AIDS Update 2013

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  • Edition: 22nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-12-10
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin
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AIDS UPDATE 2013 presents a balanced review of current research and information on HIV infection, HIV disease, and AIDS. AIDS UPDATE 2013 places this discussion within a biological, medical, and social framework. Unique to this textbook is the historical presentation of HIV/AIDS in terms of dates, times, and locations, as well as the meaning of those events in scientific, political, and social terms.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Table of Contents

AIDS UPDATE 2013: An Annual Overview Irnrnune Deficiency of Acquired Syndrotne

About the Author

Thirty One Years of HIV/AIDS and Counting: A Humanitarian Crisis



Introduction: Histories of Global Pandemics, AIDS, Its Place in History, Overview of HIV/AIDS, International AIDS Conferences and Means of Remembering—the AIDS Quilt, Candlelight Memorial, and World AIDS Day

Three Words Echo around the World: AIDS Crisis Worsens!

History of Global Pandemics and Epidemics

Fear, Ignorance, and Condemnation: Who Is to Blame?

Imagine a World without AIDS

Overview of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS: A Unique Disease

HIV/AIDS: A Cause of Death

Another Anniversary

Other Anniversaries

International AIDS Conferences

Means of Remembering

The 28th Candlelight Memorial

Walking to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United States

Bicycle Riding to Change the Course of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic—United States

The AIDS Olympics

World AIDS Day: An International Day of Coordinated Action: A Time to Recharge and Reconnect

Dame Elizabeth Taylor, AIDS activist.

The Future

National AIDS Hotlines

Useful Internet Addresses

1 AIDS: Defining the Disease and Finding Its Cause

The New Millennium

AIDS: A Disease or a Syndrome?

First Reaction to AIDS: Denial

What Causes AIDS?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports

Discovery of What Causes AIDS

Defining the Illness: AIDS and Surveillance


Review Questions

2 What Causes AIDS: Origin of the AIDS Virus

The Cause of AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV Does Not Cause AIDS: Dissidents and Their Cults: A Minority Point of View

News Flash 2010—Leading HIV/AIDS Dissident Cleared of Misconduct Following Complaints Made After He and Others Published a 2009 Paper Arguing that There Is "As Yet No Proof that HIV Causes AIDS"

Dissidents' Websites (AIDS Doesn't Exist or HIV Isn't the Cause)

Summary of HIV/AIDS Dissidents' Viewpoints

Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS

Origin of HIV: The AIDS Virus

Summary on the Origin of HIV


Review Questions

3 Biological Characteristics of HIV

Viruses Need a Host Cell in Order to Replicate

Viruses Are Parasites

Viruses Specific to Cell Type

How Do Human T4 or CD4+ Lymphocytes Relate to HIV Infection and AIDS?

Description of HIV; How It Attaches to a Host Cell and Buds Out of the Cell

HIV Fitness

The HIV Life Cycle

Understanding How HIV Works

How HIV Escapes the Infected Cell

Distinct Genotypes (Subtypes/Clades) of HIV-1 Worldwide Based on ENV and GAG Proteins


Review Questions

4 Anti-HIV Therapy

Better Drugs, Better Technologies, and Lingering Problems

Antiretroviral Therapy or ART

The Good News About Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

Where is the Cure

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Drugs with FDA Approval

The HIV Medicine Chest: ART Drugs Receiving FDA Approval

FDA-Approved Nucleoside/ Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Protease Inhibitors, Integrase Inhibitors, Entry Inhibitors, and Maturation Inhibitors

Use of Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

FDA-Approved Protease Inhibitors

Entry Inhibitors and Problems

Integrase Inhibitors

Development and Selection of HIV Drug-Resistant Mutants

Development of HIV Drug Resistance to Protease Inhibitors

How Combination Drug Therapy Can Reduce the Chance of HIV Drug Resistance

Drugs Prevent HIV Infection

Viral Load: Its Relationship to HIV Disease and AIDS

Medical Complications Associated with Antiretroviral Therapies (ART)

Update 2011

Global Availability of HIV Drug Therapy



Some AIDS Therapy Information Hotlines

Review Questions

5 The Immunology of HIV Disease/AIDS

The Immune System

Human Lymphocytes: T Cells and B Cells

Why CD4+ Cells Are Important in HIV Infection—What It Means

The CD4+ Cell Count—Why It Matters

Antibodies and HIV Disease

HIV Eradication Currently Not Possible Because of Infection of Latent Resting CD4+ Cells and Immunologic Memory Cells

Immune System Dysfunction

Original Antigenic Sin

The Search for Additional Receptors (Coreceptors) to CD4: Fusin or CXCKR-4 (R-4)

CCKR-5 (R-5) Receptor

Emergence of HIV Strains that Vary in Their Lethal Abilities

In Search of Genetic Resistance to HIV Infection

T4 Cell Depletion and Immune Suppression

Impact of T4 Cell Depletion

Role of Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV Infection

Where Do T4 or CD4+ Cells Become HIV Infected?


Review Questions

6 Opportunistic Infections and Cancers Associated with HIV Disease/AIDS

What Is an Opportunistic Disease?

The Prevalence of Opportunistic Diseases

Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected People

TB: The Leading Cause of Death among HIV-Positive People Worldwide

Cancer or Malignancy in HIV/AIDS Patients



Review Questions

7 A Profile of Biological Indicators for HIV Disease, Progression to AIDS, and Hope

The Prediction

What Is Known and What Is Missing from Our Understanding of HIV/AIDS: The New Crisis

HIV Disease Defined

Stages of HIV Disease (without Drug Therapy)

HIV Disease without Symptoms, with Symptoms, and AIDS

Production of HIV-Specific Antibodies

Prognostic Biological Markers (Biomarkers) Related to AIDS Progression

HIV Infection of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Neuropathies (Nerve Tissue Damage) in HIV Disease/AIDS Patients

Pediatric Clinical Signs and Symptoms

Finally, Hope, a Renewed Hope for the Future of Those Who Are HIV Infected


Review Questions

8 Epidemiology and Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus


We Must Stop HIV Transmission Now!

Epidemiology of HIV Infection

Transmission of Two Strains of HIV (HIV-1/HIV-2)

Is HIV Transmitted by Insects?

HIV Transmission

HIV Transmission in Family/ Household Settings

Noncasual Transmission

Gay Men Putting Themselves at High Risk for HIV Infection

The Biological Factor

Injection-Drug Users and HIV Transmission

United States: Heterosexual Injection-Drug Use (IDU)

Injection-Drug Use and HIV Infections in Other Countries

Other Means of HIV Transmission

Influence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) on HIV Transmission and Vice Versa

Pediatric Transmission


National AIDS Resources


Challenge Your Assumptions about the HIV Infected

Review Questions

9 Preventing the Transmission of HIV

The AIDS Generation: "I Knew Everything about It, and I Still Got It!"

Prevention, Not Treatment, Is the Least Expensive and Most Effective Way to Reduce the Spread of HIV/AIDS

Global Prevention

Antiretroviral Drugs Have an Impact on Prevention, But We Can't Treat Our Way Out of This Pandemic

Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic

Preventing the Transmission of HIV

Sexual Risk Taking Depends on Sexual Activity

New Rules to an Old Game: Promoting Safer Sex—Nobody Has a Body to Die For!

The Male Condom

The Female Condom or Femidom (Vaginal Pouch)

An Alternative to Condoms: Vaginal Microbicides (Mi-cro-ba-cides) and Circumcision (Cir-cum-ci-sion)

Update 2010—The CAPRISA 004 Study Results

Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV Transmission

Injection-Drug Use (IDU) and HIV Transmission: The Twin Epidemics

HIV Prevention for Injection-Drug Users

Prevention of Blood and Blood Product HIV Transmission

Infection Control Procedures

Sexual Partner Notification: Disclosure

The U.S. Federal Government Has Now Adopted Partner Notification as Its Cornerstone in Its Effort to Help Control the Spread of HIV

The First Human Vaccine: The Impact of Vaccines on Infectious Diseases

The Journey Toward an HIV/AIDS Vaccine Now in Its 31st Year

HIV Vaccine Development and Its Role in Prevention

How These Two Neutralizing Antibodies Work

Types of Experimental HIV Vaccines

DNA Vaccine

Problems in the Search for HIV Vaccine

September 2009—News Broken That a Partially Effective HIV Vaccine Was Found!


Finally, Five Ways You Can Help Prevent HIV/AIDS

Review Questions

10 Prevalence of HIV Infections, AIDS Cases, and Deaths among Select Groups in the United States and in Other Countries

A Word about HIV/AIDS Data

Year 2012

Formula for Estimating HIV Infections

Behavioral Risk Groups and Statistical Evaluation

Aging With HIV/AIDS: The Hidden Side of This Crisis in the United States

September 18: Annual National HIV/AIDS Aging Awareness Day

Estimates of AIDS Cases and HIV Infection

Newly Infected

Shape of the HIV Pandemic: United States

Estimates of Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost Due to AIDS in the United States

Selected Nations/Countries Have Different Epidemics. Each Faces Its Own Reality

Canada's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2009: Population 33,310,000

Mexico's Estimated HIV/AIDS Cases through 2009: Population 110 Million

United Kingdom's (UK) Estimated HIV/AIDS Data through 2010: Population 61 Million

Global Prevalence and Impact of HIV/AIDS

Connected but Separate: Each Country a Different Reality, Different Countries, Similar Questions, but Different Answers, Different Epidemics

Workforce—South Africa: Some Examples

Education: Teachers and Students—South Africa and Some Countries in Southern Africa

Other HIV/AIDS Time Bombs in Asia: India, China, and Russia


Review Questions

11 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS Cases among Women and Children

HIV/AIDS Is Defining the Lives of Many Millions of Women

Female Vulnerability to HIV

Every Day a Tragedy

Triple Jeopardy

Annual International Women's Day—March 8

Women: AIDS and HIV Infections Worldwide

Asia-Pacific Region, Over Five Million HIV Positive:2010

Women: HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United States

Childbearing Women: Worldwide

Internet Resources

Pediatric HIV-Positive and AIDS Cases—United States: A Fight We Can Win!

Orphaned Children Due to HIV Infection and AIDS

The Phenomenon of AIDS Orphans


Review Questions

12 Prevalence of HIV Infection and AIDS among Young Adults, Ages 13 to 24

Global HIV Infections in Young Adults

Addressing the AIDS Pandemic among Young Adults: Know-Protect-Talk

How Large Is the Young Adult Population in the United States?

HIV/AIDS Won't Affect Us!

Estimate of HIV-Infected and AIDS Cases among Young Adults in the United States, Globally



Other Useful Sources

Review Questions

13 Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Determining the Presence of Antibody Produced When HIV Is Present

Requests for HIV Testing

Reasons for HIV Testing: I Know, I Took the Test

Laboratory Methods for Detecting HIV

ELISA HIV Antibody Test

Western Blot Assay

New ELISA Antibody Testing and Viral Load Procedures Reveal Early Versus Late HIV Infection

Rapid Result HIV Testing


FDA Approves Home-Collection HIV Antibody Test Kit

Some Screening and Confirmatory Antigen-Detection Tests for HIV

Deciding Who Should Get an HIV Test and When

Why Is HIV Test Information Necessary?

Immigration and Travel Ban into the United States Is Lifted

Testing, Privacy, Competency, and Informed Consent


Review Questions

14 AIDS and Society: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior

HIV/AIDS Is a Story in Our Lifetime

The New Millennium and HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS Is an Unusual Social Disease

Discrimination vs. Compassion and Support

HIV/AIDS Is Here to Stay

AIDS Comes to the United States

Blame Someone, Déjà Vu

Fear: Panic and Hysteria over the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the United States

Whom Is the General Public to Believe?

AIDS Education and Behavior: Dissipating Fear with Education

The Character of Society

Dealing with Discrimination: The Americans with Disabilities Act

Federal and Private Sector Financing: Creation of an AIDS Industry

U.S. Government Believes HIV/AIDS Is a Threat to National Security

Global HIV/AIDS Funding for Underdeveloped Nations

Forms of U.S. Monetary Assistance for HIV/AIDS


Review Questions

Answers to Review Questions




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