9780821367575

AIDS in South Asia

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780821367575

  • ISBN10:

    0821367579

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-08-15
  • Publisher: World Bank
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Summary

South Asia's HIV epidemic is highly heterogeneous. As a result, informed, prioritized, and effective responses necessitate an understanding of the epidemic diversity between and within countries. Further spread of HIV in South Asia is preventable. The future size of South Asia's epidemic will depend on an effective two-pronged approach: firstly, on the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and their sexual partners, and men having sex with men and their other sexual partners; and secondly, on the effectiveness of efforts to address the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to reduce stigma and discrimination towards people engaging in high risk behaviors, often marginalized in society, as well as people living with HIV and AIDS.This review was undertaken to provide a basis for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV policy and programming in South Asia.

Table of Contents

Figures, Tables, and Boxes ix
Foreword xi
Acknowledgments xiii
Abbreviations xv
Executive Summary xvii
1. Background and Rationale 1(6)
Rationale
2(5)
2. Analytic Framework 7(8)
Epidemic Potential
7(4)
Epidemic Phase
11(1)
Biological Factors
11(2)
Behavioral and Structural Factors
13(2)
3. HIV and Related Surveillance in the South Asia Region 15(6)
India
15(2)
Nepal
17(1)
Pakistan
17(1)
Bangladesh
18(1)
Sri Lanka
18(1)
Afghanistan, Bhutan, and the Maldives
19(2)
4. Sexual and Injecting Drug Use Behaviors 21(10)
Female Sex Workers
21(2)
Clients of Female Sex Workers
23(2)
Men Having Sex with Men
25(1)
General Population
26(1)
Injecting Drug Users
27(2)
Female Sex Workers, Clients, and MSM Who Also Inject Drugs
29(1)
IDUs Who Also Have Risky Sex
30(1)
5. HIV Prevalence and Spread 31(10)
Female Sex Workers
31(1)
Men Having Sex with Men
32(1)
Injecting Drug Users
33(2)
Other High-Risk Male Groups
35(1)
General Population
36(5)
6. Country-Specific Analyses 41(38)
India
41(19)
Nepal
60(4)
Pakistan
64(4)
Bangladesh
68(3)
Sri Lanka
71(3)
Afghanistan
74(3)
Bhutan
77(1)
The Maldives
77(2)
7. Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programs 79(4)
Distribution of High-Risk Networks
79(1)
Elements of Scaling Up of Program Coverage
80(1)
Tactics for Scaling Up Coverage
80(2)
General Considerations
82(1)
8. Summary of Recommendations 83(6)
Recommendation 1: Build Capacity
83(1)
Recommendation 2: Expand Prevention Programs
84(1)
Recommendation 3: Devote Resources to Condom Use and Needle Exchange
84(1)
Recommendation 4: Increase and Expand Baseline and Continued Surveillance
85(1)
Recommendation 5: Conduct Additional Studies
85(1)
Recommendation 6: Expand Mapping of High-Risk Populations
85(1)
Recommendation 7: Improve Understanding of Rural Epidemics
86(1)
Recommendation 8: Reduce Stigma
86(1)
Recommendation 9: Improve Coordination by Expanding Cooperation
87(2)
Appendix A: The World Bank Response to AIDS in South Asia 89(2)
Appendix B: Definition of Targeted and General Population Interventions 91(4)
Appendix C: Country Analysis Summaries 95(6)
References 101(8)
Index 109

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Reviews for AIDS in South Asia (9780821367575)