9781420073584

Advanced Materials and Design for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781420073584

  • ISBN10:

    1420073583

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-11-19
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

With electromagnetic compliance (EMC) now a major factor in the design of all electronic products, it is crucial to understand how electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding products are used in various industries. Focusing on the practicalities of this area, Advanced Materials and Design for Electromagnetic Interference Shieldingcomprehensively introduces the design guidelines, materials selection, characterization methodology, manufacturing technology, and future potential of EMI shielding.After an overview of EMI shielding theory and product design guidelines, the book extensively reviews the characterization methodology of EMI materials. Subsequent chapters focus on particular EMI shielding materials and component designs, including enclosures, metal-formed gaskets, conductive elastomer and flexible graphite components, conductive foam and ventilation structures, board-level shielding materials, composite materials and hybrid structures, absorber materials, grounding andcable-level shielding materials, and aerospace and nuclear shielding materials. The last chapter presents a perspective on future trends in EMI shielding materials and design.Offering detailed coverage on many important topics, this indispensable book illustrates the efficiency and reliability of a range of materials and design solutions for EMI shielding.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Authorp. xv
Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Fundamentals and Design Guidep. 1
Concepts of Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibilityp. 1
EMI Problems and Common Concernsp. 2
EMI Emissions and Controlling Methodsp. 3
Conducted EMI Emissionp. 4
Radiated EMI Emissionp. 5
EMC Regulations and Testing Standardsp. 8
The International Standardp. 9
FCC Standardp. 9
European Standardp. 10
Military Standardp. 10
EMI Shielding Principlesp. 11
Shielding Effects in the E-Field and H-Fieldp. 11
Shielding Effectivenessp. 13
Absorption Lossp. 14
Reflection Lossp. 15
Multiple Reflection Correction Factorp. 16
Shielding Modeling in Practicep. 18
Metallic Enclosurep. 18
EMI Gasketp. 19
Shield with Aperturesp. 20
Cavity Resonancep. 23
EMC Design Guidelines and EMI Shielding Methodologyp. 24
Design for EMCp. 24
Shielding Methods and Materials Selectionp. 27
Shielding Housing and Enclosuresp. 27
Gasketingp. 29
Integral Assemblyp. 30
Corrosion and Material Galvanic Compatibilityp. 31
Environmental Compliancep. 32
RoHS Directivep. 33
WEEE Directivep. 34
Referencesp. 35
Characterization Methodology of EMI Shielding Materialsp. 37
Shielding Effectiveness Measurementp. 37
Testing Methods Based on MIL-STD-285p. 38
Modified Radiation Method for Shielding Effectiveness Testing Based on MIL-G-83528p. 39
Dual Mode Stirred Chamberp. 39
Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) Cellp. 40
Circular Coaxial Holderp. 42
Dual Chamber Test Fixture Based on ASTM ES7-83p. 42
Transfer Impedance Methodsp. 42
Transfer Impedance of Coaxial Cablesp. 43
Transfer Impedance Method for Shielding Effectiveness Measurement of Conductive Gasketsp. 43
Electrical and Thermal Conductivitiesp. 45
Electrical Conductivity and Contact Resistancep. 45
Thermal Conductivityp. 46
Permeability and Permittivityp. 47
Permeabilityp. 47
Permittivityp. 48
Characterization of Permeability and Permittivityp. 48
Mechanical Propertiesp. 49
Uniaxial Tensile Testingp. 49
Hardnessp. 50
Poisson's Ratiop. 50
Stress Relaxationp. 50
Contact Forcep. 51
Friction Forcep. 52
Permanent Setp. 52
Surface Finish and Contact Interface Compatibilityp. 52
Corrosion and Oxidation Protectionp. 53
Noble Finish Selectionp. 53
Nonnoble Finishesp. 54
Solderability of Surface Finishesp. 55
Effects of Mating Cycles and Operating Environments on Contact Finishesp. 57
Galvanic Corrosion and Contact Interface Compatibilityp. 58
Formability and Manufacturabilityp. 58
Bending Formabilityp. 59
Effect of Strain Hardening on Formabilityp. 60
Anisotropy Coefficientp. 61
Springback during Metal Strip Formingp. 62
Environmental Performance Evaluationp. 62
Thermal Cyclingp. 63
Thermal Agingp. 63
Gaseous Testingp. 63
Pore Corrosion and Fretting Corrosionp. 63
Temperature and Humidity Testingp. 64
Dust Sensitivity Testp. 64
Vibration and Shock Testp. 65
Referencesp. 65
EMI Shielding Enclosure and Accessp. 67
Enclosure Design and Materials Selectionp. 67
Magnetic Field Shielding Enclosurep. 73
Basics of Magnetic Shieldingp. 73
Magnetic Shielding Materials Selectionp. 74
Magnetic Shielding Enclosure Design Considerationp. 76
Shielding Enclosure Integrityp. 78
Specialized Materials Used for Shielding Enclosurep. 82
EMI Gasketsp. 82
Metal Strip Gasketsp. 82
Knitted Metal Wire Gasketsp. 83
Metal-Plated Fabric-over-Foam (FOF)p. 84
Electrically Conductive Elastomer (ECE) Gasketsp. 84
Magnetic Screening Materialsp. 84
Shielding Tapesp. 85
Thermoformable Alloysp. 85
Honeycomb Materialsp. 85
Painted or Plated Plastic Enclosuresp. 86
Conductive Composite Shielding Materialsp. 86
Summaryp. 86
Referencesp. 87
Metal-Formed EMI Gaskets and Connectorsp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Metal Strip Selection and Performance Requirementp. 90
Copper Beryllium Alloysp. 91
Phase Constitution and Primary Processing of CuBe Stripsp. 91
Performance and Availability of CuBe Alloysp. 95
High-Strength Alloysp. 95
High-Conductivity CuBe Alloysp. 97
Nickel Berylliump. 97
Copper-Nickel-Tin Spinodal Alloysp. 97
Composition and Physical Propertiesp. 97
Strip Gauges and Temper Designationsp. 99
Mechanical Properties and Bending Formabilityp. 100
Stress-Relaxation Resistancep. 101
Heat Treatment and Spinodal Decompositionp. 101
Surface Cleaning, Plating, and Solderingp. 103
Elastic Performancep. 103
Shielding Effectivenessp. 104
Fatigue Strengthp. 104
Some Considerations to Improve Performance of CuNiSn Gasketingp. 105
Copper-Titanium Alloyp. 107
Stainless Steelp. 108
Other Materials Optionsp. 110
Phosphor Bronzep. 110
Brassp. 111
Nickel Silverp. 111
Other High Strength and High Conductive Copper Alloysp. 112
Design Guideline of Metal Gaskets and Connectorsp. 113
Primary Approachesp. 114
Some Special Design Optionsp. 115
Gasketing Design Guidelinep. 116
Fabrication Process and Types of Metal Gaskets and Connectorsp. 118
Progressive Die Formingp. 118
Roll Formingp. 119
Multiple-Slide Stampingp. 120
Photoetchingp. 120
Typical Part Profilesp. 120
Mounting Methods and Surface Mating Assurancep. 122
Summaryp. 124
Referencesp. 124
Conductive Elastomer and Flexible Graphite Gasketsp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Raw Material Selection and Conductive Elastomer Fabricationp. 128
Base Binder Materialsp. 128
Siliconep. 128
Fluorosiliconep. 129
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM)p. 129
Fluorocarbonp. 129
Natural Rubber and Butadiene-Acrylonitrilep. 129
Conductive Fillersp. 129
Fabrication of Conductive Elastomer Materialsp. 130
Conduction Mechanism and Processing Optimization of Conductive Elastomer Materialsp. 131
Conduction Mechanism and Process Parametersp. 131
Appearance Properties and Performance Evaluationp. 133
Physical and Mechanical Propertiesp. 133
Electrical Propertiesp. 135
Thermal Propertiesp. 137
Conductive Elastomer Gasket Design Guidelinep. 137
Flange Joint Geometry and Unevennessp. 138
Applied Clamping/Compressive Force and Deformation Rangep. 139
Gasket Profile and Materials Selectionp. 141
Flange Materials and Joint Surface Treatmentp. 145
Conductive Elastomer Gasket Fabricationp. 146
Extrusionp. 146
Moldingp. 147
Form-in-Place and Screen Printingp. 148
Reinforced Shielding Gaskets with Oriented Wires and Metal Meshesp. 149
Conductive Elastomer Gasket Installation and Applicationp. 149
Comparable Flexible Graphite Gasketsp. 152
Flexible Graphite and Its Propertiesp. 153
Fabrication and Application of Flexible Graphite Gasketsp. 155
Summaryp. 157
Referencesp. 157
Conductive Foam and Ventilation Structurep. 159
Introductionp. 159
Waveguide Aperture and Ventilation Panelp. 159
Waveguide Aperture and Its Designp. 160
Materials Selection and Fabrication Optionsp. 163
Conductive Foam and Integral Window Structurep. 165
Conductive Plastic Foam and Vent Panelsp. 165
Integral EMI Window Structurep. 168
Metallized Fabrics and Fabric-over-Foamp. 169
Metallized Fabricsp. 170
Fabric-over-Foamp. 171
Summaryp. 175
Referencesp. 175
Board-Level Shielding Materials and Componentsp. 177
Introductionp. 177
Board-Level Shielding Design and Materials Selectionp. 178
Basic Principles of Board Circuit EMC Designp. 178
PCB Layoutp. 178
Power Decouplingp. 179
Trace Separationp. 179
Grounding Techniquesp. 180
Chassis Construction and Cablingp. 180
Board-Level Shielding Design with Proper Materials Selectionp. 181
Board-Level Shielding Components and Their Manufacturing Technologyp. 185
Metal Cansp. 186
Single-Piece Shielding Cansp. 186
Two-Piece Cansp. 189
Multilevel Shielding and Multicompartment Cansp. 190
Metal-Coated Thermoform Shieldsp. 190
snapSHOT Shieldp. 191
Form/Met Shieldp. 192
Formable Shielding Filmp. 196
Conductive Coating Methods Used for EMI Shielding Componentsp. 196
Electroplatingp. 197
Electroless Platingp. 197
Electrolytic Platingp. 198
Tin Plating and Tin Whisker Growth in EMI Shielding Systemsp. 199
Immersion Surface Finishesp. 202
Conductive Paintsp. 204
Vapor Depositionp. 205
Conductive Coating Application and Design Consideration for EMI Shieldingp. 206
Board-Level Shielding with Enhanced Heat Dissipatingp. 207
Minimizing EMI from Heat Sinksp. 207
Combination of Board-Level Shielding and Heat Dissipationp. 207
Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) for Thermal-Enhanced Board-Level Shieldingp. 208
Summaryp. 211
Referencesp. 212
Composite Materials and Hybrid Structures for EMI Shieldingp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Knitted Wire/Elastomer Gasketsp. 215
Fabrication Process and Materials Selectionp. 216
Knitted Wire Gasket Performancep. 218
Typical Gasket Types and Mounting Methodsp. 219
EMI Shielding Tapesp. 221
Conductive Fiber/Whisker Reinforced Compositesp. 224
Materials Selection and Process of Conductive Compositesp. 225
Carbon Fiber/Whisker Reinforced Materialsp. 226
Metal Fiber/Whisker Reinforced Compositesp. 227
Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Compositesp. 229
Hybrid Flexible Structures for EMI Shieldingp. 230
Electroless Metal Deposition for Reinforcements of Composite Shielding Materialsp. 231
Summaryp. 234
Referencesp. 234
Absorber Materialsp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Microwave Absorber Materialsp. 238
Resonant Absorbersp. 240
Dallenbach Tuned Layer Absorbersp. 240
Salisbury Screensp. 241
Jaumann Layersp. 242
Graded Dielectric Absorbers: Impedance Matchingp. 242
Pyramidal Absorbersp. 242
Tapered Loading Absorbersp. 243
Matching Layer Absorbersp. 244
Cavity Damping Absorbersp. 244
Anechoic Chambersp. 245
Antennasp. 245
Absorber Materials Used in Anechoic Chambersp. 246
Dielectric Materials for Absorber Applicationsp. 246
Electromagnetic Wave Absorbersp. 249
Absorbing Materials Selection and Absorber Applicationsp. 251
Absorbing Materials and Absorber Typesp. 251
Applicationsp. 252
Militaryp. 252
Commercialp. 253
Summaryp. 253
Referencesp. 254
Grounding and Cable-Level Shielding Materialsp. 257
Introductionp. 257
Cable Assembly and Its EMI Shielding Designp. 257
Cable-Level Shielding Materialsp. 261
Metallic Shieldingp. 261
Conductive Heat-Shrinkable Shieldingp. 263
Ferrite Shielding Materialsp. 264
Bonding and Groundingp. 267
Bondingp. 268
Groundingp. 269
Shields Grounded at One Pointp. 270
Multigrounded Shieldsp. 271
Hybrid Groundingp. 271
Summaryp. 271
Referencesp. 272
Special Shielding Materials in Aerospace and Nuclear Industriesp. 275
Introductionp. 275
Lightweight Shielding Materials for Aerospace Applicationsp. 275
Lightweight Radiation Shielding Materialp. 276
Fiber Reinforced Composite Materialsp. 277
Nanomaterialsp. 279
Foam Structuresp. 280
Radiation Shielding for Space Power Systemsp. 281
Neutron Shielding Design and Materials Selectionp. 282
Shielding Materials for Earth Neighborhood Infrastructurep. 282
Active Electromagnetic Shielding for Space Radiationp. 283
Optimization of Space Radiation Shieldingp. 285
Nuclear Shielding Materialsp. 286
Summaryp. 289
Referencesp. 291
Perspectives and Future Trendsp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Early Design-in for EMC and Optimal Design of EMI Shieldingp. 293
Advanced Materials Selection for EMI Shieldingp. 297
Materials Selection for EMI Shielding Enclosure/Cover/Barrierp. 298
EMI Gasketing Material Selectionp. 299
Other Shielding Materials Selectionp. 301
Future Trends and Applicationsp. 302
EMI Shielding Design Techniquesp. 302
Integrated Circuit-Level Shieldingp. 303
Printed Circuit Board (PCB)-Level Shieldingp. 305
Lightweight Shields for PCB-Level Shieldingp. 305
Mold-in-Place Combination Gaskets for Multicompartment Shieldsp. 306
Rotary Form-in-Place Gasketsp. 307
EMI Shielding Modules or Enclosuresp. 308
Conductive Foam with Z-Axis Conductivityp. 308
Dent-Resistant Vent Panelsp. 309
Nanocomposite Shielding Materialsp. 309
Ultrasoft Sculpted Fabric-over-Foamp. 310
Interconnecting Level Shieldingp. 310
EMI Control or Immunity by Softwarep. 311
Summaryp. 311
Referencesp. 312
Indexp. 315
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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