American and Texas Government : Policy and Politics

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-07-31
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Known for the extremely student-friendly, jargon-free style of the two books from which it was made, the new American and Texas Government: Policy and Politicsintroduces the essentials of American and Texas government in a way that any student can understand. Neal Tannahillrs"sAmerican GovernmentandTexas Governmentare offered together in one comprehensive and accessible text. This new version features the same public policy emphasis that shows students the impact that government has on their lives, and offers the wealth of useful study aids and exercises to engage students in the course material and encourage them to become active participants in their government. This new edition is published as a Longman Study Edition and therefore contains a battery of chapter tests for student study and practice. It also offers the latest coverage of issues in both American and Texas government, including the results of the 2008 elections, immigration reform, and the challenge posed by nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea.

Table of Contents

To the Instructorp. xvii
To the Studentp. xxiii
American Government
Introduction Government, Politics, and the Policymaking Processp. 1
Learning Outcomesp. 1
The Importance of Governmentp. 2
Government and Politicsp. 3
The Public Policy Approachp. 5
Getting Involved: Government and Youp. 9
A Changing America in a Changing Worldp. 13
Learning Outcomesp. 13
Political Culturep. 15
The International Environmentp. 17
The Demographic Environmentp. 18
Global Perspective: Immigration Policy and Politics in Francep. 22
The Economic Environmentp. 23
Conclusion: The Cultural, International, and Socioeconomic Context for Policymakingp. 27
Getting Involved: A Changing Nation, Changing Communitiesp. 28
The American Constitutionp. 33
Learning Outcomesp. 33
The Background of the Constitutionp. 35
Constitutional Principlesp. 40
The Living Constitutionp. 47
Global Perspective: The British Parliamentary Systemp. 49
The Constitution, Politics, and Public Policyp. 52
Conclusion: The Constitutional Environment for Policymakingp. 54
Getting Involved: Service Learningp. 55
The Federal Systemp. 59
Learning Outcomesp. 59
The Constitutional Basis of Federalismp. 61
Federal Grant Programsp. 70
Global Perspective: Education Policy and Federalism in Germanyp. 73
Conclusion: Federalism and Public Policyp. 75
Getting Involved: Federal Programs and Youp. 77
Public Opinionp. 81
Learning Outcomesp. 81
Political Socializationp. 83
Measuring Public Opinionp. 89
Political Knowledgep. 94
Support for Democratic Principlesp. 95
Global Perspective: Civil Unions in Denmarkp. 98
Political Trust and Political Legitimacyp. 99
Political Efficacyp. 99
Political Philosophyp. 100
Conclusion: Public Opinion and Public Policyp. 106
Getting Involved: Family Politicsp. 107
Political Participationp. 113
Learning Outcomesp. 113
Forms of Participationp. 114
Explaining Participationp. 116
Patterns of Participationp. 117
Nonvotersp. 120
Trends in Voter Turnoutp. 121
Participation Rates in Comparative Perspectivep. 121
Increasing Voter Turnoutp. 123
Global Perspective: Compulsory Voting in Australiap. 124
Participation Biasp. 125
Conclusion: Political Participation and Public Policyp. 127
Getting Involved: Registering to Votep. 128
The Mediap. 133
Learning Outcomesp. 133
The Media Landscapep. 135
Global Perspective: Government Control of the Media in Cubap. 137
Government Regulation of the News Mediap. 137
Covering the Newsp. 141
Media Biasesp. 144
Conclusion: The Media and Public Policyp. 145
Getting Involved: Favorite News and Information Linksp. 146
Interest Groupsp. 149
Learning Outcomesp. 149
Why People Join Groupsp. 151
Types of Interest Groupsp. 152
Global Perspective: Church and State in Mexicop. 156
Interest Group Tacticsp. 160
Getting Involved: Participating in a Student Groupp. 167
The Strength of Interest Groupsp. 168
Conclusion: Interest Groups and Public Policyp. 170
Political Partiesp. 175
Learning Outcomesp. 175
The Party Systemp. 176
Global Perspective: The Israeli Party Systemp. 178
Party Organizationp. 179
Political Cycles and Party Realignmentp. 182
The Party Balance: Democrats, Republicans, and Independentsp. 183
Voting Patternsp. 184
Issues Orientationp. 189
Divided Governmentp. 192
Conclusion: Political Parties and Public Policyp. 195
Getting Involved: Party Politics at the Grassrootsp. 196
Electionsp. 199
Learning Outcomesp. 199
Types of Electionsp. 200
Election Districts and Redistrictingp. 202
Election Campaignsp. 206
Congressional Electionsp. 213
Global Perspective: Legislative Elections in Brazilp. 215
Presidential Electionsp. 216
The Voters Decidep. 236
Conclusion: Elections and Public Policyp. 237
Getting Involved: In-Person Politicsp. 238
Congressp. 245
Learning Outcomesp. 245
Bicameralismp. 247
Membershipp. 248
Organizationp. 254
Global Perspective: The Indian Parliamentp. 259
The Legislative Processp. 261
Getting Involved: Sending E-Mail to Your U.S. Representativep. 273
Conclusion: Congress and Public Policyp. 273
The Presidencyp. 277
Learning Outcomesp. 277
The Constitutional Presidencyp. 279
Presidential Powersp. 286
Two Presidencies Thesisp. 293
The Development of the Modern Presidencyp. 293
The Organization of the Presidencyp. 295
Global Perspective: The Russian Presidencyp. 298
Theories of Presidential Leadershipp. 300
Presidential Popularityp. 304
The Presidency in Contextp. 306
Getting Involved: Why Do They Run?p. 307
Conclusion: The Presidency and Public Policyp. 308
The Federal Bureaucracyp. 313
Learning Outcomesp. 313
Organization of the Bureaucracyp. 315
Personnelp. 321
Rulemakingp. 324
Politics and Administrationp. 325
Global Perspective: The Egyptian Bureaucracyp. 330
Subgovernments and Issue Networksp. 331
Conclusion: The Federal Bureaucracy and Public Policyp. 333
Getting Involved: Working for Uncle Samp. 334
The Federal Courtsp. 339
Learning Outcomesp. 339
Judicial Policymakingp. 340
Political History of the Supreme Courtp. 341
The Federal Court Systemp. 345
Global Perspective: Islamic Law in Nigeriap. 356
Power, Politics, and the Courtsp. 360
Conclusion: The Courts and Public Policyp. 362
Getting Involved: A Day in Courtp. 363
Economic Policymakingp. 367
Learning Outcomesp. 367
The Goals of Economic Policyp. 369
Global Perspective: Healthcare in Canadap. 373
Tax Revenuesp. 374
Budget Deficits and Surplusesp. 381
Government Expendituresp. 383
Fiscal Policymakingp. 391
Monetary Policymakingp. 393
Conclusion: Economic Policymakingp. 393
Getting Involved: Tax Breaks for College Studentsp. 397
Civil Liberties Policymakingp. 401
Learning Outcomesp. 401
The Constitutional Basis of Civil Liberaties Policymakingp. 403
Civil Liberties Issues and Policiesp. 405
Global Perspective: Population Policy in Chinap. 406
Getting Involved: Talking About Mirandap. 425
Conclusion: Civil Liberties Policymakingp. 426
Civil Rights Policymakingp. 431
Learning Outcomesp. 431
The Constitutional Basis of Civil Rights Policymakingp. 432
Civil Rights Issues and Policiesp. 433
Global Perspective: Women's Rights in Saudi Arabiap. 441
Getting Involved: Voices from the Pastp. 453
Conclusion: Civil Rights Policymakingp. 453
Foreign and Defense Policymakingp. 461
Learning Outcomesp. 461
The International Communityp. 464
The Ends and Means of American Foreign and Defense Policyp. 466
The History of American Foreign Policyp. 470
Foreign Policyp. 478
Defense Policyp. 480
Global Perspective: Nuclear Weapons in Pakistanp. 482
Conclusion: Foreign and Defense Policymakingp. 484
Getting Involved: America in the Eyes of the Worldp. 485
Texas Government
The People, Economy, and Political Culture of Texasp. 493
Learning Outcomesp. 493
The People of Texasp. 494
Internet Research: Foreign-Born Residentsp. 498
The Texas Economyp. 499
Political Culturep. 504
National Perspective: Legal Prostitution in Nevadap. 505
Getting Involved: Volunteeringp. 507
Conclusion: The Socioeconomic Context of Policymakingp. 507
Let's Debate: Is Illegal Immigration Good or Bad for Texas?p. 508
The Texas Constitutionp. 513
Learning Outcomesp. 513
State Constitutionsp. 515
Getting Involved: Joining a Student Club or Organizationp. 516
Background of the Texas Constitutionp. 518
Constitutional Convention of 1875p. 520
Overview of the Texas Constitutionp. 522
Internet Research: The Freedom of Worship Provision of the Texas Constitutionp. 523
Constitutional Changep. 524
National Perspective: Gay Marriage in Massachusettsp. 530
Individual Rights and the Texas Constitutionp. 531
Conclusion: The Constitutional Context of Policymaking in Texasp. 532
Let's Debate: Gay Marriagep. 533
The Federal Context of Texas Policymakingp. 537
Learning Outcomesp. 537
Role of the States in the Federal Systemp. 538
National Perspective: Drilling for Oil in Alaskap. 540
States, the Courts, and the Constitutionp. 541
Prison Overcrowdingp. 542
Getting Involved: Contacting Your Representative in Washington, DCp. 543
States and Federal Lawp. 544
Federal Grant Programsp. 547
Conclusion: The Federal System and the Policy Processp. 553
Internet Research: Profile of a Grantp. 554
Let's Debate: Does Texas Law Restrict Access to Abortion Too Much or Not Enough?p. 555
Political Participation in Texasp. 559
Learning Outcomesp. 559
Voting Rights and Minority Participationp. 560
Participation in Texas Politicsp. 564
National Perspective: Mail Voting in Oregonp. 569
Internet Research: Tracking Election Turnoutp. 573
Conclusion: Participation and Policymakingp. 574
Getting Involved: Become a Volunteer Deputy Voter Registrarp. 576
Let's Debate: Would the Adoption of the Initiative Process Enhance the Quality of Democracy in the State?p. 577
Interest Groups in Texasp. 581
Learning Outcomesp. 581
Interest Groups in Texas Politicsp. 583
Internet Research: Profile of an Interest Groupp. 588
Getting Involved: Joining a Groupp. 591
Interest Group Tacticsp. 593
National Perspective: Campaign Contribution Limits in Minnesotap. 596
Conclusion: Interest Groups and Policymakingp. 599
Let's Debate: Would Public Funding of Elections Enhance the Quality of Democracy in the State?p. 603
Political Parties in Texasp. 607
Learning Outcomesp. 607
The Party Systemp. 608
National Perspective: Minor Parties in New Yorkp. 609
Party Organizationp. 610
History of the Texas Party Systemp. 613
Internet Research: Political Parties in Texasp. 614
The Party Balancep. 617
Voting Patternsp. 619
Interest Group-Political Party Alliancesp. 620
Issue Orientationp. 621
The Impact of Partisan Changep. 625
Getting Involved: Volunteer to Support Your Political Partyp. 626
The Future of Party Politics in Texasp. 627
Conclusion: Political Parties and Policymakingp. 629
Let's Debate: Do Religious Conservatives Have Too Much Influence in the Texas Republican Party?p. 630
Texas Electionsp. 633
Learning Outcomesp. 633
The Long Ballotp. 635
Types of Electionsp. 636
National Perspective: The Open Primary in Louisianap. 641
Election Districtsp. 643
Redistrictingp. 643
Internet Research: Legislative Districts and State House Electionsp. 650
Moneyp. 651
Campaignsp. 654
The Voters Decidep. 656
Getting Involved: Campaigningp. 659
Conclusion: Elections and Policymakingp. 659
Let's Debate: Should a Nonpartisan Commission, Rather Than the Legislature, Draw Legislative District Boundaries?p. 661
The Texas Legislaturep. 665
Learning Outcomesp. 665
Structurep. 667
Membershipp. 671
National Perspective: Repealing Term Limits in Idahop. 675
Organizationp. 676
The Legislative Processp. 679
Internet Research: Tracking Legislation Onlinep. 684
Legislative Policymakingp. 685
Getting Involved: Contacting Your State Legislatorsp. 690
Conclusion: The Legislature and the Policymaking Processp. 690
Let's Debate: Should the Texas Legislature Meet in Regular Session Every Year?p. 692
The Executive Branch in Texasp. 695
Learning Outcomesp. 695
The Governorp. 697
Getting Involved: Forming a Study Groupp. 699
The Executive Bureaucracyp. 709
Internet Research: Profile of a State Agencyp. 713
National Perspective: California Addresses Global Warmingp. 718
Administrative Oversightp. 720
Conclusion: The Executive Branch and the Policymaking Processp. 722
Let's Debate: Should Texas Have a Cabinet System Rather Than the Plural Executive?p. 724
The Judicial Branch in Texasp. 727
Learning Outcomesp. 727
Types of Legal Disputesp. 728
Court Proceduresp. 730
The Texas Court Systemp. 732
Internet Research: Shirley Neeley v. West Orange-Cove Consolidated Independent School Districtp. 738
Judgesp. 739
Judicial Selectionp. 740
National Perspective: Drug Courts in Floridap. 747
Conclusion: The Judicial Branch and the Policymaking Processp. 748
Getting Involved: Volunteer to Become a Court-Appointed Special Advocatep. 749
Let's Debate: Should State Judges Be Elected or Appointed?p. 751
City Government in Texasp. 755
Learning Outcomesp. 755
Legal Status of Texas Citiesp. 757
Forms of City Governmentp. 759
Election Systemsp. 764
National Perspective: Municipal Elections in New York Cityp. 766
Public Policies in Texas Citiesp. 768
Internet Research: Profile of a City Governmentp. 769
Getting Involved: Contacting City Officialsp. 779
City Politics in Texasp. 779
Conclusion: City Government and Policymakingp. 782
Let's Debate: Should Cities Use Tax Money to Build Sports Stadiums?p. 782
Texas Counties, School Districts, and Special Districtsp. 787
Learning Outcomesp. 787
County Governmentp. 789
School Districtsp. 800
Internet Research: Comparing School Districtsp. 806
Getting Involved: Helping a Child Learnp. 808
National Perspective: School Choice in Cleveland, Ohiop. 809
Special Districtsp. 811
Conclusion: Local Government and Public Policyp. 814
Let's Debate: Do Basic Skills Tests, Such as Taas and Taks, Help or Harm Public Education?p. 816
State Budget Policy in Texasp. 819
Learning Outcomesp. 819
Revenuesp. 820
Expendituresp. 833
National Perspective: Universal Healthcare in Massachusettsp. 836
Getting Involved: Appealing a Property Appraisalp. 842
The Budget Processp. 844
Internet Research: The Texas Sales Taxp. 848
Conclusion: Budgetary Policymakingp. 849
Let's Debate: Is the Texas Tax System Fair or Unfair?p. 853
p. 859
Learning Outcomesp. 859
Crime Statisticsp. 860
Criminal Prosecution Processp. 864
Capital Punishmentp. 869
National Perspective: Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Criminals in Kansasp. 871
Juvenile Justicep. 872
Correctionsp. 873
Conclusion: Criminal Justice Policymakingp. 877
Let's Debate: Offender and Ex-Offender Voting Rightsp. 878
Appendixp. 883
Glossaryp. 907
Photo Creditsp. 925
Indexp. 926
Practice TestPT-1
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