Advances in Biomedical Engineering

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-12-02
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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The aim of this essential reference is to bring together the interdisciplinary areas of biomedical engineering education. Contributors review the latest advances in biomedical engineering research through an educational perspective, making the book useful for students and professionals alike. Topics range from biosignal analysis and nanotechnology to biophotonics and cardiovascular medical devices. - Provides an educational review of recent advances - Focuses on biomedical high technology - Features contributions from leaders in the field

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
List of Contributorsp. xi
Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devicesp. 1
Introductionp. 2
The Heart Diseasesp. 8
The Cardiovascular Devices in Open-Heart Surgeryp. 8
Blood Pumpsp. 9
Valve Prosthesesp. 23
Heart Pacemakerp. 34
The Minimally Invasive Cardiology Toolsp. 34
The Technology for Atrial Fibrillationp. 38
Minimally Invasive Surgeryp. 39
The Classical Thoracoscopic Toolsp. 40
The Surgical Robotsp. 43
Blood Pumps - MIS Application Studyp. 49
The Minimally Invasive Valve Implantationp. 53
Support Technology for Surgery Planningp. 53
Conclusionsp. 57
Biomechanical Modeling of Stents: Survey 1997-2007p. 61
Introductionp. 62
Finite Element Modeling of Stentsp. 63
Finite element basicsp. 63
Geometrical design and approximationp. 64
Material propertiesp. 65
Loading and boundary conditionsp. 66
Finite element stent designp. 66
Effective use of FEAp. 68
Survey of the State of the Art in Stent Modeling: 1997-2007p. 68
Neglect of the balloonp. 69
Cylindrical balloonp. 74
Folded balloonp. 78
Summaryp. 81
Alternative methods for biomechanical modeling of stentsp. 84
FEM - Prolapse, flexibility and strut micromechanicsp. 84
FEM - Self-expandable stentsp. 85
CFD-drug elution and immersed FEMp. 87
Future Prospectsp. 88
Conclusionp. 88
Signal Extraction in Multisensor Biomedical Recordingsp. 95
Introductionp. 96
Aim and scope of the chapterp. 96
Mathematical notationsp. 97
Genesis of Biomedical Signalsp. 98
A biomedical source modelp. 98
Cardiac signalsp. 101
Brain signalsp. 105
Multi-Reference Optimal Wiener Filteringp. 109
Non-invasive fetal ECG extractionp. 109
Optimal Wiener filteringp. 110
Adaptive noise cancellationp. 112
Resultsp. 113
Spatio-Temporal Cancellationp. 115
Atrial activity extraction in atrial fibrillationp. 115
Spatio-temporal cancellation of the QRST complex in AF episodesp. 117
Blind Source Separation (BSS)p. 123
The isolation of interictal epileptic discharges in the EEGp. 123
Modeling and assumptionsp. 125
Inherent indeterminaciesp. 127
Statistical independence, higher-order statistics and non-Gaussianityp. 127
Independent component analysisp. 129
Algorithmsp. 131
Resultsp. 133
Incorporating prior information into the separation modelp. 136
Independent subspacesp. 138
Softening the stationarity constraintp. 138
Revealing more sources than sensor signalsp. 138
Summary, Conclusions and Outlookp. 139
Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Imaging of Visible Fluorescent Proteinsp. 145
Introductionp. 146
Introduction to Fluorescencep. 146
Interaction of light with matterp. 146
The Jablonski diagramp. 147
Fluorescence parametersp. 151
Fluorescence lifetimep. 151
Measurement of fluorescence lifetimep. 153
Fluorescence anisotropy and polarizationp. 155
Factors affecting fluorescencep. 157
Fluorophores and Fluorescent Proteinsp. 160
Green fluorescent proteinp. 161
Red fluorescent proteinp. 165
Applications of VFPsp. 166
Lifetime spectroscopy and imaging of VFPsp. 167
Concluding Remarksp. 170
Monte Carlo Simulations in Nuclear Medicine Imagingp. 175
Introductionp. 176
Nuclear Medicine Imagingp. 176
Single photon imagingp. 176
Positron emission tomographyp. 178
Emission tomography in small animal imagingp. 179
Reconstructionp. 179
The MC Methodp. 180
Random numbersp. 180
Sampling methodsp. 181
Photon transport modelingp. 182
Scoringp. 183
Relevance of Accurate MC Simulations in Nuclear Medicinep. 184
Studying detector designp. 184
Analysing quantification issuesp. 184
Correction methods for image degradationsp. 185
Detection tasks using MC simulationsp. 186
Applications in other domainsp. 186
Available MC Simulatorsp. 187
Gatep. 188
Basic featuresp. 188
GATE: Time managementp. 192
GATE: Digitizationp. 193
Efficiency-Accuracy Trade-Offp. 194
Accuracy and validationp. 194
Calculation timep. 194
Case Studiesp. 195
Case study I: TOF-PETp. 195
Case study II: Assessment of PVE correctionp. 196
Case study III: MC-based reconstructionp. 197
Future Prospectsp. 200
Conclusionp. 200
Biomedical Visualizationp. 209
Introductionp. 210
Scalar Field Visualizationp. 211
Direct volume renderingp. 211
Isosurface extractionp. 220
Time-dependent scalar field visualizationp. 222
Vector Field Visualizationp. 223
Vector field methods in scientific visualizationp. 224
Streamline-based techniquesp. 225
Stream surfacesp. 226
Texture representationsp. 229
Topologyp. 232
Tensor Field Visualizationp. 234
Anisotropy and tensor invariantsp. 235
Color coding of major eigenvector orientationp. 236
Tensor glyphsp. 236
Fiber tractographyp. 239
Volume renderingp. 241
White matter segmentation using tensor invariantsp. 244
Multi-field Visualizationp. 245
Error and Uncertainty Visualizationp. 250
Visualization Softwarep. 254
SCIRun/BioPSE visualization toolsp. 255
map3dp. 258
Summary and Conclusionp. 263
Indexp. 273
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