(1)
Forming Writing Communities: Skills and Roles
440(5)
Working on Groups of Five to Seven People
441(2)
Working in Pairs
443(2)
A Several-Day's Group Project: Defining ``Good Argumentative Writing''
445(1)
``Good Writing and Computers for Today's Modern American Youth of America''
446(2)
``Bloody Ice''
448(1)
``RSS Should Not Provide Dorm Room Carpets''
449(2)
``Sterling Hall Dorm Food''
451(1)
``ROTC Courses Should Not Get College Credit''
451(2)
``Legalization of Prostitution''
453(1)
A Classroom Debate
454(3)
Credits 457(2)
Index 459


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