Advertising and Promotion : An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-07-01
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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What is included with this book?


Belch/Belch 8th editioncontinues its Advertising focus with an emphasis on IMC. It includes very comprehensive coverage of Agency issues and creative work and how it is related to the IMC mix. The authors understand that marketers must look beyond traditional media in order to achieve success. In order to best communicate with consumers, advertisers must utilize a myriad of tools (advertising, public relations, direct marketing, interactive/Internet marketing, sales promotion, and personal selling); Belch/Belch is the first book to reflect the shift from the conventional methods of advertising to the more widely recognized approach of implementing an integrated marketing communications strategy. The text underscores the importance of recognizing that a firm must use all promotional tools available to convey a unified message to the consumer. The integrated marketing communications perspective (the theme of the text) catapults the reader into the business practices of the 21st century.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communicationsp. 2
An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communicationsp. 2
The Growth of Advertising and Promotionp. 6
What Is Marketing?p. 8
Marketing Focuses on Relationships and Valuep. 8
The Marketing Mixp. 10
Integrated Marketing Communicationsp. 10
The Evolution of IMCp. 10
A Contemporary Perspective of IMCp. 12
Reasons for the Growing Importance of IMCp. 12
The Role of IMC in Brandingp. 16
The Promotional Mix: The Tools for IMCp. 18
Advertisingp. 18
Direct Marketingp. 20
Interactive/Internet Marketingp. 22
Sales Promotionp. 23
Publicity/Public Relationsp. 24
Personal Sellingp. 25
IMC Involves Audience Contactsp. 26
The IMC Planning Processp. 26
Review of the Marketing Planp. 28
Promotional Program Situation Analysisp. 29
Analysis of the Communications Processp. 33
Budget Determinationp. 33
Developing the Integrated Marketing Communications Programp. 34
Monitoring, Evaluation, and Controlp. 34
Perspective and Organization of This Textp. 35
The Role of IMC in the Marketing Processp. 38
Marketing Strategy and Analysisp. 42
Opportunity Analysisp. 42
Competitive Analysisp. 43
Target Market Selectionp. 45
The Target Marketing Processp. 46
Identifying Marketingsp. 46
Market Segmentationp. 47
Selecting a Target Marketp. 55
Market Positioningp. 56
Developing the Marketing Planning Programp. 61
Product Decisionsp. 61
Price Decisionsp. 64
Distribution Channel Decisionsp. 65
Developing Promotional Strategies: Push or Pull?p. 66
The Role of Advertising and Promotionp. 67
Integrated Marketing Program Situation Analysisp. 70
Organizing for Advertising and Promotion: The Role of Ad Agencies and Other Marketing Communication Organizationsp. 70
Participants in the Integrated Marketing Communications Process: An Overviewp. 73
Organizing for Advertising and Promotion in the Firm: The Client's Rolep. 74
The Centralized Systemp. 75
The Decentralized Systemp. 76
In-House Agenciesp. 79
Advertising Agenciesp. 81
The Ad Agency's Rolep. 83
Types of Ad Agenciesp. 84
Other Types of Agencies and Servicesp. 89
Agency Compensationp. 91
Commissions from Mediap. 91
Fee, Cost, and Incentive-Based Systemsp. 92
Percentage Chargesp. 93
The Future of Agency Compensationp. 93
Evaluating Agenciesp. 94
Gaining and Losing Clientsp. 94
Specialized Servicesp. 101
Direct-Marketing Agenciesp. 101
Sales Promotion Agenciesp. 102
Public Relations Firmsp. 102
Interactive Agenciesp. 103
Collateral Servicesp. 104
Marketing Research Companiesp. 104
Integrated Marketing Communications Servicesp. 104
Pros and Cons of Integrated Servicesp. 104
Responsibility for IMC: Agency versus Clientp. 105
Perspectives on Consumer Behaviorp. 108
An Overview of Consumer Behaviorp. 111
The Consumer Decision-Making Processp. 113
Problem Recognitionp. 113
Examining Consumer Motivationsp. 115
Information Searchp. 118
Perceptionp. 119
Alternative Evaluationp. 122
Attitudesp. 125
Integration Processes and Decision Rulesp. 126
Purchase Decisionp. 127
Postpurchase Evaluationp. 127
Variations in Consumer Decision Makingp. 129
The Consumer Learning Processp. 130
Behavioral Learning Theoryp. 130
Cognitive Learning Theoryp. 133
Environmental Influences on Consumer Behaviorp. 134
Culturep. 134
Subculturesp. 134
Reference Groupsp. 135
Situational Determinantsp. 137
Alternative Approaches to Consumer Behaviorp. 137
New Methodologiesp. 137
New Insightsp. 139
Analyzing the Communication Processp. 142
The Communication Processp. 142
The Nature of Communicationp. 145
A Basic Model of Communicationp. 146
Source Encodingp. 146
Messagep. 148
Channelp. 149
Receiver/Decodingp. 152
Noisep. 152
Response/Feedbackp. 154
Analyzing the Receiverp. 154
Identifying the Target Audiencep. 154
The Response Processp. 156
Traditional Response Hierarchy Modelsp. 156
Alternative Response Hierarchiesp. 159
Implications of the Alternative Response Modelsp. 163
The FCB Planning Modelp. 164
Cognitive Processing of Communicationsp. 165
The Cognitive Response Approachp. 165
The Elaboration Likelihood Modelp. 167
Summarizing the Response Process and the Effects of Advertisingp. 170
Source, Message, and Channel Factorsp. 174
Promotional Planning through the Persuasion Matrixp. 177
Source Factorsp. 178
Source Credibilityp. 178
Source Attractivenessp. 182
Choosing a Celebrity Endorserp. 189
Source Powerp. 191
Message Factorsp. 192
Message Structurep. 192
Message Appealsp. 195
Channel Factorsp. 201
Personal versus Nonpersonal Channelsp. 201
Effects of Alternative Mass Mediap. 201
Effects of Context and Environmentp. 201
Clutterp. 202
Objectives and Budgeting for Integrated Marketing Communications Programsp. 206
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Programp. 206
The Value of Objectivesp. 209
Communicationsp. 210
Planning and Decision Makingp. 210
Measurement and Evaluation of Resultsp. 210
Determining Integrated Marketing Communications Objectivesp. 210
Marketing versus Communications Objectivesp. 210
Sales versus Communications Objectivesp. 211
Sales-Oriented Objectivesp. 211
Communications Objectivesp. 215
Dagmar: An Approach to Setting Objectivesp. 220
Characteristics of Objectivesp. 220
Assessment of Dagmarp. 222
Problems in Setting Objectivesp. 223
Improving Promotional Planners' Use of Objectivesp. 223
Setting Objectives for the IMC Programp. 224
Establishing and Allocating the Promotional Budgetp. 226
Establishing the Budgetp. 226
Budgeting Approachesp. 230
Allocating the Budgetp. 242
Developing the Integrated Marketing Communications Programp. 248
Creative Strategy: Planning and Developmentp. 248
The Importance of Creativity in Advertisingp. 252
Advertising Creativityp. 254
What Is Creativity?p. 254
Different Perspectives on Advertising Creativityp. 254
Planning Creative Strategyp. 258
The Creative Challengep. 258
Taking Creative Risksp. 258
The Perpetual Debate: Creative versus Hard-Sell Advertisingp. 259
Creative Personnelp. 260
The Creative Processp. 260
Account Planningp. 261
Inputs to the Creative Process: Preparation, Incubation, Illuminationp. 262
Inputs to the Creative Process: Verification, Revisionp. 267
Creative Strategy Developmentp. 268
Advertising Campaignsp. 268
Copy Platformp. 268
The Search for the Major Selling Ideap. 270
Contemporary Approaches to the Big Ideap. 276
Creative Strategy: Implementation and Evaluationp. 280
Appeals and Execution Stylesp. 283
Advertising Appealsp. 283
Advertising Executionp. 290
Creative Tacticsp. 299
Creative Tactics for Print Advertisingp. 299
Creative Tactics for Televisionp. 302
Client Evaluation and Approval of Creative Workp. 307
Guidelines for Evaluating Creative Outputp. 308
Media Planning and Strategyp. 314
An Overview of Media Planningp. 316
Some Basic Terms and Conceptsp. 317
The Media Planp. 319
Problems in Media Planningp. 319
Developing the Media Planp. 321
Market Analysis and Target Market Identificationp. 321
To Whom Shall We Advertise?p. 323
What Internal and External Factors Are Operating?p. 325
Where to Promote?p. 326
Establishing Media Objectivesp. 328
Developing and Implementing Media Strategiesp. 329
The Media Mixp. 329
Target Market Coveragep. 329
Geographic Coveragep. 330
Schedulingp. 330
Reach versus Frequencyp. 332
Creative Aspects and Moodp. 337
Flexibilityp. 339
Budget Considerationsp. 339
Evaluation and Follow-Upp. 342
Characteristics of Mediap. 342
Sources of Media Informationp. 346
Evaluation of Broadcast Mediap. 348
Televisionp. 351
Advantages of Televisionp. 351
Limitations of Televisionp. 354
Buying Television Timep. 358
Network versus Spotp. 358
Methods of Buying Timep. 363
Selecting Time Periods and Programsp. 364
Cable Televisionp. 365
Measuring the TV Audiencep. 371
Radiop. 375
Advantages of Radiop. 376
Limitations of Radiop. 379
Buying Radio Timep. 381
Time Classificationsp. 382
Audience Informationp. 383
Evaluation of Print Mediap. 388
The Role of Magazines and Newspapersp. 391
Magazinesp. 391
Classifications of Magazinesp. 392
Advantages of Magazinesp. 393
Disadvantages of Magazinesp. 400
Magazine Circulation and Readershipp. 402
Audience Information and Research for Magazinesp. 404
Purchasing Magazine Advertising Spacep. 405
The Future for Magazinesp. 406
Newspapersp. 409
Types of Newspapersp. 409
Types of Newspapers Advertisingp. 412
Advantages of Newspapersp. 413
Limitations of Newspapersp. 414
The Newspaper Audiencep. 415
Purchasing Newspaper Spacep. 417
Newspaper Ratesp. 418
The Future for Newspapersp. 418
Online Deliveryp. 421
Support Mediap. 424
The Scope of the Support Media Industryp. 427
Traditional Support Mediap. 427
Outdoor Advertisingp. 427
Alternative Out-of-Home Mediap. 429
In-Store Mediap. 431
Miscellaneous Outdoor Mediap. 432
Transit Advertisingp. 432
Measurement in Out-of-Home Mediap. 436
Promotional Products Marketingp. 436
Advantages and Disadvantages of Promotional Products Marketingp. 437
Measurement in Promotional Products Marketingp. 439
Yellow Pages Advertisingp. 439
Other Traditional Support Mediap. 441
Advertising in Movie Theatersp. 441
In-Flight Advertisingp. 443
Nontraditional Support Mediap. 445
Branded Entertainmentp. 445
Guerrilla marketingp. 449
Miscellaneous Other Mediap. 449
Direct Marketingp. 456
Direct Marketingp. 458
Defining Direct Marketingp. 458
The Growth of Direct Marketingp. 460
The Role of Direct Marketing in the IMC Programp. 460
Direct-Marketing Objectivesp. 462
Developing a Databasep. 462
Direct-Marketing Strategies and Mediap. 466
Direct Sellingp. 473
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Direct Marketingp. 475
Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Marketingp. 475
The Internet and Interactive Mediap. 480
A Brief History of the Internetp. 483
Why the Rapid Adoption of the Internet?p. 483
Web Objectivesp. 484
Developing and Maintaining a Web Sitep. 485
Communications Objectivesp. 486
E-Commercep. 488
The Internet and Integrated Marketing Communicationsp. 488
Advertising on the Internetp. 490
Sales Promotion on the Internetp. 494
Personal Selling on the Internetp. 495
Public Relations on the Internetp. 495
Direct Marketing on the Internetp. 496
Measuring Effectiveness of the Internetp. 498
Audience Measures and Measures of Effectivenessp. 498
Sources of Measurement Datap. 500
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Internetp. 500
Additional Interactive Mediap. 503
Wirelessp. 504
Sales Promotionp. 506
The Scope and Role of Sales Promotionp. 509
The Growth of Sales Promotionp. 510
Reasons for the Increase in Sales Promotionp. 511
Concerns about the Increased Role of Sales Promotionp. 516
Consumer Franchise-Building versus Nonfranchise-Building Promotionsp. 517
Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotionp. 518
Objectives of Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotionp. 518
Consumer-Oriented Sales Promotion Techniquesp. 522
Samplingp. 522
Couponingp. 524
Premiumsp. 530
Contests and Sweepstakesp. 532
Refunds and Rebatesp. 533
Bonus Packsp. 535
Price-Off Dealsp. 535
Loyalty Programsp. 537
Event Marketingp. 538
Summary of Consumer-Oriented Promotions and Marketer Objectivesp. 539
Trade-Oriented Sales Promotion Objectives of Trade-Oriented Sales Promotionp. 540
Types of Trade-Oriented Promotionsp. 542
Coordinating Sales Promotions with Advertising and Other IMC Toolsp. 549
Budget Allocationp. 549
Coordination of Ad and Promotion Themesp. 549
Media Support and Timingp. 550
Sales Promotion Abusep. 551
Public Relations, Publicity, and Corporate Advertisingp. 556
Public Relationsp. 559
The Traditional Definition of PRp. 559
The New Role of PRp. 560
Integrating PR into the Promotional Mixp. 561
Marketing Public Relations Functionsp. 561
The Process of Public Relationsp. 564
Determining and Evaluating Public Attitudesp. 564
Establishing a PR Planp. 565
Developing and Executing the PR Programp. 566
Advantages and Disadvantages of PRp. 571
Measuring the Effectiveness of PRp. 573
Publicityp. 574
The Power of Publicityp. 575
The Control and Dissemination of Publicityp. 575
Advantages and Disadvantages of Publicityp. 577
Measuring the Effectiveness of Publicityp. 577
Corporate Advertisingp. 577
Objectives of Corporate Advertisingp. 579
Types of Corporate Advertisingp. 579
Advantages and Disadvantages of Corporate Advertisingp. 586
Measuring the Effectiveness of Corporate Advertisingp. 586
Personal Sellingp. 590
The Scope of Personal Sellingp. 592
The Role of Personal Selling in the IMC Programp. 593
Determining the Role of Personal Sellingp. 593
The Nature of Personal Sellingp. 594
Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Sellingp. 600
Combining Personal Selling with Other Promotional Toolsp. 602
Combining Personal Selling and Advertisingp. 602
Combining Personal Selling and Public Relationsp. 603
Combining Personal Selling and Direct Marketingp. 604
Combining Personal Selling and Sales Promotionp. 605
Combining Personal Selling with the Internetp. 605
Evaluating the Personal Selling Effortp. 607
Criteria for Evaluating Personal Sellingp. 607
Monitoring, Evaluation, and Controlp. 612
Measuring the Effectiveness of the Promotional Programp. 612
Arguments For and Against Measuring Effectivenessp. 615
Reasons to Measure Effectivenessp. 615
Reasons Not to Measure Effectivenessp. 617
Conducting Research to Measure Advertising Effectivenessp. 619
What to Testp. 619
When to Testp. 620
Where to Testp. 622
How to Testp. 622
The Testing Processp. 623
Concept Generation and Testingp. 623
Rough Art, Copy, and Commercial Testingp. 624
Pretesting of Finished Adsp. 627
Market Testing of Adsp. 632
Establishing a Program for Measuring Advertising Effectsp. 640
Problems with Current Research Methodsp. 640
Essentials of Effective Testingp. 641
Measuring the Effectiveness of Other Program Elementsp. 641
Measuring the Effectiveness of Sales Promotionsp. 641
Measuring the Effectiveness of Nontraditional Mediap. 643
Measuring the Effectiveness of Sponsorshipsp. 643
Measuring the Effectiveness of Other IMC Program Elementsp. 644
Special Topics and Perspectivesp. 650
International Advertising and Promotionp. 650
The Importance of International Marketsp. 653
The Role of International Advertising and Promotionp. 655
The International Environmentp. 656
The Economic Environmentp. 656
The Demographic Environmentp. 657
The Cultural Environmentp. 659
The Political/Legal Environmentp. 663
Global versus Localized Advertisingp. 664
Advantages of Global Marketing and Advertisingp. 665
Problems with Global Advertisingp. 665
When Is Globalization Appropriate?p. 667
Global Products, Local Messagesp. 670
Decision Areas in International Advertisingp. 672
Organizing for International Advertisingp. 672
Agency Selectionp. 673
Advertising Researchp. 675
Creative Decisionsp. 677
Media Selectionp. 678
The Roles of Other Promotional Mix Elements in International Marketingp. 681
Sales Promotionp. 681
Personal Sellingp. 684
Public Relationsp. 685
The Internetp. 686
Regulation of Advertising and Promotionp. 690
Self-Regulationp. 694
Self-Regulation by Advertisers and Agenciesp. 694
Self-Regulation by Trade Associationsp. 694
Self-Regulation by Businessesp. 697
The National Advertising Review Council and the NAD/NARBp. 697
Self-Regulation by Mediap. 700
Appraising Self-Regulationp. 704
Federal Regulation of Advertisingp. 704
Advertising and the First Amendmentp. 705
Background on Federal Regulation of Advertisingp. 705
The Federal Trade Commissionp. 707
The Concept of Unfairnessp. 708
Deceptive Advertisingp. 708
The FTC's Handling of Deceptive Advertising Casesp. 713
Current Status of Federal Regulation by the FTCp. 716
Additional Federal Regulatory Agenciesp. 717
The Lanham Actp. 722
State Regulationp. 723
Regulation of Other Promotional Areasp. 724
Sales Promotionp. 724
Marketing on the Internetp. 728
Evaluating the Social, Ethical, and Economic Aspects of Advertising and Promotionp. 734
Advertising and Promotion Ethicsp. 738
Social and Ethical Criticisms of Advertisingp. 740
Advertising as Untruthful or Deceptivep. 740
Advertising as Offensive or in Bad Tastep. 741
Advertising and Childrenp. 745
Social and Cultural Consequencesp. 749
Summarizing Social Effectsp. 759
Economic Effects of Advertisingp. 760
Effects on Consumer Choicep. 760
Effects on Competitionp. 762
Effects on Product Costs and Pricesp. 763
Summarizing Economic Effectsp. 764
Glossary of Advertising and Promotion Termsp. 769
Endnotesp. 783
Credits and Acknowledgmentsp. 814
Name and Company Indexp. 817
Subject Indexp. 828
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