America's Foreign Policy Toolkit

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-10-02
  • Publisher: Cq Pr
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How is foreign policy in the United States really crafted? Who does the work? How are the various activites of the many key participants coordinated and controlled? In America's Foreign Policy Toolkit: Key Institutions and Processes, Charles A. Stevenson identifies for students what the key foreign policy tools are, clarifies which tools are best for which tasks, describes the factors that constrain or push how they're used, and provides fresh insight into the myriad challenges facing national security decisionmakers. Written in an engaging style with case examples drawn from behind the scenes, Stevenson brings depth and dimension to the sophisticated pathways and instruments of American foreign policy, from the State Department to the intelligence agencies to the Commerce Department and beyond. In this brief text for American foreign policy and national security courses, Stevenson focuses on the institutions and processes of foreign policy, beginning with a look at the historical context and then looking in turn at the tools available to the president, congress, and the shared budgetary tools. The following part, Using the Tools, looks at the diplomatic, economic, military, intelligence, homeland security, and international institutions instruments. Stevenson concludes with chapters that consider the important constraints and limitation of the U.S. toolkit. Each chapter ends with a case study that allows readers to connect the theory of the toolkit with the realities of decisionmaking. Highlights of the text's coverage include: A sustained analysis of the U.S. Constitution as a response to security threats in the 1780s, providing a strong historical foundation on and springboard for discussion of this basic document in terms of national security powers; Comprehensive coverage of the congressional role overseeing all other policy instruments, showing Congress as an active player in all aspects of foreign policy; Analysis of the full spectrum of agencies and activities involved in foreign economic policy, covering the numerous organizations involved in foreign economic policy, the weak coordinating mechanisms, and the various processes (sanctions, trade, foreign assistance, direct investment) used as policy tools; A consistent framework for analyzing each instrument (authorities, capabilities, personnel, culture, internal factions, and the role of Congress), which makes comparative analyses of U.S. institutions simple and direct; An illuminating overview of the budget process through both the executive and legislative branches, acknowledging the budget process as a shared policy tool, with conflict and feedback, rather than as a linear process; A discussion of homeland security instruments and international organizations used as policy tools, highlighting the relevance of these new and often overlooked instruments; and A survey of recommendations for reform and the difficulties involved, providing possible explanations of foreign policy failures and alternative organizations and processes. This must-have text for courses on American foreign policy will be a crucial reference that students will keep on the shelf long after the last class.

Table of Contents

Tables, Figures, and Boxesp. xv
Prefacep. xix
The Purpose of This Bookp. xix
Organization of the Bookp. xx
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
About the Authorp. xxiii
Introduction: Tools and Tool Usersp. 1
U.S. Foreign Policy in Actionp. 2
How Foreign Policy Is Madep. 3
The Foreign Policy Toolkitp. 4
How This Book Is Organizedp. 5
Assembling the Tools
The Framers' Designp. 7
America Under the Articles of Confederationp. 8
Behind Closed Doors in Philadelphiap. 13
The New Frameworkp. 16
The Battles for Ratificationp. 20
First Congress and First Precedentsp. 22
Selected Resourcesp. 26
Following the Blueprintp. 27
The Washington Administration, 1789-1797p. 27
John Adams and the Quasi-War With France, 1797-1801p. 30
Republican Government, 1800-1828p. 30
The Slavery Factorp. 32
James Polk, Master Strategist, 1845-1849p. 34
America and the World, 1850-1861p. 35
Foreign Policy in the Civil War, 1861-1865p. 36
Congressional Dominance in the Gilded Age, 1865-1898p. 37
Imperial Ambitions, 1898-1913p. 39
Woodrow Wilson's Militant Idealism, 1913-1921p. 43
Retrenchment in the Jazz Age, 1920-1939p. 45
Franklin D. Roosevelt in Peace and War, 1933-1945p. 47
The Cold War and After, 1946-p. 49
Selected Resourcesp. 52
The President's Toolkitp. 54
Presidential Powerp. 55
Legal Constraintsp. 57
Political Constraintsp. 58
Other Constraints on Presidential Choicep. 59
Historical Consensus and Dissensusp. 60
Presidential Management Stylesp. 61
Sources of Informationp. 62
Creation of the White House-Centered National Security Council Systemp. 65
The National Security Council and Staffp. 67
Role of the National Security Adviserp. 71
Other White House Operativesp. 72
National Security Council System: The Scowcroft Modelp. 74
National Security Council Culturep. 76
The Paper Flowp. 76
Crisis Managementp. 78
Process Mattersp. 78
Foreign Policy Is a Never-Ending Processp. 81
Critiques of the Current National Security Council Systemp. 82
Case Study: Obama's Review of Afghanistan Policyp. 83
Selected Resourcesp. 85
Congress's Toolkitp. 86
How Congress Actsp. 87
The Legal Toolp. 88
Substantive Versus Procedural Lawsp. 89
The Money Toolp. 91
The Treaty Toolp. 92
The Nomination Toolp. 94
Oversight Toolsp. 97
Informal Toolsp. 98
Congressional Culturep. 99
House Culturep. 101
Senate Culturep. 101
Committee Cultures and Dynamicsp. 102
Why Congress Acts That Wayp. 103
Member Motivationsp. 104
Public Opinionp. 105
Congressional Inputs to the National Security Council Systemp. 106
The Effort to Legislate War Powersp. 107
Inconsistency in Practice on War Powersp. 110
Tying the President's Handsp. 111
Should Politics Stop at Water's Edge?p. 111
Case Study: Congress and Cuban Independence, 1898p. 112
Case Study: Congress Struggles With Apartheid and South Africap. 115
Selected Resourcesp. 117
Shared Tools of the Budgetary Processp. 119
Making Policy by Making Budgetsp. 120
Evolution of the Budget Processp. 122
Role and Culture of the Office of Management and Budgetp. 124
The Official Budget Process in the Executive Branchp. 124
The Official Budget Process in Congressp. 126
The Money Committees and Their Culturesp. 128
The Usual, Real Budget Processp. 130
Playing Games With the Budget Toolp. 131
Linking Money to Policyp. 133
Contingency Fundsp. 133
Transfers and Reprogrammingp. 134
Secret Spendingp. 136
Causes and Cures for Dysfunctionp. 136
Case Study: Budget Enforcement Act of 1990p. 137
Selected Resourcesp. 140
Using the Tools
The Diplomatic Instrumentp. 141
The Nature of Diplomacy and the Diplomatic Missionp. 141
Growth and Professionalization of the State Departmentp. 143
Organizationp. 145
The Country Teamp. 148
Leadershipp. 150
The Changing Foreign Servicep. 153
State Department Culturep. 155
Representation and Engagementp. 156
Negotiationsp. 158
Analyzing and Reportingp. 158
Public Diplomacyp. 159
Citizen Servicesp. 159
Other Operationsp. 160
Policy Makingp. 160
Bureaucratic Rivalries Among State, Defense, and the National Security Councilp. 162
Congress and the State Departmentp. 163
Case Study: Building the Gulf War Coalition, 1990p. 166
Selected Resourcesp. 168
The Economic Instrumentsp. 170
Carrots and Sticksp. 173
A Disorganized Toolkitp. 173
The Globalized Economyp. 174
Key Institutionsp. 175
National Economic Councilp. 177
Federal Reservep. 178
Department of the Treasuryp. 178
United States Trade Representativep. 179
Department of Commercep. 180
Department of Statep. 180
United States Agency for International Developmentp. 181
Department of Defensep. 181
Department of Agriculturep. 182
Other Organizationsp. 182
Key Processesp. 182
Sanctionsp. 183
Tradep. 185
Exportsp. 186
Importsp. 188
Foreign Assistancep. 189
Financial Flowsp. 192
Foreign Direct Investmentp. 195
Case Study: The Korean-U.S. Free Trade Agreementp. 197
Selected Resourcesp. 199
The Military Instrumentp. 200
Nature of the Military Instrumentp. 200
Growth and Professionalization of the Militaryp. 204
Consolidation, Nuclear Weapons, and Jointnessp. 206
Leadershipp. 210
People in Many Uniformsp. 214
Organizationp. 216
The Culture of the Pentagonp. 219
Use of the Military Instrumentp. 220
Warfightingp. 221
Engaging With Foreign Governments and Militariesp. 222
The 911 Forcep. 223
Planning and Policy Makingp. 223
Recurring Tensionsp. 224
The Pentagon in the Interagency Processp. 225
Congress and the Pentagonp. 226
Case Study: Planning for the 2003 Iraq Invasionp. 227
Selected Resourcesp. 230
The Secret Intelligence Instrumentsp. 231
Secret Toolsp. 232
The Long History of Secret Programsp. 233
Major Institutionsp. 234
Office of the Director of National Intelligencep. 234
Central Intelligence Agencyp. 236
Pentagon Managementp. 237
Other Intelligence Community Componentsp. 238
Major Processesp. 239
Collectionp. 239
Analysisp. 240
Operationsp. 244
What Presidents Wantp. 249
Congressional Oversightp. 251
Selected Resourcesp. 254
The Homeland Security Instrumentsp. 255
A Brief History of United States Homeland Securityp. 255
Creation of the Homeland Security Systemp. 257
The Defense Missionp. 260
Intelligence Collection and Integration Missionp. 261
Critical Infrastructure Missionp. 262
Cybersecurity Missionp. 263
Biological Protection Missionp. 264
Border Security and Immigration Missionsp. 265
Transportation Security Missionp. 265
Emergency Preparedness and Response Missionsp. 266
The Anomaly of the Secret Servicep. 267
Culture of the Department of Homeland Securityp. 267
Homeland Security Councilp. 268
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Homeland Security Systemp. 268
Congress and Homeland Securityp. 269
International Aspects of Homeland Securityp. 270
Areas of Presidential Choicep. 271
Case Study: U.S.-Mexican Collaboration on Securityp. 272
Selected Resourcesp. 273
The International Institutions Instrumentp. 274
The Role of International Institutionsp. 275
Ad Hoc Versus Institutional Multilateralismp. 277
International Institutionsp. 278
United Nationsp. 278
Congress and the United Nationsp. 283
International Atomic Energy Agencyp. 284
Regional Institutionsp. 285
North Atlantic Treaty Organizationp. 285
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europep. 287
Organization of American Statesp. 288
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperationp. 289
Economic Institutionsp. 290
G-8 and G-20p. 291
The International Monetary Fund and Other International Financial Institutionsp. 292
World Trade Organizationp. 294
International Courtsp. 295
Major Nonstate Actorsp. 296
Case Study: Using the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as an Instrument of Foreign Policy in Libya, 2011p. 297
Selected Resourcesp. 300
Constraints and Limitations on the U.S. Toolkit
Elephants in the Workshopp. 301
Public Opinionp. 302
The Elite, Attentive, and Mass Publicsp. 303
Polling Opinionsp. 304
Presidential Message and Public Supportp. 305
The Bully Pulpit and Framingp. 306
Mediap. 306
Shaping the Mediap. 307
Leaks as a Policy Making Toolp. 308
The Media as the Shaperp. 309
Shrinking Coverage and Shrinking Audiencep. 310
Advocacy Groupsp. 311
Stakeholdersp. 312
Ethnic Identity or Affinity Groupsp. 313
Lobbyistsp. 316
Contributorsp. 318
Impact of Lobbyists and Contributorsp. 320
Think Tanksp. 321
Selected Resourcesp. 323
Missing Toolsp. 324
Legacy of Reform Proposalsp. 324
Recommended New Toolsp. 328
New Organizations and Capabilitiesp. 329
New Processesp. 332
New Emphases and Prioritiesp. 333
Impediments to Reformp. 335
Mistakesp. 335
Entrenched Interestsp. 336
Genuine Dilemmasp. 337
Lack of Resourcesp. 338
Warning Lessonsp. 338
The Changing Foreign Policy Toolkitp. 339
Notesp. 343
Indexp. 365
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