American Government and Politics Today - Texas Edition, 2006-2007

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  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-07-20
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Experience the excitement that comes from active, informed citizenship with AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS TODAY: TEXAS EDITION. You will find balanced, unbiased, up-to-date coverage of constitutional, governmental, political, social, and economic structures and processes along with a wide range of viewpoints that give you rich, nuanced insight into the political system and decision-making processes of the Lone Star State.

Table of Contents

The American System
The Democratic Republicp. 1
Chapter 1 Features
Global View: America: The Exceptional Country?p. 12
America's Security: Loss of Liberty in Wartimep. 14
Which Side Are You On? Forfeiture and the War on Drugsp. 16
Politics and Diversity: The Problem of Racial Classificationsp. 24
What if ... National Laws Were Put to a Popular Vote?p. 2
Politics and Governmentp. 3
Why Is Government Necessary?p. 3
Democracy and Other Forms of Governmentp. 5
What Kind of Democracy Do We Have?p. 9
Fundamental Valuesp. 10
Political Ideologiesp. 15
The Changing Face of Americap. 20
American Politics: Why Is It Important Today?p. 25
Making a Difference Seeing Democracy in Actionp. 26
Key Termsp. 26
Chapter Summaryp. 27
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 27
E-Mocracy Connecting to American Government and Politicsp. 28
The Constitutionp. 29
Chapter 2 Features
Politics and Diversity: Could the Founders Have Banned Slavery Outright?p. 43
America's Security: The Constitutional Rights of Foreign Citizensp. 51
What If ... An Immigrant Could Become President?p. 30
The Colonial Backgroundp. 31
British Restrictions and Colonial Grievancesp. 33
The Colonial Response: The Continental Congressesp. 33
Declaring Independencep. 34
The Rise of Republicanismp. 36
The Articles of Confederation: Our First Form of Governmentp. 36
Drafting the Constitutionp. 39
The Final Documentp. 46
The Difficult Road to Ratificationp. 46
The Bill of Rightsp. 50
Altering the Constitution: The Formal Amendment Processp. 51
Informal Methods of Constitutional Changep. 54
The Constitution: Why Is It Important Today?p. 57
Making a Difference How Can You Affect the Constitution?p. 58
Key Termsp. 58
Chapter Summaryp. 59
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 59
E-Mocracy The Internet and Our Constitutionp. 60
Appendix to Chapter 2p. 61
Federalismp. 79
Chapter 3 Features
Politics and Diversity: Tribal Governments and Federalismp. 89
Which Side Are You On? The Debate over Marijuanap. 94
Politics and Diversity: The Oregon Plan for Medicaidp. 100
What If ... Education Were a National Responsibility?p. 80
Three Systems of Governmentp. 81
Why Federalism?p. 82
The Constitutional Basis for American Federalismp. 85
Defining Constitutional Powers-The Early Yearsp. 88
States' Rights and the Resort to Civil Warp. 91
The Continuing Dispute over the Division of Powerp. 93
The Politics of Federalismp. 100
Federalism and the Supreme Court Todayp. 103
Federalism: Why Is It Important Today?p. 105
Making a Difference Writing Letters to the Editorp. 106
Key Termsp. 106
Chapter Summaryp. 107
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 108
E-Mocracy Your Federal, State, and Local Governments Are Available at a Click of Your Mousep. 109
Civil Rights and Liberties
Civil Libertiesp. 111
Chapter 4 Features
Which Side Are You On? Should We Be One Nation "under God"?p. 117
Global View: The Head Scarves Issuep. 123
America's Security: Military Tribunals for Suspected Terroristsp. 139
What If ... You Had to Carry a National Identification Card?p. 112
The Bill of Rightsp. 113
Freedom of Religionp. 114
Freedom of Expressionp. 122
Freedom of the Pressp. 130
The Right to Assemble and to Petition the Governmentp. 132
More Liberties under Scrutiny: Matters of Privacyp. 132
The Great Balancing Act: The Rights of the Accused versus the Rights of Societyp. 137
The Death Penaltyp. 141
Civil Liberties: Why Are They Important Today?p. 143
Making a Difference Your Civil Liberties: Searches and Seizuresp. 144
Key Termsp. 145
Chapter Summaryp. 145
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 146
E-Mocracy Understanding Your Civil Libertiesp. 146
Civil Rightsp. 149
Chapter 5 Features
Global View: The Struggle for Women's Rights around the Worldp. 165
Which Side Are You On? Zero-Tolerance Policiesp. 182
What If ... One State's Same-Sex Marriages Had to Be Recognized Nationwide?p. 150
African Americans and the Consequences of Slavery in the United Statesp. 151
The Civil Rights Movementp. 157
The Climax of the Civil Rights Movementp. 159
Women's Struggle for Equal Rightsp. 163
Gender-Based Discrimination in the Workplacep. 168
Civil Rights: Extending Equal Protectionp. 170
Affirmative Actionp. 171
Special Protection for Older Americansp. 172
Securing Rights for Persons with Disabilitiesp. 173
The Rights and Status of Gay Males and Lesbiansp. 175
The Rights and Status of Juvenilesp. 178
Civil Rights: Why Are They Important Today?p. 183
Making a Difference Dealing with Discriminationp. 184
Key Termsp. 184
Chapter Summaryp. 185
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 186
E-Mocracy Civil Rights Information Onlinep. 187
People and Politics
Public Opinion and Political Socializationp. 189
Chapter 6 Features
Global View: Polling in Baghdadp. 206
Politics and Polls: The Issue of Push Pollsp. 208
What If ... Exit Polls Were Regulated?p. 190
Defining Public Opinionp. 192
How Public Opinion Is Formed: Political Socializationp. 193
Political Preferences and Voting Behaviorp. 196
Measuring Public Opinionp. 202
Technology and Opinion Pollsp. 207
Public Opinion and the Political Processp. 209
Public Opinion: Why Is It Important Today?p. 213
Making a Difference Be a Critical Consumer of Opinion Pollsp. 215
Key Termsp. 215
Chapter Summaryp. 216
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 216
E-Mocracy Online Polling and Poll Datap. 217
Interest Groupsp. 219
Chapter 7 Features
America's Security: Interest Groups and Aviation Securityp. 222
Which Side Are You On? Should the Internet Be Taxed?p. 229
What If ... Retired Government Employees Could Not Work for Interest Groups?p. 220
Interest Groups: A Natural Phenomenonp. 221
Why Do Americans Join Interest Groups?p. 224
Types of Interest Groupsp. 227
What Makes an Interest Group Powerful?p. 235
Interest Group Strategiesp. 237
Regulating Lobbyistsp. 242
Interest Groups and Representative Democracyp. 243
Interest Groups: Why Are They Important Today?p. 244
Making a Difference The Gun Control Issuep. 245
Key Termsp. 245
Chapter Summaryp. 246
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 246
E-Mocracy Interest Groups and the Internetp. 247
Political Partiesp. 249
Chapter 8 Features
Politics and Elections: The 2004 Democratic Primary Electionsp. 263
Which Side Are You On? Should Voters Ignore Third-Party Candidates?p. 277
What If ... We Had a Multiparty Political System?p. 250
What Is a Political Party?p. 251
A History of Political Parties in the United Statesp. 252
The Two Major U.S. Parties Todayp. 259
The Three Faces of a Partyp. 262
Why Has the Two-Party System Endured?p. 270
The Role of Minor Parties in U.S. Politicsp. 272
Mechanisms of Political Changep. 278
Political Parties: Why Are They Important Today?p. 281
Making a Difference Electing Convention Delegatesp. 282
Key Termsp. 283
Chapter Summaryp. 283
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 284
E-Mocracy Political Parties and the Internetp. 285
Campaigns, Nominations, and Electionsp. 287
Chapter 9 Features
Politics and Campaigns: Who Is Paying for Those Television Commercials?p. 302
Which Side Are You On? Should There Be One Voting System for All States?
What If ... We Had Public Financing for All Political Campaigns?p. 288
Who Wants to Be a Candidate?p. 289
The Twenty-First-Century Campaignp. 293
The Strategy of Winningp. 294
Financing the Campaignp. 296
Interest Groups and Campaign Moneyp. 298
Running for President: The Longest Campaignp. 304
The Electoral Collegep. 308
How Are Elections Conducted?p. 310
Turning Out to Votep. 313
Legal Restrictions on Votingp. 318
Campaigns, Nominations, and Elections: Why Are They Important Today?p. 320
Making A Difference: Registering and Votingp. 321
Key Termsp. 322
Chapter Summaryp. 322
Selected Print And Media Resourcesp. 323
E-Mocracy: Elections and the Webp. 324
The Media and Cyberpoliticsp. 325
Chapter 10 Features
America's Security: Press Censorship in Times of Crisisp. 331
Which Side Are You On? Are Internet Campaigns the Wave of the Future?p. 341
Politics and Diversity: Racial Profiling in the Mediap. 349
What If ... The Media Were Truly Independent?p. 326
The Media's Functionsp. 327
A History of the Media in the United Statesp. 329
The Primacy of Televisionp. 334
The Media and Political Campaignsp. 335
The Media and the Governmentp. 341
Government Regulation of the Mediap. 344
Bias in the Mediap. 347
The Media: Why Are They Important Today?p. 348
Making A Difference: Being a Critical Consumer of the Newsp. 350
Key Termsp. 350
Chapter Summaryp. 351
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 351
E-Mocracy: The Media and the Internetp. 352
Political Institutions
The Congressp. 353
Chapter 11 Features
Politics and Diversity: Representation for the District of Columbiap. 364
Which Side Are You On? Should Nonpartisan Commissions Take Charge of Redistricting?p. 369
America's Security: The Spoils of Warp. 383
What If ... Members of Congress Were Required to Report Annually to Their Constituents?p. 354
Why Was Congress Created?p. 355
The Functions of Congressp. 356
The Powers of Congressp. 359
House-Senate Differencesp. 360
Congresspersons and the Citizenry: A Comparisonp. 362
Congressional Electionsp. 363
Congressional Apportionmentp. 366
Perks and Privilegesp. 370
The Committee Structurep. 372
The Formal Leadershipp. 375
How Members of Congress Decidep. 378
How a Bill Becomes Lawp. 379
How Much Will the Government Spend?p. 381
The Congress: Why Is It Important Today?p. 384
Making A Difference: Learning about Your Representativesp. 385
Key Termsp. 386
Chapter Summaryp. 386
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 387
E-Mocracy: Elections and the Webp. 388
The Presidentp. 389
Chapter 12 Features
Politics and the Presidency: Senators as Presidential Candidatesp. 393
America's Security: Do We Need a Democratic World to Be Safe?p. 399
Which Side Are You On? Should a President Ever Admit to Making a Mistake?p. 408
What If ... There Were No Executive Privilege?p. 390
Who Can Become President?p. 391
The Process of Becoming Presidentp. 392
The Many Roles of the Presidentp. 394
The President as Party Chief and Superpoliticianp. 405
Special Uses of Presidential Powerp. 407
Abuses of Executive Power and Impeachmentp. 410
The Executive Organizationp. 412
The Vice Presidencyp. 415
The Presidency: Why Is It Important Today?p. 418
Making A Difference: Communicating with the White Housep. 419
Key Termsp. 420
Chapter Summaryp. 420
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 421
E-Mocracy: The Presidency and the Internetp. 422
The Bureaucracyp. 423
Chapter 13 Features
Politics and Subsidies: Amtrak-A Public Railroad, No Matter What the Costp. 429
America's Security: Unifying the Antiterrorism Effortp. 433
Politics and the Bureaucracy: Administering Farm Subsidiesp. 447
What If ... The Public Graded Federal Bureaucracies?p. 424
The Nature of Bureaucracyp. 425
The Size of the Bureaucracyp. 427
The Organization of the Federal Bureaucracyp. 429
Staffing the Bureaucracyp. 437
Modern Attempts at Bureaucratic Reformp. 440
Bureaucrats as Politicians and Policymakersp. 444
Congressional Control of the Bureaucracyp. 447
The Bureaucracy: Why Is It Important Today?p. 448
Making A Difference: What the Government Knows about Youp. 449
Key Termsp. 449
Chapter Summaryp. 450
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 450
E-Mocracy: E-Governmentp. 451
The Courtsp. 453
Chapter 14 Features
America's Security: Holding U.S. Citizens as "Enemy Combatants"p. 462
Which Side Are You On? Is the Process of Confirming Judicial Nominees Too Political?p. 470
Global View: When the Supreme Court Looks to Other Nations' Lawsp. 474
What If ... Supreme Court Justices Had to Campaign?p. 454
The Common Law Traditionp. 455
Sources of American Lawp. 456
The Federal Court Systemp. 457
The Supreme Court at Workp. 463
The Selection of Federal Judgesp. 466
Policymaking and the Courtsp. 470
What Checks Our Courts?p. 475
The Judiciary: Why Is It Important Today?p. 478
Making A Difference: Changing the Legal Systemp. 479
Key Termsp. 479
Chapter Summaryp. 480
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 480
E-Mocracy: Courts on the Webp. 482
Public Policy
Domestic Policyp. 483
Chapter 15 Features
Politics and Health Care: Health Care for Members of Congressp. 491
Which Side Are You On? Should Welfare Mothers Work outside the Home?p. 497
Global View: Day Care in Western Europep. 498
America's Security: Those Colored Alert Levelsp. 508
What If ... The National Parks Were Privatized?p. 484
The Policymaking Processp. 485
Health Carep. 488
Poverty and Welfarep. 494
Immigrationp. 499
Crime in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 501
Environmental Policyp. 508
Domestic Policy: Why Is It Important Today?p. 515
Making A Difference: Environmental Trade-Offsp. 516
Key Termsp. 516
Chapter Summaryp. 517
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 518
E-Mocracy: The Internet and Domestic Policyp. 519
Economic Policyp. 521
Chapter 16 Features
Politics and Trade: The High Cost of Saving U.S. Jobsp. 535
Politics and Economics: Outsourcing: A Political Hot-Button Issuep. 538
Which Side Are You On? Should Social Security Be Partially Privatized?p. 543
What If ... Every Adult Were Guaranteed a Job?p. 522
Good Times, Bad Timesp. 523
Fiscal Policyp. 526
Monetary Policyp. 530
World Tradep. 533
The Politics of Taxesp. 539
The Social Security Problemp. 541
Economic Policy: Why Is It Important Today?p. 542
Making A Difference: Learning about Social Securityp. 544
Key Termsp. 454
Chapter Summaryp. 545
Selected Print And Media Resourcesp. 546
E-Mocracy: E-Commerce and Economic Policyp. 546
Foreign Policyp. 547
Chapter 17 Features
America's Security: Realism versus Idealism in Foreign Affairsp. 552
Global View: China-The Next Superpower?p. 559
Which Side Are You On? Should We Bring Back the Draft?p. 572
What If ... North Korea Exploded a Nuclear Bomb?p. 548
Facing the World: Foreign and Defense Policyp. 549
Morality versus Reality in Foreign Policyp. 550
Challenges in World Politicsp. 551
Who Makes Foreign Policy?p. 562
Congress Balances the Presidencyp. 566
Domestic Sources of Foreign Policyp. 567
The Major Foreign Policy Themesp. 568
Foreign Policy: Why Is It Important Today?p. 574
Making A Difference: Working for Human Rightsp. 575
Key Termsp. 575
Chapter Summaryp. 576
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 577
E-Mocracy: Attacking Government Computer Systemsp. 578
Texas Politics
Texas History and Culturep. 579
Chapter 18 Features
Politics and Culture: Tradition and Individualism in Texasp. 594
Politics and Diversity: Hispanics versus Mexican Americans in Texasp. 600
What If ... Texas Had an Official Language?p. 580
Politics and Government: The Early Yearsp. 581
Politics and Government: 1886-1945p. 583
Politics and Government since World War IIp. 588
Texas Cultural Regionsp. 595
Cultural Diversityp. 602
Texas History and Culture: Why Is It Important Today?p. 604
Making A Difference: Learn More about Your Own Culturep. 605
Key Termsp. 605
Chapter Summaryp. 605
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 606
E-Mocracy: Cyberpolitics in Texasp. 607
Recent Developmentsp. 608
The Texas Constitutionp. 609
Chapter 19 Features
Which Side are You On? Was Reconstruction Truly a Disaster for Texas?p. 615
Politics and Civil Liberties: Protecting the Homesteads of Bankrupt Texansp. 625
What If ... Texas Used a More Typical State Constitution?p. 610
The Texas Constitution in Historyp. 611
The Texas Constitution Todayp. 616
Constitutional Topicsp. 624
Amending and Revising the Constitutionp. 628
The Texas Constitution Comparedp. 630
The Texas Constitution: Why Is It Important Today?p. 631
Making A Difference: Amending the Texas Constitutionp. 632
Key Termsp. 632
Chapter Summaryp. 633
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 633
E-Mocracy: Constitutions Onlinep. 634
Recent Developmentsp. 636
Texas Interest Groupsp. 637
Chapter 20 Features
Politics and Conflicts of Interest: Lobbying by Government Officialsp. 641
America's Security: How Do We Defend Homeland Security withotu Damaging the Border Economy?p. 656
Politics and Diversity: The 10 Percent Rule for University Admissions in Texasp. 667
What If ... Campaign Contributions Had to Be Reported within Twenty-Four Hours?p. 638
What Are Interest Groups?p. 639
Influencing Governmentp. 644
Which Interests Are Powerful?p. 646
Factors That Affect Interest Group Powerp. 649
Campaign Contributionsp. 655
The Regulation of Lobbyingp. 657
The Craft of Lobbyingp. 661
The Dilemma of School Financep. 664
Texas Interest Groups: Why Are They Important Today?p. 666
Making a Difference: Getting Involved by Joining an Interest Groupp. 668
Key Termsp. 668
Chapter Summaryp. 669
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 669
E-Mocracy: Texas Interest Groups on the Webp. 670
Recent Developmentsp. 671
Political Parties in Texasp. 673
Chapter 21 Features
Politics and Diversity: The Republican Appeal to Hispanicsp. 686
What If ... The Redistricting Process in Texas Were Nonpartisan?p. 674
Functions of Political Partiesp. 675
Characteristics of American Political Partiesp. 676
Development of the Texas Party Systemp. 678
How the Party Machinery Is Organized in Texasp. 687
A New Era of Republican Dominancep. 691
Political Parties in Texas: Why Are They Important Today?p. 693
Making a Difference: Grassroots Politics at the Precinct Levelp. 694
Key Termsp. 694
Chapter Summaryp. 695
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 695
E-Mocracy: Texas Political Parties and the Internetp. 696
Recent Developmentsp. 698
Voting and Elections in Texasp. 699
Chapter 22 Features
Global View: American Voter Turnout Compared with Turnout in Other Countriesp. 705
Which Side Are You On? Should Texas Change the Way It Elects Judges?p. 722
Politics and Redistricting: The Republican Redistricting Coup of 2003p. 729
What If ... Voting Were Required by Law?p. 700
Political Participationp. 701
Voter Turnout in the United States and Texasp. 704
Primary, General, and Special Elections in Texasp. 709
The Conduct and Administration of Electionsp. 716
Election Campaigns in Texasp. 726
Texas Elections: Why Are They Important Today?p. 733
Making a Difference: "Think Globally, Act Locally"p. 734
Key Termsp. 734
Chapter Summaryp. 735
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 735
E-Mocracy: All Those Electionsp. 736
Recent Developmentsp. 737
The Texas Legislaturep. 739
Chapter 23 Features
Which Side Are You On? Should the Production of Horsemeat Be Legal in Texas?p. 758
Politics and the Quorum: The Killer Bees and the Killer Waspsp. 763
What If ... The Texas House of Representatives Were Organized by Political Party?p. 740
The Limited Sessionp. 741
Qualifications, Terms, and Compensation of Membersp. 742
Legislative Districtsp. 743
Who Can Become a Member of the Legislature?p. 749
Organization of the Texas Legislaturep. 750
The Presiding Officers and the Legislative Committeesp. 754
The Calendar and the Floorp. 760
How a Bill Becomes a Lawp. 766
Institutional Tools of Leadershipp. 769
The Texas Legislature: Why Is It Important Today?p. 770
Making a Difference: Citizen Participationp. 771
Key Termsp. 771
Chapter Summaryp. 772
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 773
E-Mocracy: Find Your Legislatorsp. 774
Recent Developmentsp. 775
The Texas Executive Branchp. 777
Chapter 24 Features
America's Security: Should Texas Recognize Identity Cards Issued by Mexico?p. 786
Politics and Gubernatorial Influence: Regulating the Insurance Industryp. 791
Politics and Administrative Law: The Department of Agriculture and the Pesticide Issuep. 796
What If ... Texas Used the National Executive Branch as a Model?p. 778
Structure and Politics of the Governor's Officep. 779
The Governor's Powers of Persuasionp. 782
The Governor as Chief Executivep. 788
The Texas Bureaucracyp. 793
The Bureaucracy and Public Policyp. 799
Bureaucratic Accountabilityp. 802
The Texas Executive: Why Is It Important Today?p. 805
Making a Difference: Become a Smart Consumer of State Servicesp. 806
Key Termsp. 806
Chapter Summaryp. 807
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 807
E-Mocracy: Contacting the Governorp. 808
Recent Developmentsp. 809
The Texas Judiciary, Law, and Due Processp. 811
Chapter 25 Features
Politics and Consumerism: The Issue of Frivolous Lawsuitsp. 816
Politics and Diversity: The Texas Rangers: A Controversial Traditionp. 819
What If ... Texas Abolished the Death Penalty?p. 812
Civil and Criminal Lawp. 813
Issues in Civil Lawp. 814
Issues and Elements in Criminal Lawp. 815
Due Process of Lawp. 822
Texas Court Organizationp. 827
Selection of Judgesp. 835
The Texas Courts: Why Are They Important Today?p. 839
Making a Difference: Deal Intelligently with Law Enforcement Officers in Texasp. 839
Key Termsp. 840
Chapter Summaryp. 840
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 840
E-Mocracy: Filing Court Documents Onlinep. 841
Recent Developmentsp. 843
Local Governmentp. 845
Chapter 26 Features
Politics and County Government: Loving County-Small Is Beautifulp. 859
Politics and Education: Vouchers and Charter Schools in Texasp. 869
What If ... Mayors and City Council Members in Texas Were Elected in Partisan Elections?p. 846
Municipalitiesp. 847
Countiesp. 857
Special Districtsp. 864
Independent School Districtsp. 867
Councils of Governmentsp. 869
Local Government: Why Is It Important Today?p. 871
Making a Difference: Involvement at the Local Levelp. 872
Key Termsp. 872
Chapter Summaryp. 873
Selected Print and Media Resourcesp. 873
E-Mocracy: Public Access on the Internet is Growingp. 874
Recent Developmentsp. 875
The Declaration of Independencep. 1
How to Read Case Citations and Find Court Decisionsp. 3
Federalist Papers No. 10, No. 51, and No. 78p. 4
Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court since 1900p. 12
Party Control of Congress since 1900p. 15
Presidents of the United Statesp. 16
Spanish Equivalents for Important Terms in American Governmentp. 18
Glossaryp. 1
Indexp. 1
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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