AIDS Update 2011

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  • Edition: 20th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-12-20
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin
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AIDS UPDATE 2011 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS UPDATE 2011 places discussion within a biological, medical, and social framework, helping readers more fully understand this devastating pandemic.

Table of Contents

About the Author
A Quarter Century of AIDS and Counting: A Humanitarian Crisis
Introduction: Histories of Global Pandemics, AIDS, Its Place in History, Overview of HIV/AIDS, International AIDS Conferences and Means of Remembering-the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day
Three Words Echo around the World: AIDS Crisis Worsens!
History of Global Pandemics and Epidemics
Fear, Ignorance, and Condemnation: Who Is to Blame?
Imagine a World without AIDS
Overview of HIV/AIDS
AIDS: A Unique Disease
AIDS: A Cause of Death
Another Anniversary
Other Anniversaries
International AIDS Conferences
Means of Remembering
The 27th Candlelight Memorial
Walking to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic-United States
Bicycle Riding to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic-United States
World AIDS Day: An International Day of Coordinated Action: A Time to Recharge and Reconnect
The Future
National AIDS Hotlines
Useful Internet Addresses
AIDS: Defining the Disease and Finding Its Cause
The New Millennium
AIDS: A Disease or a Syndrome?
First Reaction to AIDS: Denial
What Causes AIDS?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports
Discovery of the AIDS Virus
Defining the Illness: AIDS and Surveillance
Review Questions
What Causes AIDS: Origin of the AIDS Virus
The Cause of AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Dissidents (AIDS Doesn't Exist or HIV Isn't the Cause)
Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS
Origin of HIV: The AIDS Virus
Summary on the Origin of HIV
Review Questions
Biological Characteristics of HIV
Viruses Need a Host Cell in Order to Replicate
Viruses Are Parasites
Viruses Specific to Cell Type
How Do Human T4or CD4+ Lymphocytes Relate to HIV Infection and AIDS?
Description of HIV; How It Attaches to a Host Cell and Buds Out of the Cell
HIV Fitness
The HIV Life Cycle
How HIV Escapes the Infected Cell
Distinct Genotypes (Subtypes/Clades) of HIV-1 Worldwide Based on ENV and GAG Proteins
Review Questions
Anti-HIV Therapy
Better Drugs, BEtter Technologies, and Lingering Problems
Anti-HIV Therapy
Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs with FDA Approval
The HIV Medicine Chest: ART Drugs Receiving FDA Approval
FDA-Approved Nucleoside/Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Protease Inhibitors, Entry Inhibitors, and Maturation Inhibitors
Use of Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
FDA-Approved Protease Inhibitors
Entry Inhibitors and Problems
Integrase Inhibitors
Development and Selection of HIV Drug-Resistant Mutants
Development of HIV Drug Resistance to Protease Inhibitors
How Combination Drug Therapy Can Reduce the Chance of HIV Drug Resistance
Viral Load: Its Relationship to HIV Disease and AIDS
Medical Complications Associated with Anti-HIV Drug Therapies (ART)
Update 2010
Some AIDS Therapy Information Hotlines
Review Questions
The Immunology of HIV Disease/AIDS
The Immune System
Human Lymphocytes: T Cells and B Cells
Why CD4+ Cells Are Important in HIV Infection-What It Means
The CD4+ Cell Count-Why It Matters
Antibodies and HIV Disease
Cellular Micro-RNAs Contribute to HIV Latency in Resting Primary CD4+ T Cells
Immune System Dysfunction
Original Antigenic Sin
The Search for Additional Receptors (Coreceptors) to CD4: Fusin or CXCKR-4 (R-4)
CCKR-5 (R-5) Receptor
Emergence of HIV Strains That Vary in Their Lethal Abilities
In Search of Genetic Resistance to HIV Infection
T4 Cell Depletion and Immune Suppression
Impact of T4 Cell Depletion
Role of Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV Infection
Where Do T4 or CD4+ Cells Become HIV Infected?
Review Questions
Opportunistic Infections and Cancers Associated with HIV Disease/AIDS
What Is an Opportunistic Disease?
The Prevalence of Opportunistic Diseases
Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected People
TB: The Leading Cause of Death among HIV-Positive People Worldwide
Cancer or Malignancy in HIV/AIDS Patients
Review Questions
A Profile of Biological Indicators for HIV Disease and Progression to AIDS
What Is Known and What Is Missing from Our Understanding of HIV/AIDS
HIV Disease Defined
Stages of HIV Disease (without Drug Therapy)
HIV Disease without Symptoms, with Symptoms, and AIDS
Production of HIV-Specific Antibodies
Prognostic Biological Markers Related to AIDS Progression
HIV Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Neuropathies (Nerve Tissue Damage) in HIV Disease/AIDS Patients
Pediatric Clinical Signs and Symptoms
Review Questions
Epidemiology and Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
We Must Stop HIV Transmission Now!
Epidemiology of HIV Infection
Transmission of Two Strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2)
Is HIV Transmitted by Insects?
HIV Transmission
HIV Transmission in Family/Household Settings
Noncasual Transmission
Gay Men Putting Themselves at High Risk for HIV Infection
Injection-Drug Users and HIV Transmission
United States: Heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU)
Injection-Drug Use and HIV Infections in Other Countries
Other Means of HIV Transmission
Influence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on HIV Transmission and Vice-Versa
Pediatric Transmission
National AIDS Resources
Challenge Your Assumptions about the HIV Infected
Review Questions
Preventing the Transmission of HIV
The AIDS Generation: "I Knew Everything about It, and I Still Got It!"
Prevention, Not Treatment, Is the Least Expensive and Most Effective Way to Reduce the Spread of HIV/AIDS
Global Prevention
Antiretroviral Drugs Having an Impact on Prevention, but We Can't Treat Our Way out of This Pandemic
Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic
Preventing the Transmission of HIV
Sexual Risk Taking Depends on Sexual Activity
New Rules to an Old Game: Promoting Safer Sex-Nobody Has a Body to Die For!
The Male Condom
The Female Condom or Femidom (Vaginal Pouch)
An Alternative to Condoms: Vaginal Microbicides (MI-CRO-BA-CIDES) and Circumcision
Injection-Drug Use (IDU) and HIV Transmission: The Twin Epidemics
HIV Prevention for Injection-Drug Users
Prevention of Blood and Blood Product HIV Transmission
Infection Control Procedures
Sexual Partner Notification: Disclosure
The U.S. Federal Government Has Now Adopted Partner Notification as Its Cornerstone in Its Effort to Help Control the Spread of HIV
The First Human Vaccine: The Impact of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases
HIV Vaccine Development and Its Role in Prevention
Types of Experimental HIV Vaccines
DNA Vaccine
Problems in the Search for HIV Vaccine
September 2009-News Broke That a Partially Effective HIV Vaccine Was Found!
Review Questions
Prevalence of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, and Deaths among Select Groups in the United States and in Other Countries
A Word about HIV/AIDS Data
The Millennium: Year 2011
Formula for Estimating HIV Infections
Behavioral Risk Groups and Statistical Evaluation
September 18: Annual National HIV/AIDS Aging Awareness Day
Estimates of AIDS Cases and HIV Infection
Newly Infected
Shape of the HIV Pandemic: United States
Estimates of Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Due to AIDS in the United States
Selected Nations/Countries Have Different Epidemics. Each Faces Its Own Reality
Canada's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2009: Population 33,310,000
Mexico's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2009: Population 110 Million
United Kingdom's (UK) Estimated HIV/AIDS Data through 2009: Population 61 Million
Global Prevalence and Impact of HIV/AIDS (See Table 10-8)305
Connected but Separate: Each Country a Different Reality, Different Countries Similar Questions but Different Answers, Different Epidemics
Workforce-South Africa: Some Examples
Education: Teachers and Students-South Africa and Some Countries in Southern Africa
Other HIV/AIDS Time Bombs in Asia: India, China, and Russia
Review Questions
Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Cases among Women and Children
HIV/AIDS Is Defining the Lives of Millions of Women
Female Vulnerability to HIV
Every Day a Tragedy
Triple Jeopardy
Annual International Women's Day-March 8
Women: AIDS and HIV Infections Worldwide
Asia-Pacific Region, Over 5 Million HIV Positive: 2010
Women: HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases-United States
Childbearing Women: World-Wide
Pediatric HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases-United States: A Fight We Can Win!
Orphaned Children Due to HIV Infection and AIDS
The Phenomenon of AIDS Orphans
Review Questions
Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS among Young Adults, Ages 13 to 24
Global HIV Infections in Young Adults
Addressing the AIDS Pandemic among Young Adults
How Large Is the Young Adult Population in the United States?
HIV/AIDS Won't Affect Us!
Estimate of HIV-Infected and AIDS Cases among Young Adults in the United States, Globally
Other Useful Sources
Review Questions
Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Determining the Presence of Antibody Produced When HIV Is Present
Requests for HIV Testing
Reasons for HIV Testing: I Know, I Took the Test
Laboratory Methods for Detecting HIV
ELISA HIV Antibody Test
Western Blot Assay
New ELISA Antibody Testing and Viral Load Procedures Reveal Early Versus Late HIV Infection
Rapid Result HIV Testing
FDA Approves Home HIV Antibody Test Kit
Some Screening and Confirmatory Tests for HIV
Deciding Who Should Get an HIV Test and When
Why Is HIV Test Information Necessary?
Immigration and Travel Ban into the United States Is Lifted
Testing, Privacy, Competency, and Informed Consent
Review Questions
AIDS and Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior
HIV/AIDS Is a Story in Our Lifetime
The New Millennium and HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS Is an Unusual Social Disease
Discrimination vs. Compassion and Support
HIV/AIDS Is Here to Stay
AIDS Comes to the United States
Blame Someone, Dzj┐ Vu
Fear: Panic and Hysteria over the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States
Whom Is the General Public to Believe?
AIDS Education and Behavior: Dissipating Fear with Education
The Character of Society
Dealing with Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities Act
Federal and Private Sector Financing: Creation of an AIDS Industry
U.S. Government Believes HIV/AIDS Is a Threat to National Security
Global HIV/AIDS Funding for Underdeveloped Nations
Forms of U.S. Monetary Assistance for HIV/AIDS
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
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