Advances in Speckle Metrology and Related Techniques

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2011-04-11
  • Publisher: Vch Pub

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Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the last decade, as well as applications to experimental mechanics, material science, optical testing, and fringe analysis.

Author Biography

Cuillermo H. Kaufmann is professor of Applied Optics at the National University of Rosario, Argentina, and chief scientist at the Physics Institute of Rosario which is linked both to the university and to the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research. He is also the director of the French-Argentine International Centre for Information and Systems Sciences. He has worked as a visiting researcher at various universities abroad, among them the National Physical Laboratory, UK, the University of Michigan and Loughborough University. Professor Kaufmann has co-authored more than 170 papers published in international journals and conference proceedings and several book chapters. He is a fellow member of both SPiE and the Optical Society of America. In 2003 the Secretary of Science and Technology of Argentina awarded him the Bernardo Houssay Prize for his contributions to the field of optical engineering.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. XIII
List of Contributorsp. XVII
Radial Speckle Interferometry and Applicationsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Out-of-Plane Radial Measurementp. 2
Radial Deformation Measurement of Short Internal Cylindersp. 3
Radial Deformation Measurement of Long Internal Cylindersp. 7
Radial Deformation Measurement of External Cylindersp. 11
In-Plane Measurementp. 13
Configuration Using Conical Mirrorsp. 17
Configuration Using a Diffractive Optical Elementp. 19
Applicationsp. 24
Translation and Mechanical Stress Measurementsp. 24
Residual Stress Measurementp. 27
Conclusionsp. 33
p. 34
Depth-Resolved Displacement Field Measurementp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Low-Coherence Electronic Spedde Pattern Interferometryp. 39
Wavelength Scanning Interferometryp. 43
WSI with a Single Scattering Surfacep. 44
Fourier Transform for Measurement of Optical Path Lengthp. 46
Fourier Transform for Calculation of Interference Phasep. 47
Range and Resolution of Optical Path Difference Measurementp. 48
Determination of Scattering Point Locationp. 49
Gauge Volume and Displacement Sensitivityp. 52
WSI with Volume Scatterersp. 54
Proof-of-Prindple Experiments: Two Scattering Layersp. 57
Comparison of WSI with LCSIp. 59
Spectral Optical Coherence Tomographyp. 60
Phase Contrast SOCT for 2D Out-of-Plane Displacement Field Measurementp. 61
PC-SOCT for 2D In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Displacement Field Measurementp. 66
Hyperspectral Interferometry for 3D Surface Pronlometryp. 69
Tilt Scanning Interferometryp. 71
Depth-Dependent Phase Shift Introduced hy a Tilting Wavefrontp. 72
Extraction of the Scattered Amplitude Distributionp. 75
Depth-Resolved Displacementsp. 77
Gauge Volume, Depth Range, and Displacement Sensitivityp. 79
Experimental Implementationp. 80
Depth-Resolved Techniques Viewed as Linear Filtering Operationsp. 83
Methods Viewed as Linear Filtering Operationsp. 84
Relationship Between W(K) and Spatial Resolutionp. 85
Relationship Between W(K) and Displacement Sensitivityp. 86
Ewald Sphere for a Wavelength Scanning Interferometerp. 87
Ewald Sphere for a Tilt Scanning Interferometerp. 89
Comparison of Spatial Resolution for WSI and TSIp. 89
Phase Unwrapping in Three Dimensionsp. 91
Phase Singularities in Two-Dimensional Phase Datap. 91
Phase Singularity Loops in Three-Dimensional Phase Datap. 93
3D Phase Unwrapping Algorithmp. 95
Remaining Ambiguitiesp. 96
Example: Dynamic Deformation of Carbon-Fiber Composite Panelp. 96
Concluding Remarksp. 98
Referencesp. 99
Single-Image Interferogram Demodulationp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Spatial Carrier Frequency Techniquesp. 105
Spatial Demodulation Without Carrierp. 106
The Fourier Spatial Demodulating Methodp. 106
Linear Spatial Phase Shiftingp. 109
Nonlinear Spatial Phase Shiftingp. 113
Regularized Phase Trackingp. 115
Local Adaptive Robust Quadrature Filtersp. 118
Single Interferogram Demodulation Using Fringe Orientationp. 122
Orientation in Interferogram Processingp. 122
Fringe Orientation and Fringe Directionp. 124
Orientation Computationp. 126
Gradient-Based Orientation Computationp. 127
Plane Fit Orientation Calculationp. 129
Minimum Directional Derivativep. 131
Direction Computationp. 132
Regularized Phase Tracking Direction Estimationp. 132
Vector Field-Regularized Direction Estimationp. 134
Quadrature Operatorsp. 135
Phase Demodulation of ID Interferogramsp. 135
Phase Demodulation from a Single Interferogram: the Vortex Transformp. 136
Vortex Transform-Based Orientation Computationp. 138
The General n-Dimensional Quadrature Transformp. 139
2D Steering of ID Phase Shifting Algorithmsp. 142
Conclusionsp. 143
Referencesp. 144
Phase Evaluation in Temporal Speckle Pattern Interferometry Using Time-Frequency Methodsp. 147
Introductionp. 147
The Temporal Speckle Pattern Interferometry Signalp. 148
The Temporal Fourier Transform Methodp. 151
Time-Frequency Representations of the TSPI Signalsp. 153
Preliminariesp. 154
The Asymptotic Signal and the Exponential Modelp. 154
Fidelity Measuresp. 155
The Windowed Fourier Transformp. 156
The Wavelet Transformp. 160
Evaluation of the Ridge of a Wavelet Transformp. 163
Applications of the Morlet Transform Analysis in TSPI and Other Related Techniquesp. 166
The Chirped Wavelet Transformp. 168
Other Wavelet Transformsp. 171
The Quadratic Time-Frequency Distributionp. 172
The Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Transformp. 176
The Empirical Mode Decomposition Methodp. 178
The Hilbert Transformp. 179
The Generalized S-Transformp. 182
Two and Three Dimensional Approachesp. 188
The Windowed Fourier Transform Methodp. 189
Wavelet Transform Methodsp. 190
Concluding Remarksp. 199
Referencesp. 200
Optical Vortex Metrologyp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Speckle and Optical Vorticesp. 207
Core Structure of Optical Vorticesp. 209
Principle of Optical Vortex Metrologyp. 211
Complex Signal Representation of a Speckle-like Patternp. 211
Principle of Optical Vortex Metrologyp. 213
Some Applicationsp. 214
Nanometric Displacement Measurementp. 214
Linear and Angular Encoderp. 217
Fluid Mechanical Analysisp. 224
Biological Kinematic Analysisp. 230
Conclusionp. 235
Referencesp. 236
Speckle Coding for Optical and Digital Data Security Applicationsp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Double Random Fourier Plane Encodingp. 242
Influence of Coded Image Perturbations, Noise Robustness, and SNRp. 245
Variants of the DRPE and Various Other Encryption Techniquesp. 245
Fresnel and Fractional Fourier Transform Domain Encodingp. 245
Color Image Encoding and Digital Simulation/Virtual Optics-Based Techniquesp. 246
Phase Retrieval- and Polarization-Based Techniquesp. 246
Interference and Joint Transform Correlator Architecture-Based Techniquesp. 246
Fully Phase Encryption Techniques and Encrypted Holographic Memoryp. 246
Attacks against Random Encodingp. 247
Speckle Coding for Optical and Digital Data Securityp. 247
Encryption Using a Sandwich Phase Mask Made of Normal Speckle Patternsp. 248
Theoretical Analysisp. 248
Description of the Experimental Workp. 250
Preparation of Speckle Phase Masksp. 250
Making a Sandwich Phase Maskp. 251
Technique for Easy Alignment of the Constituent Speckle Phase Masksp. 251
Experimental Resultsp. 252
Computer Simulationp. 253
Optical Encryption Using a Sandwich Phase Mask Made of Elongated Speckle Patternsp. 256
Preparation of the Elongated Speckle Phase Maskp. 256
Description of the Methodp. 256
Computer Simulation Resultsp. 257
Speckles for Multiplexing in Encryption and Decryptionp. 262
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Apertures in the FT Planep. 264
Methodologyp. 264
Computer Simulationp. 266
Effect of Aperture Size on the Encryption and Decryptionp. 267
Effect of Increasing the Number and Size of the Aperturesp. 267
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Circular Aperturesp. 272
Multiplexing in Encryption Using Square Aperturesp. 271
Multiplexing by In-Plane Rotation of Sandwich Phase Diffuser and Aperture Systemsp. 272
Methodologyp. 273
Effect on Decrypted Images of Rotation of One of the Constituent Phase Diffusersp. 274
Multiplexing in Encryption Using the Rotation of the RPM Rp. 277
Multiplexing by Using Set of Apertures and Angular Rotation of Rsmp. 278
Speckles in Digital Fresnel Field Encryptionp. 282
Digital Recording and Numerical Reconstruction of an Off-Axis Fresnel Hologramp. 282
Digital Fresnel Field Encryptionp. 283
Digital Encryption of Fresnel Field Using Single Random Phase Encodingp. 284
Direct Decryption of 3D Object Information from Encrypted Fresnel Fieldp. 284
Experimentp. 286
Results and Discussionp. 288
Discussion of Encryption and Decryption by the Proposed Methodp. 288
Some General Remarks on Digital Encryption of Holographic Informationp. 290
Conclusionsp. 291
Referencesp. 292
Indexp. 301
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